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<p>Holt Chemistry Guided Notes, Chapter 1</p> <p>Holt Chemistry Guided Notes, Chapter 1: The Science of Chemistry</p> <p>Section 1: What is Chemistry?</p> <p>Objectives:</p> <p> Describe ways in which chemistry is a part of your daily life.</p> <p> Describe the characteristics of three common states of matter.</p> <p> Describe physical and chemical changes, and give examples of each.</p> <p> Identify the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.</p> <p> List four observations that suggest a chemical change has occurred.</p> <p>A _______________ is any substance that has a definite composition. A ___________ _______________ is the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more new substances. The ___________ of ______________ are the physical forms of matter which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. </p> <p> __________________ have a fixed volume and shape that result from the way their particles are arranged. </p> <p> ____________________ have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. </p> <p> ____________________ have neither fixed volume nor shape.</p> <p>Physical changes are changes in which the ___________ of a substance doesnt change.</p> <p> Changes of state are physical changes.</p> <p>Chemical changes occur when the ___________ of substances change and new substances form.</p> <p>Evidence of a chemical change:</p> <p>Review Questions:</p> <p>1. Classify the following materials as a solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature:</p> <p>a. Milk</p> <p>b. Helium</p> <p>c. Granite</p> <p>d. Oxygen</p> <p>e. Steel</p> <p>f. Gasoline</p> <p>2. Describe the motion of the particles in each of the three primary states of matter.</p> <p>3. Give three examples each of physical and chemical changes.</p> <p>Section 2: Describing Matter</p> <p>Objectives:</p> <p> Distinguish between different characteristics of matter, including mass, volume, and weight.</p> <p> Identify and use SI units in measurements and calculations.</p> <p> Set up conversion factors, and use them in calculations.</p> <p> Identify and describe physical properties, including density.</p> <p> Identify chemical properties.</p> <p>When working with numbers, be careful to distinguish between a quantity and its unit.</p> <p> _____________ describes something that has magnitude, size, or amount.</p> <p> _____________ is a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement.</p> <p>A ______________ property of a substance is a characteristic that does not involve a chemical change. A _______________ property a property of matter that describes a substances ability to participate in chemical reactions.</p> <p>Review Questions:</p> <p>1. How does mass differ from weight?</p> <p>2. Show your work for the following conversions:</p> <p>a. 17.3 s to milliseconds</p> <p>b. 2.56 mm to kilometers</p> <p>c. 567 cg to grams</p> <p>d. 5.13 m to kilometers</p> <p>3. Demonstrate that kg/L and g/mL are equivalent units.</p> <p>Section 3: How is Matter Classified?</p> <p>Objectives:</p> <p> Distinguish between elements and compounds.</p> <p> Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures.</p> <p> Classify mixtures as homogenous or heterogeneous.</p> <p> Explain the difference between mixtures and compounds.</p> <p>Review Questions:</p> <p>1. Describe how an element is different than a compound.</p> <p>2. Identify each of the following as an element, compound, homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture:</p> <p>a. CH4 </p> <p>b. S</p> <p>c. Distilled water</p> <p>d. Salt water</p> <p>e. CH2O</p> <p>f. Concrete</p> <p>3. Describe how a homogeneous mixture is different than a heterogeneous mixture.</p> <p>Chapter 1 Vocabulary</p> <p>1. Chemical </p> <p>2. Chemical reaction </p> <p>3. States of matter </p> <p>4. Reactant </p> <p>5. Product </p> <p>6. Matter </p> <p>7. Volume </p> <p>8. Mass </p> <p>9. Weight </p> <p>10. Quantity </p> <p>11. Unit </p> <p>12. Conversion factor </p> <p>13. Physical Property </p> <p>14. Chemical Property </p> <p>15. Density </p> <p>16. Atom </p> <p>17. Pure Substance </p> <p>18. Element </p> <p>19. Molecule </p> <p>20. Compound </p> <p>21. Mixture </p> <p>22. Homogeneous </p> <p>23. Heterogeneous </p> <p>Holt Chemistry Guided Notes, Chapter 1: The Science of Chemistry Teacher Guide</p> <p>Section 1: What is Chemistry?</p> <p>Objectives:</p> <p> Describe ways in which chemistry is a part of your daily life.</p> <p> Describe the characteristics of three common states of matter.</p> <p> Describe physical and chemical changes, and give examples of each.</p> <p> Identify the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.</p> <p> List four observations that suggest a chemical change has occurred.</p> <p>A chemical is any substance that has a definite composition. A chemical change is the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more new substances. The states of matter are the physical forms of matter which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. </p> <p> solids have a fixed volume and shape that result from the way their particles are arranged. </p> <p> liquids have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. </p> <p> gases have neither fixed volume nor shape.</p> <p>Physical changes are changes in which the identity of a substance doesnt change.</p> <p> Changes of state are physical changes.</p> <p>Chemical changes occur when the identities of substances change and new substances form.</p> <p>Evidence of a chemical change:</p> <p>Review Questions:</p> <p>4. Classify the following materials as a solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature:</p> <p>a. Milk - liquid</p> <p>b. Helium - gas</p> <p>c. Granite - solid</p> <p>d. Oxygen - gas</p> <p>e. Steel - solid</p> <p>f. Gasoline - liquid</p> <p>5. Describe the motion of the particles in each of the three primary states of matter.</p> <p>Solid particles vibrate in place</p> <p>Liquid particles moving, sliding past each other</p> <p>Gas constant, random, straight-line motion</p> <p>6. Give three examples each of physical and chemical changes.</p> <p>Physical change of state, same substance remains before and after</p> <p>Chemical one or more new substances forms, chemical reaction</p> <p>Section 2: Describing Matter</p> <p>Objectives:</p> <p> Distinguish between different characteristics of matter, including mass, volume, and weight.</p> <p> Identify and use SI units in measurements and calculations.</p> <p> Set up conversion factors, and use them in calculations.</p> <p> Identify and describe physical properties, including density.</p> <p> Identify chemical properties.</p> <p>When working with numbers, be careful to distinguish between a quantity and its unit.</p> <p> _____________ describes something that has magnitude, size, or amount.</p> <p> _____________ is a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement.</p> <p>A ______________ property of a substance is a characteristic that does not involve a chemical change. A _______________ property a property of matter that describes a substances ability to participate in chemical reactions.</p> <p>Review Questions:</p> <p>4. How does mass differ from weight? Mass is amount of matter, weight is dependent on the force of gravity</p> <p>5. Show your work for the following conversions:</p> <p>a. 17.3 s to milliseconds | 17.3 s x 1000ms/s = 17,300 ms</p> <p>b. 2.56 mm to kilometers | 2.56 mm x 1 m/1000 mm x 1 km/1000 m = 0.00000256 km</p> <p>c. 567 cg to grams | 567 cg x 1 g/100 cg = 5.67 g</p> <p>d. 5.13 m to kilometers | 5.13 m x 1 km/1000 m = 0.00513 km</p> <p>6. Demonstrate that kg/L and g/mL are equivalent units.</p> <p>Section 3: How is Matter Classified?</p> <p>Objectives:</p> <p> Distinguish between elements and compounds.</p> <p> Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures.</p> <p> Classify mixtures as homogenous or heterogeneous.</p> <p> Explain the difference between mixtures and compounds.</p> <p>Review Questions:</p> <p>1. Describe how an element is different than a compound. Element is composed of a single kind of atom, a compound is different atoms bonded together.</p> <p>2. Identify each of the following as an element, compound, homogeneous mixture or heterogeneous mixture:</p> <p>a. CH4 - compound</p> <p>b. S element </p> <p>c. Distilled water comp.</p> <p>d. Salt water homo. Mix.</p> <p>e. CH2O - compound</p> <p>f. Concrete hetero. Mix.</p> <p>3. Describe how a homogeneous mixture is different than a heterogeneous mixture.</p> <p>Homogeneous is in one phase and uniform, heterogeneous is not in the same phase and is not evenly mixed. </p>