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  • 1.Horse Breeds Anastasia Kellogg

2. Breeds

  • A breed is defined as a group of animals within a species that have distinctive characteristics which are transmitted to their offspring
  • Distinguishing characteristics may include any of the following: conformation, size, action, function, and color
  • Natural selection: shaped by environmental factors
  • Artificial selection: shaped by human desires
  • The three main classifications of horse breeds are light horses, ponies, and draft horses

3. Breeds

  • Hot blooded horses stem from eastern origins, and include the Arabian, the Barb, and the thoroughbred (some sources disagree and list the thoroughbred as a warm blood, others include many more breeds as hot blooded breeds)
    • For knowledge competition, choose an answer you like and bring a reference book to back yourself up
  • Cold blooded breeds include the draft breeds
  • Warm blooded breeds include everything in between

4. Breeds

  • The term Warmblood is also used to group together the German and other European non-Thoroughbred sport horse breeds
  • A feral horse is a horse that was once domesticated, before escaping into the wild again, for example the American Mustang and the Australian Brumby
  • Most breeds are derived from other breeds; the oldest breeds were derived from the four primitive horse types

5. American Saddlebred

  • Originally called the Kentucky Saddle Horse
  • Foundation sire: Denmark, a thoroughbred
  • Denmark sired Gaines Denmark, out of the Stevenson mare
  • Originated in the southern United States, mainly Kentucky

6. American Saddlebred

  • Derived from the Thoroughbred, Morgan, Narragansett Pacer, and Hackney breeds
  • May be three gaited or five gaited
  • Three gaited Saddlebreds walk, trot, and canter with great animation, and until recently were shown with a roached mane
    • Note: the approved 4-H texts predate the roached mane rule change

7. American Saddlebred

  • Five gaited Saddlebreds walk, trot, canter, slow gait, and rack
  • While there are probably a greater number of Saddlebreds used for pleasure, more texts list their primary use as being in the show ring
  • The Five Gaited Championship is the breeds most sought after award

8. American Saddlebred

  • Historically, Wing Commander is considered one of the breeds great horses, having won the Five Gaited Championship multiple times
  • Registered by American Saddle Horse Association (ASHA)

9. American Saddlebred

  • National Saddle Horse Breeders Association formed in 1891; became American Saddle Horse Breeders Association in 1899
  • The National Show Horse is a cross between the Saddlebred and the Arab

10. American Saddlebred

  • Historically, solid bays and chestnuts were favored, with white markings frowned upon; pintos have come into fashion, however, and are often very sought after

11. American White Horse

  • Not a true breed, but a color type, originating in the United States (Nebraska) around 1937
  • May be a light horse or a draft horse
  • The foundation stallion is said the be Old King, foaled 1906
  • Also called the American Cream

12. American White Horse

  • Incorrectly called Albino, there is no true albino in the horse
  • Caused by the dominant white gene, but cannot be true breeding since homozygous dominant white is lethal to the fetus

13. American White Horse

  • Used for riding as well as driving
  • Popular for parades and film work
  • Registered by the AWHC (American White Horse Club)

14. Andalusian

  • Originated in Spain
  • Descends from Barbs, introduced into Spain from North Africa in the 8 thcentury
  • Used for pleasure riding, bullfighting, parades, circus, dressage
  • Was the dominant breed brought to America by Columbus on his second trip

15. Andalusian

  • Noted for high stepping gait, the paso de andatura

16. Anglo Arab

  • Not a breed, but a cross between a thoroughbred and an Arabian
  • Very popular cross in England and the United States, used for riding horses, hunters, endurance horses, etc., and may be shown as half Arab in the U.S.
  • IAHA = Interantional Arabian Horse Association

17. Appaloosa

  • Originated in the United States
  • Developed in the Palouse River Valley by the Nez Perce Indians
  • Characteristics include spotted coat pattern, visible white sclera in the eye, mottled skin and striped hooves

18. Appaloosa

  • The coat patterns are:
    • Blanket
    • Leopard
    • Snowflake
    • Frost (usually on roan)
    • Marble (usually on roan)
  • Originally primarily stock horses, now a versatile breed used for huntseat and western show classes, cutting, reining, gymkhana, rodeo, driving, racing, and endurance

19. Appaloosa

  • Registered by the Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) in Moscow, Idaho

20. Arabian

  • The Arabian is known as the worlds oldest breed of horse, originating in Arabia before 3000 B.C.
  • The Arabian was first brought to America by Homer Davenport
  • A versatile breed used for riding and driving, showing, and endurance riding

21. Arabian

  • Usually gray, bay, chestnut, or less frequently black or roan, has a dished face, bulging forehead (jibbah), a fine, elegant neck which is long and arched, short back, and a flat croup
  • Only has seventeen pairs of ribs

22. Arabian

  • According to legend, the Arab descends from seven horses selected by King Solomon from his 52 thousand horses
  • Kind Solomons seven horses were:
    • Koheilan
    • Manaki
    • Hedregi
    • Saklani
    • Gilfi
    • Hedban
    • Trefi

23. Arabian

  • A more popular legend claims that the Arab descends from the five mares chosen by Mohammed. The story had two versions
    • They were first to reach Mecca, out of the 85 he had sent to spread the news of victory
    • They were the five who turned back without drinking when Mohammed called a thirsty herd away from water

24. Arabian

  • Notable famous Arabians include Raffles, need current list

25. Barb

  • Originated in Morocco and Algeria, on Africas Barbary Coast
  • Said to be the most hardy of the Oriental breeds
  • The Barb has a straight face, good muscling, an arched neck, a short back, and a sloping croup (solid colored)

26. Barb

  • An extremely old breed, the Barb was imported to Spain in the 8 thcentury and used in founding numerous breeds, including the Andalusion
  • The Spanish Conquistadors rode horses with Barb blood

27. Barb

  • The true purebred Barb is almost extinct, with those seen today usually mixed with Arab

28. Cleveland Bay

  • Originated in England during the Middle Ages, in the Cleveland district of Yorkshire
  • The oldest breed of horse in England
  • Always bay in color
  • Stands between 16 to 16.2 hands

29. Cleveland Bay

  • Typically has a convex head profile, long neck, good shoulders, deep girth, long, but still strong, back, and short legs with good bone
  • Originally called the Chapmans Horse
  • Mainly used as a driving horse; also used for riding, and is crossed with the Thoroughbred to produce show ring hunters and jumpers

30. French Trotter

  • Originated in France
  • Foundation sires include Conquerant, Phaeton, Lavater, Normond, and Niger
  • Sampson, by Blaze, was influential in the formation of this breed, as well as the Hackney, and also sired Messenger, the great grandsire of Hambletonian 10, the foundation sire of the Standardbred

31. French Trotter

  • Through Sampson, the French Trotter and American Standardbred are related
  • Used for racing at the trot, both in harness and under saddle

32. Friesian

  • May be classified a light horse or a draft horse
  • Originated in Holland
  • One of the oldest breeds in Europe
  • Used as a coach horse, and is an excellent trotter

33. Friesian

  • Used as a war horse and coach horse in the Middle Ages
  • Has some draft characteristics, including feathers, and is almost always black
  • Also called the Harddraver (Dutch for