How to communicate effectively to my organisation ? HOW TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY How can I present

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    HOW TOCOMMUNICATEEFFECTIVELYHow can I present my views,effectively, to my organisation?

    This resource forms part of the Running Sport series

    If you would like to attend a workshop,organise a workshop for a group, orsimply purchase or download anotherresource from the Running Sportseries, visit the following website forfurther information:

    www.sportengland.org/runningsport

    Sport England is an organisation committed to creatingopportunities for people to start in sport, stay in sportand succeed in sport.

    Sport England is the strategic lead for delivering theGovernment's sporting objectives in this country, and wedistribute both Lottery and Exchequer funds to sport.

    Our vision is to make England an active and successful sporting nation.

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  • ContentsGetting your message across 02Communication 03Presenting your case 04Tips for a successful talk 06Writing reports 07Internal or extenal memorandum 09Success in meetings 10Difficult people 12Overcoming difficulties 14Using plain English 15Useful contacts 16

    Glossary of termsCommunication: Communication is a two wayprocess that sends and receives information.Communication comes in both written, verbal and non-verbal formats.

    Interpret: The process through which an individualunderstands correctly the information that they have received.

    Memorandum: Informal written message betweenclub/organisation members e.g. following aCommittee meeting. This should not be confused withminutes, which are a formal record of a meeting.

    Constitutional requirement: All sports clubs andorganisations should have a constitution. This is aset of rules, which govern the operation of such anorganisation. A constitutional requirement istherefore an action from within the constitution,which must be carried out.

    Influence: The process through which an individualor club/organisation can alter the view of another.

    1

    WelcomeWelcome to this Running Sport resource. This forms part of Sport Englandseducation & training programme that provides recognition, information and learningresources aimed at supporting volunteers in relation to the administration andmanagement of their sporting organisation, club, group, team, or governing body.

    I hope that you find the information of use in your sporting role and that you willcontinue to contribute to helping people participate in sport in England. Throughyou, a valued resource, one of 5.8 million we know that we are on our way toachieving our goal of making England an active and successful sporting nation!

    Thank you for all your support and good luck for your volunteering future long may you continue!

    Roger DraperChief ExecutiveSport England

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    If you are involved in the organisation of sport inany way, you will need to communicate withmany people, including:

    Other members of your club or association

    Members of other clubs or teams

    Referees, umpires, judges and other technicalofficials

    Administrators of the sport, the league or theassociation

    Prospective new members

    The media and sponsors

    The general public

    Parents and local schools

    Local authority

    External partners

    Communication is a two way process. It is aboutsending messages and receiving them. If youwant to get your message across, you mustmake sure that not only do you send the rightmessage, but also that the message is correctlyreceived and understood.

    Communication can either be spoken orwritten. Common types of spokencommunication include:

    Telephone conversations or answer phonemessages

    Face to face conversations between twopeople

    Small, informal group discussions (e.g. aftertraining)

    Formal committee meetings (e.g. club management board)

    Large open meetings (e.g. annual general meeting)

    Speeches, lectures or presentations (e.g. to a potential sponsor)

    Video, DVD or filmed presentations

    Written communication can take variousforms including:

    Informal notes

    Internal memos

    Letters (typed or hand written)

    Short reports

    Formal reports

    Newsletters

    Posters or other messages on notice boards

    Leaflets, fliers or hand outs

    Emails

    Press releases

    Communication is at the heart of everything wedo; it is impossible not to communicate. We arecommunicating even when we are not actuallytalking. Non-verbal communication (such asbody posture, gestures and facial expressions)can be more powerful and more genuine thanactual words spoken. Think of the bodylanguage of athletes prior to an Olympic final, orthe look of resignation and dismay on the facesof a team after an own goal.

    Often you see the emotion being experienced bythe look in their eyes, their hand movements andtheir general body posture. Words may not benecessary!

    Communication is a two way process thatneeds good listening and presenting skills.

    Did you know:

    We hear half of what is said;

    We listen to half of that;

    We understand half of that;

    We believe half of that and

    We remember half of that

    This means people may only remember lessthan four per cent of what is actually said. Toooften we are good talkers but poor listeners,and, consequently, both the message sent outand the message received may be incomplete,inaccurate, inconsistent or misunderstood. Oftenwe express ideas, instructions and feelings lessclearly than we think and rarely check that ourmeaning has been understood.

    The importance of good communication skillscannot be under-estimated. If you give peoplegood, clear information they are better equippedto see your point of view, make the rightdecision and do the task ahead of them. This isjust as important in the committee room, or onthe notice board, as it is when teachingsomeone to swim, explaining tactics to a teamduring a time out or briefing the ground staff ofthe facilities needed for the coming weekend.

    Understanding how people interpret yourmessage.

    It is important to understand how the people youare interacting with may interpret your message.People obtain information through their senses.For example some people are highly visual,meaning actually looking at something helpsthem to remember. Other people are moreauditory, recalling voices and sounds to helpthem remember. Some people are kinaesthetic,meaning they can easily remember anexperience through sensations of touch orphysical movement e.g. having a go at doing atask or practising a skill over and over until theycan complete it without thinking. Therefore to be most effective, it is advisable to plan for alllearners including visual, auditory and kinaestheticaspects when presenting to a group.

    Getting your message across Communication

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    The organisation of sport relies very heavily onvoluntary help. Most decisions are taken bycommittees or at meetings. So if your goal is toobtain support for a decision, you will need toconvince the members that your proposalshould be approved.

    The skills that are needed to get the support of aperson/group of people can also be used whenmaking a presentation to a sponsor, or giving aspeech to an audience.

    You must be:

    Able to connect with the audience

    Clear and concise

    Easily understood

    Able to be seen and heard by everybody

    Knowledgeable about the subject

    Passionate about the subject

    Relaxed and confident

    Interesting to listen to so vary your pitch and tone

    Sympathetic to those with other viewpoints

    Able to present a strong, factual argument

    Preparation

    When making any form of speech orpresentation, use the most suitable andinteresting media aids available to you. It isimportant to use a variety of methods. You mightchoose a mixture of:

    Typed report or PowerPoint presentationcirculated in advance. People have time toabsorb the facts and then are more informedto ask questions on the day

    Typed report or PowerPoint presentation whichis given out at the beginning of the presentation

    Typed report or PowerPoint presentation whichis given out at the end of the presentation

    Flip charts which have been prepared inadvance

    Flip charts for group work that can be placedon the walls around the room

    PowerPoint presentation, includingphotographs

    Visual aids on the walls i.e.photographs/posters of the subject matter

    Video/CD Rom/DVD

    Remember people will absorb information in verydifferent ways so it is important to have a varietyof learning methods to suit your audience.

    As soon as you get the opportunity, look at theroom that is going to be used and check:

    Seating arrangements

    Depending on your meeting and what you wantto achieve, the layout of the room is important. Choose from the following options:

    Theatre / Conference Style Useful forpresentations to larger groups of people and asimple question and answer format. Not goodfor group work or discussions

    Circular around a large table Useful forsmall meetings up to 15 people as discussionscan take place and eye contact with all can bemaintained

    Small tables Useful for working in smallgroups to achieve ideas and solutions. Acentral focus to the front of the room forpresentations is essential

    Technical Issues

    Again there are many areas to consider toensure your presentation or meeting runssmoothly, depending on your needs. Considerthe following:

    Is the temperature of the room ok? Can youadjust the air conditioning or open windows?

    Viewing areas, lighting and acoustics (check ifyou can be heard at the back of the room)

    Technical facilities, do you have everything youneed? (i.e. PowerPoint projector, TV, video orDVD player, electric sockets, leads that arelong enough, screens, blinds or curtains thatcan be adjusted in order to see thepresentation clearly)

    NB: Remember to leave yourself plenty of timeto set up any equipment you need. If you aregoing to give a talk to an audience or run aworkshop, you should prepare everything inadvance, and if possible find out as much asyou can about your audience.

    Delivering your workshop/presentation

    Have a clear structure so everyone knows inadvance how the session will be organised andwhat outcomes you are trying to achieve. It is agood idea to put this up on a flip chart inadvance.

    If necessary house or ground rules are anessential beginning to a presentation and areused to settle any anxieties the group mayhave about their surroundings. For examplewhere fire exits and meeting points are,scheduled breaks, turning mobile phones off,clarification of ending times etc. All of thesepoints and more can make the difference ofhaving the undivided attention of your audienceor not!

    Connect Start the presentation/talk with aconnection activity i.e. Tell them a real life storythat relates to the subject you are talkingabout. Using a photograph or a video of theevent to assist the audience to visualise thesubject

    Activate Use a multi sensory approach, asthis will assist you to engage your group. Getthe group to reflect on their own experience ofwhat you are about to discuss, perhapsallowing them to feedback an example to thegroup

    Divide The presentation/workshop intomanageable sections so you are notsidetracked or end up spending too much timeon one specific area

    Demonstrate If appropriate; provide thegroup with the opportunity to discuss withother members in small groups. (There is notalways the need to get feedback on what theyhave discussed). This allows them to learn fromeach other

    Consolidate Give people the time toindividually and collectively reflect about whatyou have said. Go back to the outcome ofwhat you were trying to achieve at the startand reconfirm that you have covered them,using your audience to clarify if appropriate

    Presenting your case

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    Tips for a successful talk Writing reportsIf you are invited to give a presentation, these tips will help you make it as successful as possible:

    Do Plan/prepare

    Know who your group are

    Dress appropriately but be as comfortable andcool as possible, (you are likely to get warmeras you speak). It is also important to askyourself does my appearance match mymessage?

    Get there early and check your technicalequipment before you start and preferablybefore the audience enters the room

    Welcome your audience

    Set ground or house rules and ask people toturn off their mobile phones

    Start and finish on time

    Position yourself and your visual aids so thateverybody can clearly see and hear everythingthat you are saying and displaying

    Make sure there is something available for you to drink, especially if you are not used tospeaking in public (otherwise you are likely tofind that your voice begins to fade, or dries upcompletely)

    Use the three different learning styles

    Put your learning objectives up at the start soeveryone is clear about what you are trying toachieve by the end of the session

    Memorise your opening sentence and rehearseit to yourself just before you begin speaking

    Speak clearly in your normal voice, slightlyprojected (remember that people absorb soundand even if you could be clearly heard in anempty room, you may need to speak louderthan usual when the room is full)

    Maintain eye contact with the members of youraudience

    Be enthusiastic

    Know your content

    If you do need to read from notes, then usecue cards (ensuring you do not wave themaround causing a distraction), maintain eyecontact and use them with confidence

    Or, place a flip chart where you can see itwithout turning around, or a chart on the wallthat acts as a cue card to ensure you dontmiss anything you need to cover

    Divide your presentation/workshop intomanageable sections

    Have short breaks every hour

    Avoid mannerisms which distract the audiencesuch as twirling a pen or pacing up and down

    Turn off electrical equipment when you are notusing it

    Invite questions and feedback and clarify anydoubtful points as you go along or if pressedfor time at the end

    Recap after the last question and answer

    Dont Be late

    Go off at tangents (either yourself, or allowingthe group to do so)

    Isolate individuals

    Use jargon

    Let one person dominate the session

    When you are asked to report on a problem or a topic it is not always necessary to write a long anddetailed report. A short report or memorandum can usually provide what is needed.

    A short report is a good way of presenting information about an event, a disciplinary problem, anenquiry or any of the many other functions undertaken by a sports club/organisation. It offers somediscussion of the main points arising from the information. Often it will also offer suggestions as towhat decision or action should be taken.

    Your report should be typed, preferably on A4 paper, with headed details of the subject of the report,along with who wrote it, who it is for and the date. Write simply using everyday language but notslang (see Writing plain English). Avoid unnecessary jargon or terms that may not be understood byall the readers.

    Structure your report as follows:

    Introduction: Explain what the report is aboutand how you went about making it. Explain thepresent situation and the problem(s) arisingfrom it, and your personal involvement

    Information: Select your information andorganise it into clearly defined topics. Arrangethe topics in a logical order, one paragraph orsection to each, headed if necessary andnumbered so that your reader can see whichare main sections and which are parts of them

    Conclusions: Make clear what you think arethe main discussion points arising from theinformation and what the possibilities are forsolving the problem(s)

    Recommendations: If you wish to proposewhat decision or action should be taken, stateyour recommendations

    Golden rules for reports:

    Keep it short: No one wants to spend agesreading it. The shorter the better

    Keep it clear: Avoid going into unnecessarydetail about obscure meaning. Additionalinformation can be included in an appendix

    Keep it factual: Support opinion with fact asfar as possible

    Give a summary: This might be at thebeginning or at the end but it allows really busypeople to grasp the outline of the subject quickly

    Plan thoroughly: by working through thefollowing stages:

    - Check you know exactly what is expectedand when it is required

    - Research thoroughly and then select onlythe important and relevant information

    - Produce a rough outline and check the orderand content of sections

    - Write a rough draft. Dont worry about theprecise opening. Start writing and it willbegin to flow. If possible, use a computer,which will enable you to make additions andamendments easily

    - Seek opinions and advice on the draft

    - Amend and produce the report or proposalby the established deadline

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    Formal reportsThese are most appropriately used to share theresults of an enquiry or research designed to informand/or influence future decisions and actions mayneed to be set out in a formal report. Like anyformal document, it should clearly identify whocommissioned it, to whom it is addressed, whoprepared it along with any dates of significance.

    The title itself should:

    Read as follows: Report on Securing Fundingfor example;

    Clearly indicate the central issue of the report

    Be short and concise. Do not try to summariseit in one long, breathless sentence

    The introduction section should explain:

    Why the report is being written

    What it will deal with

    Why the reader is involved

    How you wish the reader to respond to it (is itfor information, for discussion or for action?)

    How you propose to deal with the problem orissue under consideration.

    The summary section should indicate:

    The purpose and scope of the report

    The main findings of the investigation

    The conclusions

    Any recommendations

    The background section is concerned with:

    Setting the scene

    Explaining anything the reader needs to knowbefore he/she begins to read the main sectionsof the report

    Historical information, reference to earlierreports, etc.

    How you carried out the investigation (surveys,interviews, site visits etc.)

    The information section is where you:

    Present the results of your investigation in alogical order, in clearly labelled sections or bullet points

    The interpretation section is where you:

    Analyse, interpret and evaluate the informationyou have collected

    Spell out all the implications of your findings

    Indicate advantages and disadvantages

    Provide an objective appraisal of theinformation

    The conclusions section is where you:

    Present your final conclusions

    Summarise detailed analysis which may havebeen given earlier in the report

    The recommendations section should containany recommendations that you may wish tomake by using the following:

    I (or We) recommend that:

    a)

    b)

    Ensuring that:

    Each recommendation has an active verbindicating action;

    Where possible it says who should take thataction;

    Each recommendation is kept separate (notWe recommend that.and that. In onesentence).

    On the next page is an example of what a memorandum should look like. The content of thisparticular memo explains how to structure one successfully.

    Internal or external memorandums

    INTERNAL MEMORANDUM

    To: All members of the committee Ref: Summer tournament

    From: Bob Smith Date: 24th February 2005

    Subject: HOW TO WRITE A MEMORANDUM

    A number of members of the club have asked for advice on how to write a formalmemorandum, so I am offering the following general guidelines. I hope you will find both the layout of this memorandum and my comments useful and constructive.

    1. A formal memorandum is either an internal letter or a short report. It is a record ofsomething which has to be committed to paper, and may relate to just one person or several.

    2. A memorandum should have no salutation (e.g. Dear Sir) or closing compliment (e.g. YoursSincerely). It should simply be initialled or signed by the sender.

    3. Introduce your memorandum with a heading and a sentence or two, which will put yourreader in the picture immediately as to the purpose and scope of the document.

    4. Select your subject matter and organise it into clearly defined topics. Then arrange thetopics in a logical order, one section to each, headed if necessary and numbered.

    5. A memorandum should be written or typed with the details of sender, recipient, date andsubject. Logo headed paper could also be used if there is sufficient demand, although if thememo is internal then blank A4 size paper is fine to use.

    6. Write simply, using everyday language but not slang. Avoid needless jargon orabbreviations with which your reader may not be familiar.

    7. The word memorandum does not mean a long and boring communication. It means awritten record that is clearly structured, logically ordered and as brief as possible.

    8. I hope you will find these guidelines helpful and look forward to reading your nextmemorandum.

    Companylogo

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    In a sports club/organisation it may be aconstitutional requirement to present certainsolutions to a committee or to a general meeting of all members.

    Meetings provide an opportunity for you to makeyour point and get consensus or authority to putit into action, but a formal committee meetingcan be a daunting prospect for somebody who isnot experienced or skilled at influencing others.

    Printed reports of the topic can be sent prior tothe meeting if no discussion of the matter isneeded, setting out the facts and ending withyour recommendations. Then, during themeeting, you need only refer to the report andinvite questions on matters for clarification. Thisis particularly helpful on complicated issues asthe written word carries more authority than averbal presentation and everybody leaves themeeting with the same message. Problems canarise if somebody misunderstands or fails toremember a spoken presentation.

    Often it is relatively easy to see what is the rightdecision for the overall good of theclub/organisation. There may, however, beindividuals with particular vested interests whowill try to get a different decision because it suitsthem personally, even though it may bedetrimental to the club/organisation as a whole.

    If this is likely to happen, you must re-focus thecommittee on the need to think of the good ofthe club/organisation by ensuring that they arereminded or made aware of:

    The relevant information and both theadvantages and disadvantages of the proposal

    The implications for the organisation as a whole

    Other activities that might be affected by theproposal

    Existing policy decisions, which may differ fromthe proposal

    The overall mission of the organisation ifnecessary

    Emphasise how it will benefit them

    Influencing meetings

    There is no secret formula for influencing ameeting of a sports organisation since everymeeting is different. Every committee member isthere for a reason. What is their personalagenda? Once you know that you are well onthe way to understanding what they like anddont like, get to know what motivates eachmember of the committee:

    Why are they there?

    What do they want to get out of the meeting?

    Will they be affected personally by thedecision?

    The positioning of points on the agenda isimportant. Make sure that an important itemdoes not immediately follow a contentiousmatter that might make the group fractious anddisagreeable. Nor should it be at the end of theagenda as if someone feels strongly against itthey will oppose it and could have it thrown outwith little or no discussion because everyoneelse is eager to finish the meeting.

    If you know the group well you can be verydirect and honest with the other members; but ifthe members are not well known to you, or themeeting has a particularly difficult or contentiousdecision to make, you must handle matters verycarefully to get the outcome that you areseeking.

    There are many ways to influence meetings:

    Plan ahead. Think what is going to happenbefore, during and after the meeting. If themeeting is important to you, decide beforehandwhat to try to achieve and which items are ofspecial concern

    People are likely to accept a new idea if you tryto approach the situation from their point ofview. They are interested in how it will benefitthem. When introducing a new policy, highlightthe advantages to them

    Do not promise results that you do not expectto be achieve, otherwise your future credibilitywill suffer

    Be warm, sociable and honest in your approach.It is much more difficult to resist a nice person,but dont be too slick. If your techniques are tooobvious the whole presentation loses credibilityand your arguments will be doubted

    If you feel that the audience is losing interest,involve them by asking them what they think ofyour suggestion

    Always be positive. Do not introduce negativethoughts or uncertainty

    Where there are problems that cannot beavoided, approach them openly by usingphrases like We all know there are someproblems in this respect, however we can..By using the word we rather than I itbecomes everybodys corporate problem

    Appeal to the good nature of the othermembers. Everybody feels that they are nicepeople and they will find it flattering that thishas been highlighted and find it more difficult todisagree with you

    If a decision has been made which is of particularconcern to you, write it down and circulate amemo confirming the decision, and the agreedcourse of action, to all other members of themeeting as soon afterwards as possible.Circulating your note before the formal minuteshave been written down pre-empts the text ofthe formal minutes and helps to ensure that thepoints that you want recorded are accepted asbeing accurate record of the meeting.

    Success in meetings

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    Some people always seem to go out of their wayto be difficult, and in most cases you can simplyavoid having anything to do with them. However,in a small sports club/organisation, andespecially in a formal meeting, they can becomeunbearable. You cannot eliminate them but youcan learn how to deal with them.

    There are many types of difficult people, just asthere are many kinds of awkward opponents. For example:

    Bosses who are unreasonable in theirexpectations

    The Chairperson who refuses to let committeemembers discuss anything in detail

    Colleagues who wont pull their weight

    People who are frequently disagreeable in anattempt to get what they want

    People who have a feeling of insecurity forwhich they are trying to compensate

    Usually these people will continue to behavedisagreeably as long as they are allowed to. Ifyou merely silently begrudge the behaviour butdo nothing, you actually reinforce their actions.

    Being disagreeable back doesnt help. It elevatesyour blood pressure, makes you feel bad andoften plays into the antagonists hands.

    What can you do? First, you must identify the type of difficultperson you are dealing with. There are a numberof difficult types of people that you will encounterin meetings including:

    Chatterboxes basically nice people who willsimply not keep quiet. This persons ramblingdistract everyone

    The solution: A well-structured agenda anda firm Chairperson will stop pointlessdiscussion and get back on track. You canagree that chatterbox is talking aboutsomething important, but that we must getback to the agenda, rather than chastisehim/her

    Silent types who seldom say anything. Theyneed to be bought into discussions andencouraged to play an active role. They maybe silent because they are:

    - Thinking deeply, but are too nervous tovoice their feelings

    - Simply not interested in the discussion orcannot be bothered to make any effort tohelp

    - Trying to dissociate themselves from adiscussion or the group in general

    The solutions:

    - Too shy: put them in the spotlight withdirect questions so that they cancontribute, and acknowledge theircontribution as worthwhile and helpful

    - Not interested: or cannot be bothered tomake any effort. Pose a direct question onthe basis of You are an expert on thistopic, what do you think?

    - Trying to dissociate themselves from adecision: make a clear statement like Weall agree, dont we? and get them to sayYes. Otherwise, they will criticise thedecision outside the meeting anddissociate themselves from it

    Pet-project promoters have an enthusiasmfor a pet project far above its significance. Youknow what they are going to say because it isalways the same speech.

    The solution: Use the agenda by pointingout, Thats very important but I dont thinkits part of the discussion at the moment.

    Prophets of doom always look at thenegative side of any proposal and say why itsa waste of time and resources

    The solution: Do not personally rebukethem. Re-state their case and invite othermembers of the group to comment. Usually,a number of members will argue againstthem and back up the proposal

    Know-alls are self-proclaimed experts onevery matter that comes up for discussion.

    The solution: if possible have a real expertpresent to the group and ask the know allfor their view. The know-all will simply nodsagely and agree with them

    Verbal bullies get very angry and aggressivewith little or no provocation and try verbally tobully other members into agreeing with them,with no attempt to listen to others

    The solution: ignore their ludicrous behaviourand take control of the situation quietly butfirmly. Interrupt them very early during anattack. Make eye contact, move forward andspeak their name in a firm, clear voice,repeating it as often as necessary until theystop talking

    Mutterers people who make sarcasticcomments under their breath to those sittingnear them, and make a special point of beinghurt if you respond or complain

    The solution: Every time it happens, point itout by immediately, bringing it to the attentionof the whole meeting and asking them torepeat it clearly. Sometimes they will simplytry to avoid an answer, but sometimes theywill be brazen enough to come out directlywith it. Then you must simply ask, Do youreally mean that or are you just joking?thereby putting the pressure back on them

    Argumentative types always take theopposite view to a proposal and enjoy trying todefeat it

    The solution: incorporate some of theircomments in your argument by making smallchanges to your proposal, stressing that theyare the result of the intervention, and theninclude the dissenters in the ownership ofthe amended proposal

    Parasites take and take without givinganything in return, and can drain you of energyand patience

    The solution: These can be difficult to dealwith because they appear to be your friendsand depend on you. Separate yourself fromthem, although they will often try to make youfeel guilty about cutting them off. But if youdo not do so, you will find that the friendshipand support you feel becomes annoyanceand dislike

    Back-stabbers attack when you areunprepared and vulnerable. They rarely attackdirectly but will speak behind your back aboutyou and then be quite amenable to your face

    The solution: Do not just ignore them, for thatis exactly what they are hoping will happen. Assoon as you become aware of what hashappened confront them with it directly,preferably in front of other people. Put them onthe spot and they will be forced to admit thatthey have acted improperly. It wont necessarilystop them doing it, but next time they will lookfor a different victim

    NB: If a person is still having a disruptive effecton the presentation and you feel further actionneeds to be taken, then use a coffee/bathroombreak to have a quiet word with the individual.

    Difficult people

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    In order to overcome problems that youencounter when dealing with difficult people,adopt a strategy plan as follows:

    Identify the type of difficult person you aredealing with

    Identify their worst habits and what bothers youthe most

    Mentally rehearse the strategy to apply nexttime the situation arises. Perhaps you couldthink back to the last occasion and mentallyreplay the action, identifying how you shouldhave coped. Practise the statements, evenspeaking out loud, to get the right tone of voice

    Apply the skills you have rehearsed in a realsituation. As soon as you recognise a situationsimilar to the one you have rehearsed, put youraction plan in motion

    Evaluate how effective your approach was.Were you successful in handling the situation?Did your confidence level stay high, or did youget angry or flustered? Then practise again untilyou become more competent and confident

    Accept with good grace the fact thatsometimes people will not agree with yourpoint of view

    Dont forget to take a look at yourself becausewe all behave disagreeably from time to time. Ifyou recognise any of these characteristics inyour self, dont be surprised if you are met withthese tactics and dont be surprised if yousuddenly feel embarrassed and foolish

    Remember that a meeting cannot beconsidered a success unless you haveachieved your outcome without undulyupsetting the other participants. The bestmeetings are those from which everybody goesaway happy

    Overcoming difficultiesSome people have jobs and interests that mean they gain a good command of written forms ofEnglish, but most people do not. The one language we all share is everyday spoken English. If youcommunicate in this language you can be reasonably sure everybody will understand you.

    Try to avoid Use insteadAccordingly, therefore, thus soApparent clear, plainCommence beginConsult talk to, meet, seeThe applicant/tenant/client youDiscontinue stopTerminate endDwelling/residence/domicile home/houseEconomical cheapEndeavour/attempt tryFacilitate helpIn consequence of becauseDue to the fact that becauseIn excess of more thanInitiate startNecessitate needRequest askObtain/receive getRegulation ruleSupplementary extra, moreSubsequently later, since thenUtilise useAdvise tell, say, let you knowWe note your comments regarding you mention thatWe are in receipt of Thank you forAttached/enclosed please find I am enclosingAwaiting the favour of your reply I look forward to hearing from you

    Writing plain English

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    Central Council For Physical RecreationFrancis HouseFrancis StreetLondonSW1P 1DETel: 020 7854 8500Fax: 020 7854 8501Email: info@ccpr.org.ukWebsite: www.ccpr.org.uk

    Child Protection In Sport UnitNSPCC National Training Centre3 Gilmour CloseBeaumont LeysLeicesterLE4 1EZTel: 0116 234 7278/7280Fax: 0116 234 0464Email: cpsu@nspcc.org.ukWebsite: www.thecpsu.org.uk

    Clubs For Young People371 Kennington LaneLondonSE11 5QYTel: 020 7793 0787Fax: 020 7820 9815Email: office@nacyp.org.ukWebsite: www.clubsforyoungpeople.org.uk

    English Federation Of Disability SportManchester Metropolitan UniversityAlsager CampusHassall RoadAlsagerStoke On TrentST7 2HLTel: 0161 247 5294Fax: 0161 247 6895Email: federation@efds.co.ukWebsite: www.efds.net

    Running Sport Hotline (general enquiries)Tel: 0800 363373

    Running Sport Support Team (workshop &resource enquiries)3rd Floor, Victoria HouseBloomsbury SquareLondonWC1B 4SETel: 0207 404 2224Fax: 0207 383 5740Email: runningsport@coachwise.ltd.ukWebsite: www.sportengland.org/runningsport

    Sport England3rd Floor, Victoria HouseBloomsbury SquareLondonWC1B 4SETel: 0845 850 8508Fax: 0207 383 5740Email: info@sportengland.orgWebsite: www.sportengland.org

    Sporting EqualsCommissions for Racial Equality3rd Floor Lancaster House67 Newhall StreetB3 1NATel: 0121 710 3014Fax: 0121 710 3022Email: sportequal@cre.gov.ukWebsite: www.cre.gov.uk/sportingequals/about.html

    Useful contactssports coach UK (general enquiries)114 Cardigan RoadHeadingleyLeedsLS6 3BJTel: 0113 274 4892Fax: 0113 275 5019Email: coaching@sportscoachuk.orgWebsite: www.sportscoachuk.org

    sports coach UK Business Support Centre(workshop enquiries)Sports Development Centre, LoughboroughUniversityLoughboroughLeicestershireLE11 3TUTel: 01509 226 130Fax: 01509 226 134Email: bsc@sportscoachuk.orgWebsite: www.sportscoachuk.org

    Sports Leaders UKClyde House, 10 Milburn AvenueOldbrookMilton KeynesMK6 2WATel: 01908 689180Fax: 01908 393744Email: info@sportsleaders.orgWebsite: www.bst.org.uk

    Womens Sports Foundation3rd Floor, Victoria HouseBloomsbury SquareLondonWC1B 4SE Tel: 020 7273 1740Fax: 020 7273 1981Email: info@wsf.org.ukWebsite: www.wsf.org.uk

    Youth Sport TrustSir John Beckwith Centre for SportLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughLeicestershireLE11 3TUTel: 01509 226600Fax: 01509 210851Website: www.youthsporttrust.org

    Volunteering England (London)Regents Wharf8 All saints StreetLondonN1 9RLFax: 020 7520 8910

    Volunteering England (Birmingham)New Oxford House, 16 Waterloo StreetBirminghamB2 5UGFax: 0121 633 4043

    For both offices:Tel: 0845 305 6979Email: information@volunteeringengland.orgWebsite: www.volunteering.org.uk the strategiclead for delivering the Government's sportingobjectives in this country, and we distribute bothLottery and Exchequer funds to sport.

    Our vision is to make England an active andsuccessful sporting nation

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