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1 How passion can make the difference in the classroom Germn Villarroel This paper was completed and submitted in partial fulfillment of the Master Teacher Program, a 2 year faculty professional development program conducted by the Center for Faculty Excellence, United Sated Military Academy, West Point, NY, 2015. INTRODUCTION When passion is the subject of conversation, immediately our mind drive us to people that have inspired us in our life: our parents, our leaders in different positions in the Army and probably some coach in our youth that taught us how to give the best of us when we were team sports players. But when you add teaching to that intangible virtue, its inevitable to be grateful to Nancy H. Kleinbaum who brought to life Professor John Keating and all his passion at the Walton Academy in the Dead Poets Society. There his students not only learned how to discover the beauty and wonder of language through a literature class but the relevance of making every moment count. Everything that Professor Keating achieved was driven by a deep love for what he believed was worth any effort and sacrifice: His students and the passion of what he taught in and out of the classroom. Being in the Army, leadership turns to be the capstone of our carrier and West Point as the most important military academy in the United States is not the exception. West Points mission is to educate, train and inspires the corps of Cadets so that each graduate is a commissioned leader of character committed to the values of Duty, Honor, Country and prepared for a career of professional excellence and service to the nation as an officer in the United States Army1. Therefore, my first question to be answered is how to achieve that goal if our cadets spend around 75% of every year in the classroom? It could be easier for an Army Officer to inspire a cadet while in the field, but how do you do it in the classroom? The first answer that comes to my mind is having passionate teachers/leaders in every single classroom at West Point. Is that possible? Not impossible but difficult. Passion is a topic that has always taken my attention due to the relevance and impact in those who have the fortune to have somebody that inspires them by doing what he/she likes the most. Probably after a couple of years, students will forget the exact lecture and some important details of a particular issue but they will never forget how their professor made them feel while in the class room and that is exactly what I will try to highlight with this research. The purpose of this paper is to visualize how passion when teaching can make the difference in the classroom based on the perception of the West Point Corps of Cadets. Passion is probably one of the most difficult elements to be assessed due to its intangibility. Nevertheless, passion is globally 1 UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY STRATEGIC PLAN 2015-2021 [On line] p.7. Available at: http://www.usma.edu/strategic/Shared%20Documents/USMA%20Strategic%20Plan%202015.pdf http://www.usma.edu/strategic/Shared%20Documents/USMA%20Strategic%20Plan%202015.pdf2 recognized as one of the greatest assets when anybody has the opportunity to lead, teach or influence the lives of others. The structure of this paper will be as follows: Initially, I will define Passion as a concept from diverse sources in order to set the basis of this paper. Cadets contribution will be added from a selection of the original definitions that they submitted using the digital survey that was used for that purpose. The following topic will be Leadership and its direct and indivisible relation with passion. Then, I will go over the survey results and will try to interpret the cadets perception on passion in their classrooms at West Point. Finally, I will conclude based on every relevant discussion reflected on this paper. 1. HOW DO WE DEFINE PASSION? Tangible elements are always easier to define. But this is not the case. Passion is an intangible concept that is difficult to measure, assess or even define for purposes like this. However, everybody can have an idea of what passion is and how you can identify it from people around you. For the Christian world, passion is directly related to Jesus Christ in a way of suffering. For others passion could be synonymous of motivation. For the military passion is recognized as an element of leadership. Lets go through some definitions of the concept in order to frame the research and initiate this academic challenge. a. Academic and other definitions Concepts or expressions like passion, due to its intangibility, can be defined based on different approaches. The Oxford English Dictionary offers us a great and rich selection of possible definitions of this concept. Feelings, enthusiasm and preferences are elements that are present in passion. Therefore, passion could be defined as: Any kind of feeling by which the mind is powerfully affected or moved; a vehement, commanding, or overpowering emotion; in psychology and art, any mode in which the mind is affected or acted upon (whether vehemently or not), as ambition, avarice, desire, hope, fear, love, hatred, joy, grief, anger, revenge. Sometimes personified. An eager outreaching of the mind towards something; and overmastering zeal or enthusiasm for special object; a vehement predilection2 When you want to expand the definition and look for other options, we could find 609.000.000 different results in Google search. That fact could reflect the diverse use of the word passion for different purposes. The bestselling author Angela Maiers in her book The Passion-Driven Classroom explains the origin of passion from Latin word patior which means to suffer or to endure. Furthermore, she collected several definitions from fellow educators and teachers and built an original one as the addition of every idea that was received: 2 THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY (1989) Second Edition. Volume XI. Oxford University Press, New York. p 309-310. 3 Passion is: pure joy; focused consciousness that changes worlds; my work; contagious; devotion with enthusiasm; attractive (when you see it, hear it you just want some of it); timeless (it cant be shaken from you and is what you live for); energy with intent and purpose; the engine that powers life; an intense feeling for life, people, and everything else you believe in and love; desperately needed but doesnt come from a program; takes time, but the reward is sweet; enables us to overcome obstacles (both real and imagined) and to see the world as a place of infinite potential; living your life doing what you love; way better than discipline; gusto; disruptive excitement; when our hearts embrace our thoughts3 All of these ideas are concepts that we, in a natural response to the definition, can come up with using our instinct and basic background. But how do we put these theoretical definitions into practice as professors? How can we become Professor John Keating in our own academic environment? Certainly we cant create a recipe to mutate to a passionate teacher from scratch but we can put all of these definitions together and built a sentence that can be capable to describe what would be our goal if we really want to take passion as the engine of our lives. Robert L. Fried dedicates the prelude of his book The Passionate Teacher to describe the art of engaging young minds which by the way is exactly what we want to achieve with our students putting passion as the key element of that process. His proposal is the following: A passionate teacher is to be someone in love with a field of knowledge, deeply stirred by issues and ideas that challenge our world, drawn to the dilemmas and potentials of the young people who come into class each day or captivated by all of these. A passionate teacher is a teacher who breaks out of the isolation of a classroom, who refuses to submit to apathy or cynicism4 Passion by definition is something that you cant buy in the store or something that you cant see; just like some of the good important things in life like love. Passion will be grounded in the relation every one of us have with our students5 and that particular relation is going to be built through the time, care and love that we put in our classes and how they matter to us. We can all have an idea of what is passion. For me is the intangible difference that can enhances every relation with people and influence in their lives. In this case would be the intangible difference that can influence our student in the classroom to help them achieve their goal and the USMA outcome. b. Cadets original definitions Annex #1 shows the survey that was provided and requested voluntarily to the entire Corps of Cadets. From the 4322 cadets (100% of the West Point Corps of Cadets), 551 responded and participate in this research project. That represents the 12,8% of the Academy and constitutes a significant sample for this paper purposes. 3 MAIERS, Angela & SANDVOLD, Amy (2010) The Passion Driven Classroom. Routledge, New York. p 16-17. 4 FRIED, Robert L. (2001) The Passionate Teacher: A practical Gide (2nd Edition). Beacon Press, Boston. p 1. 5PAUSCH, Randy (2008) Speech at Carnegie Mellon University [On line] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WmryhioApY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WmryhioApY4 Figure #1 SURVEY PARTICIPATION An important ingredient that popped up while checking the answers was the cadets class distribution, noticing that the majority came from the plebss class of 2018. The more advanced the class is, the less answers I got. Figure #2 SURVEY DISTRIBUTION In question #5 cadets were voluntarily requested to propose an original definition for passion in order to be included the best of them in the final paper. The result: each one of the 551 cadets gave back an original proposal. Way beyond expectations, the given answers overwhelmed my reading trying to find the best of the best. After a really hard time selecting the answers, I finally realize that our cadets clearly understand that concept of passion and they have the tools to come up with a sound definition. The most recurrent words that our cadets used to build up their own definitions were: Enthusiasm, Love, Excitement, Motivation, Care, Enjoyment, Desire and Internal Drive. If they truly know what passion is, certainly they know exactly what to demand and expect from their professors in the classroom. SURVEY PARTICIPATION 551 CADETS = 12,8% TOTAL USMA = 4322 CADETS 38% 24% 22% 16% SURVEY DISTRIBUTION 4TH CLASS 3RD CLASS 2ND CLASS 1ST CLASS 5 Figure #3 MOST RECURRENT WORDS IN CADETS DEFINITION According to what I request and offer to cadets, I gratefully present 45 original definitions that somehow reflects cadets understanding and embracement of the concept: Passion (in terms of teaching) especially here at the academy, is having a deep love and drive to pursue knowledge and improvement in one's chosen area of study and to have an intense desire translate that into energy in the classroom to evoke thought and interest in the students CDT. Tanner Ellison. Class 15 Passion is a manifestation of a deep love, respect, or admiration for an element of one's life CDT. Christian Doyle. Class 17 Passion is being able to inspire someone about a topic through knowledge and emotion CDT. Paul Klee. Class 15 Passion is energy, love, excitement, and drive CDT. Haley OConnor. Class 16 Passion is an exhilarating emotion felt when a topic or activity interests you to the point where you are consistently motivated to pursue that interest CDT. Gretchen Roesel. Class 17 20% 17% 12% 16% 12% 11% 9% 3% MOST RECURRENT WORDS IN CADET'S DEFINITIONS ENTHUSIASM LOVE EXCITEMENT MOTIVATION CARE COMMITMENT DESIRE ENJOYMENT 6 Passion is the interest, engagement, and enthusiasm one has for a subject, discipline or area of life, demonstrated by their energy, actions, thoughts, and speech CDT. Frank Lin. Class 17 Passion is absolutely loving and enjoying what you are doing. You have a knack for it Teachers here have passion for what they teach, but that does not inspire me to do better CDT. Allison Setter. Class 16 Passion is loving something so much you cannot help but want to share it with others so they too can appreciate it as you do CDT. Jonathan Denecker. Class 17 Passion is the willingness/eagerness of someone to share their love of a certain subject with their students. This means they go out of their way to present the material in ways that the students respond to CDT. Scott Murray. Class 16 Passion is a subconscious response to an external matter that elicits enthusiasm and inquiry CDT. Ashley Jennings. Class 18 Passion is a overflowing enthusiasm and interest that you want to share with others CDT. Andrew Hicks. Class 18 Passion is the drive to continually learn about a subject and share your knowledge with others CDT. Stanley Diddams. Class 16 Passion is a deep desire to do or perform an action with earnest, intrinsically motivated hard work CDT. Britteney Murray. Class 15 Passion is an ineffable love that is internally motivated for a certain subject or object which borders on obsession but is not detrimental to oneself. Passion leads to sharing of that subject or object within and out of formal settings CDT. Benjamin Lemon. Class 17 7 Passion is love and commitment CDT. Eric Arzaga. Class 16 Passion is a feeling of enthusiasm, love, and even reverence that provides a foundation for an instructors perspective, and which causes that person to feel a strong sense of attachment towards his or her subject CDT. Spencer Smith. Class 15 Passion is being excited about the material, caring about the students, and being excited/animated while instructing CDT. Zachary Newquist. Class 15 Passion is the intrinsic motivation to work towards a specific goal CDT. Nicholas Moran. Class 16 Passion is one's ability to be motivated everyday and to try to better yourself and others along the way CDT. Tyler Bonfe. Class 15 Passion is the level of emotion integrated into someones thoughts and actions CDT. John Geiger. Class 15 Passion is a noticeable enthusiasm from the instructor about both the subject matter and the student's learning CDT. Paulo Blaise. Class 18 Passion is devotion to something or someone that can be seen in words and actions. CDT. Kyle Hinrichsen. Class 16 Passion is an unquestionable love, understanding and commitment to something or someone CDT. Eric Miller. Class XX 8 Passion is the combination of an intrinsic motivation for a particular subject or activity coupled with a genuine enjoyment of this subject or activity CDT. Ian Mauldin. Class 16 Passion is the quality of being emotionally invested in the well-being of a thing; for a teacher, it is the quality of emotionally sympathizing with the students' attempts to learn in the course. This means that if the students fail to learn the material, the teacher will be negatively emotionally affected (disappointed, frustrated). If they succeed to learn the material, the teacher will be positively emotionally affected (happy, congratulatory). It means that the success of the student is tied to the emotional state of the teacher CDT. Samuel Kolling. Class 16 Passion- the visible energy and commitment one shows towards a given field that serves to motivate and inspire others CDT. Brendon Bateman. Class 16 Passion is the motivation and attitude of an individual. Highly contagious, if an instructor has passion for his work, then others will be more inclined to follow CDT. Sean Kincaid. Class 18 Passion is the energy and enthusiasm a person shows when doing an activity they truly enjoy and care about CDT. Christian Mckenrick. Class 16 Passion is having a heartfelt commitment and enthusiasm towards a cause, idea, or discipline CDT. Luke Bieaulieu. Class 18 Passion is the motivation and excitement an individual feels regarding any topic, despite adversity or challenges CDT. Jack Rector. Class 17 Passion is an intrinsic desire to pursue excellence within a discipline or activity despite any other factors; the feeling one has when they legitimately enjoy and find fervor in what they are doing or saying CDT. Matthew Car. Class 15 9 Passion is having a genuine love for what you do. It's a prevalent and palpable desire to participate in whatever it is that you have a passion for CDT. Jake Lee. Class 18 Passion is the internal drive and desire that an individual has towards some sort of subject or event, that directly influences how they perform or act on it externally CDT. Baggio Saldivar. Class 17 Passion is caring about something enough to proudly express that care to others and promote interest in that thing. Greatly loving something CDT. Abigail Kronenberg. Class 18 Passion is an extremely powerful drive, desire, and caring for a matter CDT. Tevin Long. Class 17 Passion is what fuels people every day. It is what drives them in their professional and personal life and has the potential to greatly influence others CDT. Danielle Jordan. Class 18 Passion is showing real interest, excitement, and dedication of time inside and outside the classroom towards the subject and helping students achieve success in the given subject CDT. Eric Lopez. Class 18 Passion is an incredible excitement about, and total voluntary immersion in a topic or activity CDT. Elizabeth Psiaki. Class 18 Passion is feeling personally motivated to succeed and explore or spend additional time contributing to something for personal growth or the benefit of others CDT. Rachel Gold. Class 18 Passion is the Intrinsic love and excitement for something, regardless of extrinsic factors CDT. Jacob Semerar. Class 15 10 Passion is investing one's self entirely into something they enjoy to produce the greatest efforts or produce the most enjoyment CDT. Michael Shares. Class 16 Passion is caring deeply, not only for the subject at hand, not only for furthering your own knowledge of the subject, but finding those who share your passion, and teaching others what it is you care about, and why you care so deeply CDT. Brendan McDonald. Class 17 Passion I a ferocious, undying intrinsic motivation toward forwarding a cause, achieving a goal, or pursuing a relationship CDT. Hunter Mancini. Class 16 Passion is caring. It is showing excitement, enthusiasm, and motivation, and it involves that not only your mind, but also your heart is in to doing whatever the task is CDT. Airyn Nash. Class 18 Passion is a genuine and authentic interest in a subject to the point where individuals devote a lot of their time doing and thinking about a particular topic. Fulfilling such a passion may even be a key to happiness for some people. Passion is love CDT. Irene Mallet. Class 15 2. PASSION AND LEADERSHIP Leadership is probably the capstone of education at West Point. The Academy has brought to life several documents and guidance in order to achieve the goals that will contribute to fulfill the mission which is to educate, train and inspire the Corps of Cadets so that each graduate is a commissioned leader of character committed to the values of Duty, Honor Country and prepared for a career of professional excellence and service to the Nation as an officer of the United States Army6. At the same time, the Academys Vision, within an Army in transition, West Point is the preeminent leader development and academic institution whose graduates thrive in tomorrows complex security environments and are inspired to a lifetime of service to our Army and the Nation as leaders of character7, gives a clear guidance to understand what the Army wants as a product from the oldest Military Academy in the American Continent. We can easily begin to think how to achieve those goals that are the answer to the implied requirements of the Mission and Vision of West Point. We have a broad idea of how to educate 6 UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY STRATEGIC PLAN 2015-2021 [On line] p.7. Available at: http://www.usma.edu/strategic/Shared%20Documents/USMA%20Strategic%20Plan%202015.pdf 7 Ibid. http://www.usma.edu/strategic/Shared%20Documents/USMA%20Strategic%20Plan%202015.pdf11 and how to train cadets to transform them into officers after a 4 year program. Nevertheless, there is one aspect that turns to be complicate to grab: how to inspire. Leaders inspire others, but becoming a leader requires that you have to be inspired by somebody before. That somebody in the West Point case is us: the Faculty and professors of the Corps of Cadets. Therefore, a question that comes to my mind is how can we really achieve that goal? Lead by example is a common fraise that we hear at West Point and sometimes we take for granted that everybody who teaches is a leader. Probably that will be the first answer. A leader is the one who is clearly recognized and respected by his/her subordinates (students in this case) so a second question comes and pops up: How can you be a leader without been passionate of what you do? That passion will be de fuel in the classroom that will move your students souls and will definitely make the difference. Passion drives teachers to do their best. By doing it, our cadets will be inspired and receiving a great example in the classroom. We will transform ourselves into a classroom leader, and that is exactly what the Army and the Academy wants from us. You can know everything about a specific topic, but if you dont care about your students, they will not engage in the course that you are giving; people dont care how much you know until they know how much you care8. If we can link up the concepts of Passion and Leadership to achieve our goals and accomplish the mission we will be awarded by our students with their recognition. A great teacher is, of course, both a coach and a model9 and we dont want to be out of that team as instructors and professors. 3. PASSION IN THE CLASSROOM AT WEST POINT This research started in the classroom. That is why a simple survey was released and answered back by 551 cadets. The first question was direct and straight to the point: Do you think that your professors passion is important or makes the difference when teaching? Only 2 out of the 551 cadets think that passion doesnt make the difference. That means that the Corps of Cadets feels the necessity of having passionate professors in their classrooms due to the fact that they know and understand what is passion all about. Figure #4 DOES PASSION MAKE THE DIFFERENCE? 8 LYNCH, Rick (2013) Adapt or Die. Baker Books, Michigan. p 134. 9 FURNHAM, Adrian (2001) Insight: Passion takes a teacher from being merely good to great [On line] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/2906525/Insight-Passion-takes-a-teacher-from-being-merely-good-to-great.html 100% 0% DOES PASSION MAKE THE DIFFERENCE WHEN TEACHING? YES = 549 NO = 2 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/2906525/Insight-Passion-takes-a-teacher-from-being-merely-good-to-great.html12 In West Point we have several courses and majors that cadets can take to complete the requirements for graduation. They are different in form and in depth divided in four groups of courses: Science, Social, Military and Physical and each one of those require inspired professors. With the survey cadets were asked if the levels of passion needed in the classroom depended on the type of course that you are taking? The answers vary but the majority (86%) agreed that passion has to be a consistent virtue in the classroom regardless of the course that any professor is teaching. Figure #5 DIFERENT COURSES REQUIRE DIFERENT LEVELS OF PASSION? a. Different courses and different needs in terms of passion 14% of the cadets stated that the demanded level of passion will depend on the course that they are taking. They divided their answers in the four types of courses, grading from 1 to 5 each one of them, understanding that 1 represent a lower level of passion required and 5 requires the highest standards of it. Figure #6 DIFERENT COURSES AND THE LEVEL OF PASSION REQUIRED 14% 86% DIFFERENT COURSES = DIFFEREN LEVELS OF PASSION YES NO 4% 4% 33% 24% 35% MILITARY COURSES 1 2 3 4 5 14% 24% 24% 17% 21% PHYSICAL COURSES 1 2 3 4 5 3% 9% 17% 38% 33% SOCIAL COURSES 1 2 3 4 5 7% 16% 34% 21% 22% SCIENCE COURSES 1 2 3 4 5 13 The answers were divers and the general order of demand of passion is: the highest are the Military courses followed by the Social ones. Physical and Science courses were at the end. The final average of the physical courses can be explained due to the fact that the class of 2018 (the majority of the cadets that answered the survey) havent taken a physical course yet. Hence, the results are there and logically the military courses demand the highest level of passion according to the 14% of the Corps. b. Passionate teaching and inspired learning The final outcome of any professor is that their students learn something useful for their lives and careers. Therefore, any faculty member will have to do their best to inspire their students regardless of the course that they teach. Gaining their trust would probably be one of the first steps in this process but will take a while. However, mutual understanding will generate the necessary space to teach with passion and from the students perspective, develop an inspired learning process. When you teach the basic requirement is to know what youre talking about. Then ad passion and everything will work smoothly. The last question of the survey was if they agree that the greater passion of the professor will result in a greater motivation of the student to learn. Only 9% of the cadets argued that not necessarily a passionate professor generates a greater motivation in their students stating that sometimes students can have the very best professor that they can get, but they are simply not interested. That means that the majority of the Corps understands how valuable passion is as an asset provided by the professor in the classroom and spread to their students hearts and souls. Figure #7 GREATER PASSION = GREATER MOTIVATION 91% 9% PROFESSOR GREATER PASSION = STUDENT GREATER MOTIVATION YES NO 14 CONCLUSIONS 1. Although there is a clear academic definition of what is passion, what more reflects this concept can be constructed from synonyms or ideas, positive indeed, that common sense of ordinary people can express. Our cadets have a clear idea of what this concept means and one way or another they stated through the survey administered with simple, direct and consistent expressions. 2. Passion and leadership are indivisible and yet complementary concepts. If West Point bases its educational system and teaching-learning processes to achieve the formation of leaders of character, the passion of those instructors and teachers whom from their personal example and deep love for the US Army (or their own), will be able to transcend the lives of their students, moving from a system of "head counts" towards a system of "heart counts" that at the end of the road makes a significant difference in the classroom. 3. Overall the cadets of the Military Academy at West Point remain 75% of their time in the classroom, where they receive the necessary knowledge to be educated as professionals in different majors and careers. Moreover, that time is the greatest opportunity the faculty and instructors has to influence "militarily" in the lives of our cadets in each of the classes that they teach. Ergo, a high degree of passion for what is taught must be demanded by each of the academic departments that oversee professors teaching at the Academy. One option may be through periodic of final surveys to validate passion (motivation, commitment and love) of our faculty. Then certain measures could apply in order to award the best and punish the worst. 4. We can agree that the concept of passion and its true application or evaluation is not something easy to achieve. However, from the definitions given by the cadets from West Point and its absolute clarity about what is truly the passion that is needed in the classroom, we must do something about it in terms of meeting the demand that our students make us. This, from the valuable meaning of wearing the glorious uniform of the United States Army or its allies, which ultimately delivers additional value when compared to other civil university in teaching their classes. A passionate leader is willing to offer his life for his subordinates in the battlefield and this will be the intangible difference that will touch the hearts of our students in an open knowledge delivery process initially, but more importantly, delivering an example as officers or NCOs passionate to contribute to the education of future leaders of the 21st Century. 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY Written sources 1. APERSON, Jay (2013) Leaders and Leadership in the Classroom and Beyond. Master Teacher Program final project, Center for Faculty Excellence, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. 2. CALUORI, Nicholas (2014) Mindset and Motivation. Master Teacher Program final project, Center for Faculty Excellence, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. 3. COVEY, Stephen (2006) The Speed of Trust. Free Press, New York 4. DAY, Christopher (2004) A Passion for Teaching. Routledge Falmer, New York. 5. FRIED, Robert L. (2001) The Passionate Teacher: A practical Gide (2nd Edition). Beacon Press, Boston. 6. LYNCH, Rick (2013) Adapt or Die. Baker Books, Michigan. 7. MAIERS, Angela & SANDVOLD, Amy (2010) The Passion Driven Classroom. Routledge, New York. 8. MAIERS, Angela (2012) Classroom Habitudes. Solution Tree Press, Indiana. 9. THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY (1989) Second Edition, Volume XI. Oxford University Press, New York. 10. TUGRUL, Cagri (2013) A Passionate Teacher: Teacher Commitment and Dedication to Student Learning. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, Volume 2, January 2013. Digital sources 1. BRIGGS, Saga (2013) 25 Ways to Institute Passion-Based Learning in the Classroom [On line] Available at: http://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/25-ways-to-institute-passion-based-learning-in-the-classroom/#ixzz3XOaHqxtq 2. 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FURNHAM, Adrian (2001) Insight: Passion takes a teacher from being merely good to great [On line] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/2906525/Insight-Passion-takes-a-teacher-from-being-merely-good-to-great.html http://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/25-ways-to-institute-passion-based-learning-in-the-classroom/#ixzz3XOaHqxtqhttp://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/25-ways-to-institute-passion-based-learning-in-the-classroom/#ixzz3XOaHqxtqhttp://hepg.org/her-home/issues/harvard-educational-review-volume-72-issue-4/herbooknote/the-passionate-teacher_50#.vs5_l2dd0h0.mailtohttp://hepg.org/her-home/issues/harvard-educational-review-volume-72-issue-4/herbooknote/the-passionate-teacher_50#.vs5_l2dd0h0.mailtohttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/2906525/Insight-Passion-takes-a-teacher-from-being-merely-good-to-great.htmlhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/2906525/Insight-Passion-takes-a-teacher-from-being-merely-good-to-great.html16 4. 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