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  • Holocaust Timeline

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    19141918 World War IInvolved a great many combatant nations and caused the deaths of 21 million people

    1918 Germany defeated in World War I

    1919 Versailles TreatyDrafted by Britain, France and the United States and signed on 28 June 1919.Germans resent the peace treaty imposed on them by the victorious Allieswhich forces them to yield territory and pay huge reparations. It also placesstrict limitations on the German armed forces, not only in size (100,000 men)but also in armaments: Germany not allowed to retain an airforce, tanks orsubmarines and could maintain only 6 capital naval ships. Many Germansblame the Jews for their countrys defeat.

    19191933 Weimar Republic

    The German Workers Party becomes the Nazi Party (National SocialistGerman Workers Party Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)

    Hitler becomes leader of the Nazi Party

    The Great Depression begins

    The Nazi Party has the second-largest representation in the Reichstag

    Six million German workers are unemployed

    Nazi Part loses 4.3% of its vote between July and November elections. After months of negotiations with coalition partners, President Paul vonHindenberg agrees to appoint Hitler chancellor of Germany.

    19141932... Before the Holocaust






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    Hitler Youth (boys) Hitler Youth (girls)

    Intensity of German antisemitism andanti-Jewish propaganda increases

    Jews forbidden to work as doctors, dentistsor academics

    Jews forbidden to serve in the army

    Establishment of Buchenwaldconcentration camp

    AntisemiticexhibitionDer EwigeJude (TheEternal Jew),opens inMunich


    A poster for Der ewige Jude

    Gnawing away at the Nations of the World Der Strmer, no. 39, 28 September 1944

    The Nazis often referred to the Jews as insects or vermin. This antisemitic imageis supposed to show a Jew depicted as an insect. In the centre of its eyes one cansee the Dollar sign and the Hammer and Sickle, as it devours the world.

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    A transport of Hungarian Jews on their way to extermination

    Auschwitz-BirkenauThe largest of the camp complexes, it had 40 sub-campsincorporated into the site at Auschwitz-Birkenau whichalso served as a concentration camp, labour camp anddeath camp.

    Murdered at Auschwitz-Birkenau1,100,000 Jewsc.150,000 Poles

    23,000 Roma and Sinti people15,000 Soviet POWs25,000 others _________

    Total number of victims: 1,313,000

    Auschwitz-Birkenau was liberated by the Soviet Army on 27January 1945. They found 7,650 prisoners alive.

    (Data provided by Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum)

    19 March Germany occupies Hungary

    Round-up and deportation of HungarianJews under the direction of Adolf Eichmann

    In just eight weeks, some 437,000 HungarianJews were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.Local Hungarian Nazis called Arrow Cross,murdered thousands more by shooting them,many into the river Danube. It is estimatedthat between 500,000 and 560,000Hungarian Jews were murdered by the Nazisand their collaborators.

    6 June D-Day Allied landing inNormandy

    Start of Death Marches and destruction ofevidence

    24 July Soviet troops liberate Majdanek


    Death MarchesAs the Allies closed in, the Nazis wanted to remove all traces of their murderous deeds in the concentration and death camps.They forced prisoners to march on foot out of the camps back towards Germany. These journeys were known as DeathMarches. Thousands of prisoners, already weakened by starvation, hard labour and ill treatment, perished on the way.

    Death March from Auschwitz to Gross Rosen