how to describe a chart,graph or table intermediate2/higher esol study related contexts
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HOW TO DESCRIBE A CHART,GRAPH OR TABLE Intermediate2/Higher ESOL Study Related Contexts Slide 2 OUTLINE PLAN INTRODUCTION: Topic sentence describing what the data (displayed as a table, graph or chart) is about. GENERAL STATEMENT(S) ABOUT THE DATA: What overall trends can you see? DETAILED STATEMENTS ABOUT THE DATA : Focus on the details that are relevant for your essay. CONCLUSION: one sentence which sums up what this data tells us or why it is important to you argument. Slide 3 IDENTIFYING WHAT THE GRAPH IS ABOUT KEY WORDS: London Underground Number of passengers/people Travelling/using the underground during the day Slide 4 PUTTING TOGETHER YOUR TOPIC SENTENCE HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES: The graph shows the fluctuation in the number of people at a London Underground station over the course of a day. This graph shows the number of passengers travelling on the London Underground during the day. The graph illustrates passenger numbers using the London Underground during the course of the day Slide 5 HOW TO DESCRIBE TRENDS GO UP GO DOWN ______________ increase fall decrease climbdrop decline rise growdip Slide 6 MAKING A GENERAL STATEMENT ABOUT THE DATA The graph shows/illustrates how passenger numbers grow/increase/climb/rise during rush hour. The graph shows/illustrates how passenger numbers fall/decrease/drop/decline/dip when rush hour has ended. Slide 7 DESCRIBING TRENDS GOING INTO DETAILYou need to describe in detail particular aspects of the data that prove the point that you are trying to make in the essay. To do this you can use a verb and an adverb e.g Sales rose sharply. Or an adjective and a noun. This is normally used with There is/are There was/were.. There has been / have been.. e.g There was a sharp rise in sales. (Using an adjective and a noun is slightly more formal.) Slide 8 DESCRIBING UP TRENDS USING NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVE (amount of change ) ADJECTIVE (speed of change) NOUN A dramatic sharp substantial considerable significant slight consistent rapid quick swift slow steady immediate rise increase recovery growth The graph/chart shows a.. (adjective + noun)in passenger numbers during.. There is/was a.. (adjective+noun)in passenger numbers during.. Slide 9 DESCRIBING UP TRENDS USING VERBS VERBSADVERBS (amount of change ) ADVERBS (speed of change) rise increase recover go up grow dramatically sharply substantially considerably significantly slightly consistently rapidly quickly swiftly slowly steadily immediately Slide 10 WHICH TENSE SHOULD I USE? SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT rise/rises Increase/increases recover/recovers go up/goes up grow/grows rose increased recovered went up grew has/have risen has/have increased has/have recovered has/have gone up has/have grown Slide 11 DESCRIBING UP TRENDS Passenger numbers rose considerably between 6am and 8 am with a rise of travellers from 100 to 400. The number of underground travellers increases significantly between the hours of 6 and 8 am peaking at 400 passengers. Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses! Slide 12 DESCRIBING DOWN TRENDS USING NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVE (amount of change ) ADJECTIVE (speed of change) NOUN A dramatic sharp substantial considerable significant slight consistent rapid quick swift slow steady immediate fall decrease decline dropping off The graph/chart shows a.. (adjective + noun)in passenger numbers during.. There is/was a.. (adjective+noun)in passenger numbers during.. Slide 13 DESCRIBING DOWN TRENDS USING VERBS VERBSADVERBS (amount of change ) ADVERBS (speed of change) fall decrease decline go down drop off dramatically sharply substantially considerably significantly slightly consistently rapidly quickly swiftly slowly steadily immediately Slide 14 WHICH TENSE SHOULD I USE? SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PASTPRESENT PERFECT fall/falls decrease/decreases decline/declines go down/goes down level off/levels off drop off/drops off fell decreased declined went down levelled off dropped off has/have fallen has/have decreased has/have declined has/have gone down has/have levelled off has/have dropped off Slide 15 DESCRIBING DOWN TRENDS The number of passengers decreased consistently after 8 am from 400 passengers down to 200 by 10 am. Passenger numbers drop off steadily after 8 am to reach 200 by 10 am. Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses! Slide 16 HOW TO DESCRIBE TRENDS remain steady fluctuate increase slightly decrease dramatically decrease slightly increase rapidly rise dramatically plunge drop suddenly stay the same go up a little go down slightly Slide 17 MORE VERBS AND NOUNS VERBSNOUNS NO CHANGE flatten out stabilise level off hold steady remain stable not change continue to be stable UP AND DOWN fluctuate TO ITS MAXIMUM POINT peak NO CHANGE a flattening out a stabilisation a levelling off UP AND DOWN a fluctuation TO ITS MAXIMUM POINT a peak Slide 18 WHICH TENSE SHOULD I USE SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PASTPRESENT PERFECT flatten out/flattens out stabilise/stabilises level off/levels off hold steady/holds steady remain stable/remains stable do/does not change continue/continues to be stable fluctuate/fluctuates peak/peaks flattened out stabilised levelled off held steady remained stable did not change continued to be stable fluctuated peaked have/has flattened out have/has stabilised have/has levelled off have/has held steady have/has remained stable have/has not changed have/has continued to be stable have/has fluctuated have/has peaked Slide 19 DESCRIBING OTHER TRENDS Passenger numbers peak at 8 am reaching 400 and again later in the afternoon at 6pm. The number of travellers using the underground peaked during the morning and evening rush hour at 8 am and 6 pm when they reached 400. Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses! Slide 20 DESCRIBING OTHER TRENDS Passenger numbers flatten out between the hours of 12 and 2 pm where they remain at 300. Passenger numbers stabilised from 12pm to 2 pm where they remained at 300. Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses! Slide 21 DESCRIBING OTHER TRENDS Passenger numbers fluctuate considerably throughout the day recording the biggest fluctuations between rush hour. Passenger numbers fluctuated significantly during the day peaking at 400 and dropping off to 100. Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses! Slide 22 AND FINALLY. SUMMING UP/CONCLUDING In summary we can see that... To sum up... In conclusion it can be seen that. It can be concluded from the data/information that Overall the data shows/indicates/suggests Summarising the findings it can be seen that.. Overall it appears that.. Slide 23 YOUR CONCLUSION In summary we can see that the busiest times on the London Underground are at 8 am and at 6 pm. The quietest times are 6 am, 4 pm and after 8 pm. Passenger numbers remain quite steady during the day. Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses!