Honoring Black History Month in Medicine and Sc ?· Honoring Black History Month in Medicine and Science…

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<ul><li><p>Honoring Black History Month in Medicine and Science </p><p>This information is taken from the Tom Joyner Morning Show </p><p> Little Known Black History Facts </p><p> Otis Boykin invented more than 25 electronic devices used in </p><p>computers and guided missiles. His most noteworthy invention was an </p><p>electronic mechanism created in 1955, as a regulating unit for the first </p><p>heart pacemaker. The actual pacemaker was first invented by Paul Boli. </p><p>Boykins device uses electrical impulses to maintain a steady heartbeat. </p><p>Born in 1920, Otis Boykin was raised in Dallas, Texas by his parents Walter </p><p>Benjamin and Sarah Boykin. He graduated from Fisk University in 1941 and </p><p>got his first official job with Majestic Radio and TV Corporation in Chicago. </p><p>Three years later, he moved to P.J. Nielsen Research Labs in Oak Park, </p><p>Illinois to work as a research engineer. In 1949, while attending the Illinois </p><p>Institute of Technology, he founded his own company, Boykin-Fruth. In </p><p>1964, Boykin also worked as a consultant for several European and </p><p>American firms, in his long career, Boykin also invented a type of resistor </p><p>(an electric circuit element) commonly in use today in radios, computers </p><p>and television sets. Boykin also invented a chemical air filter and a burglar-</p><p>proof cash register. For these, and the electronic regulator for the </p><p>pacemaker, Boykin was rewarded with a Cultural Science Achievement </p><p>Award by The Old Pros Unlimited Club. He belonged to several science </p><p>based organizations, including the Chicago Physics Club. </p><p> Benjamin S. Carson, Sr. M.D is a pioneer in brain surgical techniques. </p><p>However, he is best known for leading the first surgical team that </p><p>successfully separated a pair if Siamese twins, who were born, joined at the </p></li><li><p>head. Born in 1951, Carson came from a poor family in Detroit. As a child, </p><p>he has a difficult time in school. Undeterred, the budding young </p><p>neurosurgeon studied hard in high school and won a scholarship to Yale </p><p>University, where he received his bachelors degree. He went on to study </p><p>at the University of Michigans Medical School and became the first black </p><p>person accepted into the residency program at Johns Hopkins Hospital in </p><p>Baltimore. After spending one in Australia, Carson was promoted to </p><p>Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins in 1984. At 31, he was </p><p>the youngest doctor to hole such a position. In 1984, Carson performed a </p><p>very complex surgical feat when he separated seven month old Siamese </p><p>twins, born joined at the back of the head. The surgery was successful, </p><p>after a tense and arduous 22-hour operation. Carson has been the </p><p>recipient of numerous awards for his pioneering role and development of </p><p>brain surgery techniques. Some honors include the Johnson Publication </p><p>Companys Black Achievement Award, the Candle Award for Science and </p><p>Technology from Morehouse College and an Honorary Doctor of Science </p><p>Degree from North Carolina A&amp;T University. </p><p> Frederick McKinley Jones is best remembered for devising a method to </p><p>refrigerate trucks carrying perishable food, an idea expanded to include air </p><p>coolers for ships, planes, and trains. As a result of the method called pre-</p><p>fabricated refrigerator construction, meat, fruit, vegetables, and butter </p><p>could be transported long distance. Jones was born in Cincinnati, Ohio in </p><p>1893 and orphaned at the age of nine. He went to work as a self-taught </p><p>auto mechanic. He later mastered electronics and built a radio station </p><p>transmitter. His interest in how to combine sound with film in the early </p><p>days of movies led to a job with company manufacturing motion picture </p><p>equipment. Jones first patent was for a machine to dispense tickets in </p><p>movie theaters. During the 1930s, his innovative designs for air-cooling </p><p>units for food transported to market by trucks led to formation of a </p><p>successful new business. By 1949, the U.S. Thermo Control Company, as it </p><p>was called, had profits of $3 million a year. Jones was subsequently </p></li><li><p>awarded more than 60 patents, 40 for refrigeration equipment alone. In </p><p>the 1950s, he served as a consultant on refrigeration problems to both the </p><p>United States Defense Department and the Bureau of Standards. His </p><p>portable refrigeration systems were used throughout World War II, </p><p>primarily to keep medicine and blood at the right temperature on </p><p>battlefields and in military hospitals. </p><p> Patricia E. Bath, M.D. is the inventor of the cataract Laserphacprobe, </p><p>which is the medical instrument to remove cataracts from the eye. In 1975, </p><p>Dr. Bath was the first black female surgeon appointed to UCLA and is </p><p>credited, along with other Howard University students, for founding the </p><p>Student Medical Association and was its first president. Together with </p><p>associates and colleagues, Dr. Bath founded the American Institute for the </p><p>Prevention of Blindness, and with limited funding provided free vision </p><p>screening services to underserved communities. </p><p>Dr. bath holds several other firsts: first African American woman surgeon at </p><p>Drew Medical School; first woman Program Director (Chief) of a </p><p>postgraduate training at Drew; first woman chair of Opthalmology in the </p><p>history of the United States, from 1983-1986, Drew-UCLA Residency </p><p>Programs; first woman faculty ophthalmologist of ULCA Dept. of </p><p>Opthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute with her appointment in 1975; first </p><p>woman elected to Honorary Medical Staff of UCLA Medical Center upon her </p><p>retirement in 1993; elected to Hunter College Hall of Fame in 1988 and </p><p>elected as Howard University Pioneer in Academic Medicine in 1993. </p><p>As the first African American female physician/inventor, Dr. Bath, in the </p><p>early part of her career, devoted herself to the prevention of blindness the </p><p>world over. Her intense interest, experience and research on cataracts </p><p>culminated in 1985-1986 with her invention of a new device and method to </p><p>remove cataracts, called the Laserphacoprobe. With this intervention, </p></li><li><p>Dr. Patricia E. Bath was able to restore the sight of several individuals who </p><p>had been blind for over 30 years. </p><p>Dr. Bath has four patents on this laser cataract surgery device covering the </p><p>United States, Canada, Japan and Europe. </p><p> George Washington Carver is best known for his invention of peanut </p><p>butter and peanut oil, however, Carver created over 300 invention s from </p><p>the peanut, sweet potato and pecan. </p><p>Born into slavery near Diamond Grove, Missouri in 1864, Carver went on to </p><p>finish high school. He applied and was accepted to a college in Iowa. </p><p>However, when the president discovered that Carver was an African </p><p>American, he did not admit him. To support his early years of education, </p><p>Carver opened a laundry and later moved to Winterset, Iowa and also </p><p>worked as first cook in a large hotel. </p><p>Carver later went on to attend Simpson College in Iowa, then Iowa State </p><p>College, obtaining Bachelors and Master Degrees pursing his agricultural </p><p>work. At Tuskegee Institute, he performed productive agricultural research </p><p>in nutrition, chemistry, genetics, plant pathology, soil fertilization and the </p><p>use of waste products. Carver not only revealed medical properties in </p><p>weeds, but created over 300 products from the peanut, 100 from the pecan </p><p>and 118 products from the sweet potato. </p><p>George Washington Carver received only three patents for his work with </p><p>the peanut. These three patents were for Cosmetics, Paint and Stains </p><p>Process, and the Process of Producing Paint. Carvers other inventions </p><p>were as follow: Adhesives, Insulating, Board, Shoe Polish Axle Grease, </p><p>Linoleum, Shaving Cream, Bleach, Mayonnaise, Sugar, Synthetic Rubber, </p><p>Synthetic Marble, Metal Polish, Paper Dyes, Wood Filler, Wood Stains, </p><p>Imitation Oysters, Ink. </p></li><li><p>Additionally, his inventions included Breakfast Food No. 5 with extra </p><p>protein for diabetic people from skins of the peanut, and over 30 different </p><p>dyes from black to orange/yellow. </p><p>George Washington Carver was one of the greatest chemists of all time, </p><p>whose products and processes not only revolutionized the economy of the </p><p>South but created countless new industries and laid the foundation for new </p><p>fields in science. </p><p> Ann Moore and her husband worked as Peace Corps volunteers in the </p><p>early 1960s. As a pediatric nurse in Africa, Ann saw lots of mothers and </p><p>babies every day and noticed the contentment of babies as they spent long </p><p>hours snuggled up happily in fabric harnesses against their mothers backs. </p><p>Two months after her return to the United States, Ann gave birth to a baby </p><p>girl and wanted he same closeness with her child. She developed a fabric </p><p>pouch to carry her daughter snugly on her back. With her daughter and her </p><p>new invention, she accompanied Martin Luther King on his famous march </p><p>from Selma to Montgomery. </p><p>Working with her mother, an experience seamstress, she improved the </p><p>design, calling it the Snugli. People who saw Ann Moore walking with her </p><p>baby began to order the Snugli, and by 1972 orders for 300 Snuglis per </p><p>month were pouring in. After receiving the highest ranking reviews by </p><p>Consumer Reports and the Wall Street Journal sales hit the $6 million mark. </p><p>The business remained a family operation until 1985 when Gerico bought </p><p>the patent. </p><p>Ann Moore also invented the Airlift, a padded, portable and adjustable </p><p>oxygen carrier. This backpack gives greater freedom to people who need a </p><p>steady supply of oxygen. She also designed a shoulder/hand bag and </p><p>carrier to fit on the back of a wheelchair or walker. </p></li></ul>