horticulture terms rainier hs landscape design 2012
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Horticulture TermsRainier HSLandscape Design2012
HorticultureThe ART of cultivating fruits, nuts, vegetables, or ornamental plants.Horti = gardenCulture = garden culture
FloricultureThe cultivation of ornamental flowering plants.
BotanyThe SCIENCE of plants to include anatomy, physiology and taxonomy.
PomologyThe science and practice of growing, harvesting and marketing tree fruits and nuts. OlericultureThe science and practice of growing, harvesting and marketing vegetables.
AnnualA plant which grows, flowers, produces seeds, and dies in one year. Must be replanted each year.PerennialA plant that grows year after year without replanting. A plant whose roots lives year to year.
TaxonomyThe study of plant names and the identification of plants.Scientific nameThe Latin name of a plant giving its genus and species.
Medium(Plural: Media)Any material, which is used to start and grow, seeds and plants.
Seed coatThe outer covering of a seed.EndospermThe stored food supply for the young developing seedling, which is contained in the seed. (rocket fuel)Embryo (embryonic plant)The entire plant inside the seed before germination.
HybridAn offspring of two different varieties of one plant type, which possesses certain traits of each plant type.
Named varietiesSpecific individual strains of one type of plant, which have been named to indicate their particular traits.
Cross PollinationA process in which pollen (male sex cell) of one plant unites with the egg (female sex cell) of a different plant.Self PollinationFertilization of a plant by its own pollen. Male and female flower parts on the same flower.
Hardening Off ProcessGradually subjecting plants to more difficult growing conditions like withholding water and decreasing temperature, this prepares plants for transplanting by reducing transplant shock.
Cotyledons vs. True LeavesCotyledons are the first set of leaves that emerge from a seed at germination. All other leaves are true leaves.Cotyledons = seed leaves
Seed GerminationThe miracle process when seeds begin to sprout and grow to begin a new plantGermination occurs when a seed receives the correct amounts of light, temperature and water simultaneously.
Plant PropagationThe process of reproducing or increasing plants. Can be sexual or asexual.
TranspirationLoss of water through the leaves or stems of plants. Sort of like sweating 90% of a plants water loss is here.A normal daily process of plants. Higher water loss on sunny days.
TurgidA plant whose tissues are swollen, filled with moisture. Not wilted.Turgid plant = happy plant
NodeThe joint of a stem, the swollen place where leaves and buds are attached. Roots form here when cuttings are made.The space between the nodes on a stem.
CallusMass of cells which forms around the wounded area of a plant to start the healing process. Similar to a scab. New roots will form in this callus tissue.
Softwood CuttingA cutting made from a stem whose tissue is softer and not as mature as the older wood.Hardwood CuttingA cutting made from a current seasons stem tissue, which is mature or harder in texture.
Rooting HormoneA plant chemical used to help new cuttings to form new roots faster.Sort of like a steroid to enhance growth.
Tissue Culturemicro-propagationThe process of reproducing thousands of plants from a few cells taken from the terminal bud tissue of a plant.test tube plantsMust have extremely sanitary laboratory conditions for tissue culture.
Root DivisionThe physical separation of roots to form new plants from one mother plant.Softer tissue from the tip of the plant where most of the new growth occurs.Terminal Tip Growth
Binomial NomenclatureThe international naming system that gives every plant 2 names, genus and the specie in Latin.Scientific Name = Botanic Name.
LinnaeusThe Swedish botanist that came up with the 2 name system for classifying plants .1750
GenusThe first name of a plant scientific name. A group of plants that are grouped together because of their similarities to one another. (genera = plural). A NOUN.SpecieThe second name in scientific name, more specific in nature. An ADJECTIVE that describes the genus.
Example:Acer rubrum : Red MapleAcer is the noun or genus.rubrum is the adjective or specie that describes the genus (rubrum = red in latin)Quercus alba = White OakZebrina pendula, Setcresea purpurea
CultivarsAnother name for a specific plant, same as variety. Example: There are several cultivars or varietiesof Red Maple Tree.Red Sunset, October Glory
Common NameThe local English name of a plant, which may differ in various localities.Common names are not precise enough for commercial use.
TaxonomistA person who studies plant names and the identification of plants as a career or field of study.
International Code of Botanical NomenclatureA set of rules that are international for naming plants.
MulchAny material used to cover the soil for weed control and moisture retention.Pine straw, pine bark nuggets, cypress shavings
OsmocoteA slow release fertilizer. Allows the plant to feed gradually over a longer period of time. Saves you labor. 14-14-14
HerbaceousAny plant that has soft tissue and does not form wood or bark. A non-woody plant. Houseplants, annuals & some perennials.DeciduousA plant which loses its leaves each autumn. It goes dormant in the winter.
EvergreenA plant which has leaves or needles throughout the whole year.
PetioleThe stalk structure which supports the blade of the leaf. It attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
Simple leafA solitary leaf attached to a stem by a petiole.Compound LeafA group of leaflets which compose the entire compound leaf.
MonocotClassification of those plants having only one cotyledon or seed leaf. Grasses, chives and corn are monocots. Parallel veins.DicotA classification of plants having two cotyledons or seed leaves. Vascular or woody plants.
Leaf MarginThe outer edge of a leaf .Serrate, entire, lobed, etc.Root CapThe actively growing cells at the tip of the plant root.
StomaSmall pores or holes in the leaf, which allow the plant to breathe and give off moisture. They open and close with day and night.
LenticelsBreathing pores in the bark of woody stems. They open and close with day and night.
VentilationMovement and exchange of air in a greenhouse.PhotoperiodismThe response of plants to different periods of light and darkness in terms of their flowering.
Short Day PlantA plant that blooms in the short winter days.Some plants can be tricked into blooming by giving them short days artificially. Chrysanthemums and Poinsettias
BreaksNew shoots that develop as a result of pinching.Same results as pruning out the terminal bud of a plant.
Growth RegulatorsChemicals that retard plant growth. It slows down the plant growth so they dont get too tall and floppy.
Root RotMost common disease of Poinsettia. Caused by: Bad drainage, Bad ventilation or too much water.
FungicideAny substance which destroys or prevents the growth of fungi.A type of pesticide to control plant diseases.
J.R. PoinsettThe U.S. Ambassador to Mexico who introduced the Poinsettia to America for future production.Named the plant after himself.
Plant HardinessThe ability of a plant withstand to the minimum temperature of an area.Plant FormThe outer shape of a tree and its branches. The outer silhouette.Round, columnar, oval, weeping, etc.
Plant TextureThe size and thickness of the plants leaves and stems. Fine, Medium, Coarse.Bare Root PlantsPlants sold with no soil on the roots. A. Cheaper B. Very perishable
Balled and BurlappedPlants- (B&B) Roots in burlap held together by twine. Dug up at a nursery and sold this way.Container StockPlanted in a basket or plastic; or metal can. Can be planted at any time of the year.
Drip Line of a TreeThe imaginary line where water drops off from the farthest point of branches.
Narrow leaf EvergreenEvergreen plants with needle-like or scaly foliage. Pines, Junipers.Broad leaf EvergreenEvergreen plants with broad leaf blade. BLE Hollies and broad leaf plants.
FasciclesThe sheathes or bundles that contain needle like leaves attached to the branch in conifers.
Heeling inThe process of temporarily covering the plant roots when a tree has to be out of the ground for transplanting. The purpose is to retain the moisture around the roots with an organic material such as straw, mulch or soil during transplanting.
BermA ridge of soil placed around a newly planted tree to retain water. a saucer or moat.Traps the water to stay on top of the root zone.
Ground Cover PlantAny low growing plant, under 12 tall, that completely covers the ground.
Used in place of grass for large areas (saves labor of mowing) usually planted in mass. Creeping junipers, ivy, monkey grass, etc. Usually very durable plants.
Foundation PlantingsPlants which are used next to buildings to help accent and tie the buildings into the landscape. Usually evergreen.
Specimen PlantA plant that is used alone for accent or focal point to a landscape.
Soil ConditionerOrganic matter added to