history of indian army ord corps ii

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    PROEM

    It was in 1610 that

    the Moghul Governor ofGujrat granted the EastIndia Company of London thepermission to trade at SuratSteadily this ompany startedesta!lishing its trade entres atvarious plaes in India" Eventually# itdeveloped three main head$uarters atCalutta in 16%& for the area whih was

    later alled the 'engal (resideny) atMadras in 16%* for what was to !e+nown as Madras (resideny) and at'om!ay in 16%* for the 'om!ay (resideny"

    ,hese three head$uarters separately ontrolled a large num!er ofmanufatories# warehouses and depots in their respetive areas# and thethree operated somewhat independently of eah other" ,hese three#therefore# developed $uite separately till mid nineteenth entury when allthese three presidenies adopted a uniform administration" ,o evolve any

    oherent historial reord of ordnane servies in India# we shall first haveto trae the random administrative developments in the various Companyentres !efore the 1-&&.&/ reorganisation"

    uring this period# the Company employed a staff of armed peonsand European guards# who were armed with superior $uality of firearmsand gun powder !rought from En# for the seurity and protetion of itsfatories and warehouses" s the Company opened more entres# it startedfortifying the major and important ones of these"

    In 1666# the Company arranged to o!tain stores of different

    desription from England for improving the fortifiations of 'om!ay" ,hisan !e onsidered the first demand ever made from India for ordnanestores"

    In 166-# the Company deided to manufature gun powder at'om!ay" ,hree years later# efforts were made to organise munition wor+ersand enourage artifiers# goldsmiths# armourers and other raftsmen to livein 'om!ay and wor+ for the Company"

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    In 16* the first Master of the 2rdnane was appointed in 'om!ay toommand gunners# mates# artifiers# et" 3e was responsi!le formaintaining all the ordnane instruments in serviea!le ondition# as wellas preparation of hand grenades# gun powder and other firewor+s" ,hus afatory.umarsenal gradually too+ shape at 'om!ay# whih later played avery important part in the e4pansion of the 'ritish Empire in India" "

    ,o protet the fatories and warehouses of the Company againstarmed atta+s# annons and military stores were imported from 'ritain" 5Ioperate these guns and loo+ after the military stores# a rudimentaryorganiation was reated with the Gunner as the head of the 5gun roomrew5"

    ,hese were the days of ontinuous s+irmishes !etween the Marathasand the Moghuls" So# there was a great demand for gun powder and i7provision# manufature and storage were very important from !oth

    ommerial and military points"In 18&6# the rtillery in 'om!ay# rather its 2rdnane was reorganied

    under a Captain Lieutenant of the rtillery# who was to !e assisted !y aLieutenant 9ire wor+er" :nder their administrative harge was the MilitaryStore+eeper who proured military stores loally and supplied these afterharging a ertain perentage of ommission" 'esides the MilitaryStore+eeper# there were the iretor of La!oratory and other assistants",his was the 2rdnane epartment at that time" It provided and heldharge of all aoutrements of war# while the rest of the rtillery mannedthe guns in the !attlefield or elsewhere when neessary# !ut they did nothave them on permanent harge"

    In 18/;# Captain 2live of the Company aptured the 9ort of rot withhuge ordnane stores" ,hen onwards# the Company engaged in ontinuousfighting against the 9renh# 3ydera!ad# Mysore# 'engal# 2udh# theMarathas and the fghans" uring this period# the 2rdnane Serviesdeveloped to a onsidera!le e4tent"

    ,o give an estimate of the 2rdnane strength in 18/%# we give herethe figures from the reord of the 'om!ay (resideny whih state thatthere were &00 ordnanes at that time in the various forts together with 80

    3owiters and mortars# 100#000 round shots# /#000 dou!le.headed shots#1#000 lead grapes# %#000 iron grapes# !esides shells# empties andarasses" /#&%8 stone !alls for mortars# ;1& !arrels of European powderand 1#000 !arrels of ountry powder" "

    In 18/-# an 2rdnane Supply Committee was set up to inspet andsuperintend the issue of 2rdnane stores# espeially powder" ,heonstrution of 9ort

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    ompleted in 1/ years# had the first 2rdnane epot in it"In 186 'engal# 'ihar and 2rissa !e-"=I1e 'ritish possessions" ,he

    'engal rtillery o!tained 1%% serviea!le piees of ordnane with Englisharriages" ,he ne4t year "saw the 'ritish in llaha!ad# as also theesta!lishment of an 2rdnane Magaine or (ar+ there" ,hus# the nuleus5of the future arsenal had ome into !eing"

    In the reords of this year# we find the first mention of 5 Condutors="i"e" two Condutors were now inluded in the strength of eah Company"!esides one eputy Commissary"

    2n - pril 188/# a 'oard of 2rdnane was onstituted in 'engal(resideny# whih for the first time reated an organiation that ouldeffetively ontrol all the stores of the Company rmy" ,he esta!lishment ofthis 'oard was a signifiant historial development and deserves a detailed

    study" ,he offiial history of rmy 2rdnane may !e said to !egin from thisdate"

    ,he esta!lishment of this 'oard of 2rdnane was the first realattempt at organiing an effetive ontrol over military e4penditure with asystemati distri!ution of ordnane e$uipment and military stores to thetroops" ,his was also the first attempt to have an effetive entraliedauthority over 2rdnane"

    ,he 'oard was a high.powered !ody onsisting of the GovernorGeneral# the Commander of the 9ores# one mem!er of the Supreme

    Counil# the Commissary.General of Stores# the Commanding 2ffier ofrtillery# the Chief Engineer# the Military Store+eeper# with a Seretary andassistants" the >uartermaster.General was added to the 'oard# later" ,hegeneral ontrol of stores for the rmy was vested in this 'oard" Its mainduties were ?.

    @aA ,o reeive periodi returns of stores from all Commanding2ffiers of garrisons and antonments and all artillery offiersand other offiers in harge of stores"

    @!A ,o e4erise ontrol over all ontrats for the supply of stores#

    manufature of ordnanes and gun powder proofs of ordnaneand powder in the la!oratories"

    @A ,o santion and pass all military indents for stores"

    @dA ,o e4erise ontrol over the 2rdnane offiers employed at themagaines and arsenals# as well as over the Commissarieswith the troops engaged in operations"

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    ,he 'oard had !een given suh wide powers that its funtioning washampered due to open hostility shown !y the various offiers !rought underits ontrol" s a result# the field system of aounting and returns wasonsidera!ly simplified"

    The Military Board

    In 18-6# the ivil and military administration of 'engal wasreorganied !y the Company" s a result# the 'oard of 2rdnane wasreplaed !y a !road.!ased Military 'oard# omprising the Commander.in.Chief# Engineer# the djutant.General# the >uartermaster.General and theCommissary General

    ,his 'oard e4erised full ontrol over all army stores and e$uipment#and no stores ould !e supplied without its permission" 2nly this 'oardnow had the authority to indent military stores from England" 'ut it did notwor+ independently of the Counil# rather it was a 'oard of 5Beferene andBeport5# whih srutinied every item of e4penditure !ut had nothing to dowith the disipline or the distri!ution of the troops"

    In 1-%0# the Military 'oard was reonstituted and was given ontrol of2rdnane# (u!li

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    ,he Commission started wor+ at Calutta on * 9e!ruary 1-8&" ,heterms of referene for the Commission were as under ?

    @aA ,he Commission was to determine for the whole of India theatual num!ers and sites of arsenals# magaines# depots and

    manufatories with due regard to strategi# military and politialonsiderations# means of ommuniations# loal defeneavaila!ility of s+illed la!our# aessi!ility to the dependenttroops# and eonomy and onveniene of supply from theprimary soure# whether England or India# to eah arsenal#depot magaine and fatory"

    @!A ,he Commission was to define the irle or distrit or militarystations to !e supplied !y eah arsenal# magaine or depot"

    @A ,he Commission was to fi4 the esta!lishment for the effiient

    wor+ing of eah fatory# arsenal# magaine and depot#omparing the present with proposed strength and ost# withdue regard to providing for e4pansion in war"

    @dA ,he Commission was to name the groups of stores andmaterials to !e +ept in eah arsenal# magaine or depot"

    @eA ,he Commission was to e4amine the methods of e4eutivewor+# i"e" supply to the troops and internal eonomy of theinstallations# and to onsider in partiular the system for thesupply of amp e$uipage and ammunition to the army"

    ,he Commission studied the whole ordnane setup in India# visitedall the.(residenies# one after the other# and investigated every $uestion onthe spot" It found that the wor+ing of the 2rdnane departments in Indiawas vitiated !y a parohial outloo+" 2rdnane fatories had !eenesta!lished with a setarian view to satisfy the e4lusive need of eah(resideny and not to serve India as a whole" ,he 2rdnane supplyentres# i"e" arsenals# magaines and depots had developed haphaardlyand without any plan" Many of them had outlived their utility" Moreover# agreat hange had ta+en plae in the relative positions of the (resideny

    nnies? the 'engal rmy had now !eome the most important of all thethree" ,he entre of military gravity had shifted to the (unja! and the orth.

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    report on 8 pril 1-8/"

    Dire#ti$e Pri"#i%le

    ,o find a sientifi approah to the pro!lem !efore it# the Commissionfirst formulated ertain diretive priniples# whih were as under ?

    @iA Eah unit of the army should# as far as possi!le# !eomplete in itself# i"e"# it should have its own ammunition#though not neessarily in its own lines and a properomplement of artifiers with suffiient proportion ofmaterials in regimental stores"

    @iiA ,here should !e a periodial issue of stores from arsenalsto various units instead of the prevailing system ofrandom fre$uent issue of small $uantities"

    @iiiA 2rdnane esta!lishments should ordinarily not !e alledupon to perform duties other than legitimate ordnanewor+"

    @ivA rsenals and depots should not !e multiplied !eyond thenum!er a!solutely neessary for the effiient supply tothe army"

    @vA

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    tomaintain a small siege train apa!le# if neessary# ofe4pansion into a seond.lass arsenal"

    (b) Second-Class Depot: was to ontain only ammunition andentrenhing tools for the dependent troops"

    Magazine:,he use of this term was to !e disontinued"

    ,he ommission deli!erated at length on the hoie of variousstations here the arsenals and depots were to !e loated# and madefollowing reommendations ?

    Present Proposed Remarks

    Are"al9ort

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    !olishedBetainedBetained

    !olishedBetained

    !olishedBetained

    !olished!olished!olished

    De%otera.Ismail.FhanMooltan "Furrahee "'areilly

    graSaugorhmeda!adhmednagarSholapore

    uranga!adEllihpore3ingoly

    .Mooltan @1st lass depotAFurrahee @.do.A

    .gra @1st lass depotA

    .hmeda!ad @1st lass depotA

    .

    .3ydera!ad Contingent

    'ellary

    Cannanore

    ,rihinopoly,hyetmyo

    ,onghoo

    'ellary @;nd lass arsenalA.

    ..,onghoo @;nd lass depotA

    2ther reommendations of the Commission# were as under?.

    @aA ,he Bawul (indi rsenal was to !e ompleted at the earliest"@!A thorough e4amination of the possi!le sites was to !e

    underta+en for the proposed arsenal at Fhundwa"

    @A ,he e4penditure on Mhow arsenal was to !e restrited in viewof the seletion at Fhundwa"

    (d) ew sites were to !e seleted for the depots at (eshawar#hmeda!ad# (oona and 'angalore"

    (e) Bepair and hange of armament of the forts was to !e underta+en"

    (f) :tiliation of the amp e$uipage depot at Famptee was to !efurther onsidered"

    (g) Maintenane of military roads wherever affeted !y thehanges was spelt out"

    (a#torie

    ,he Commission gave similar thought to the loation of the fatories"Eah ategory of fatories was onsidered as under ?

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    (a) Gun-Carriage Factoriee ? ,he Commission reommended thatonly two gun.arriage fatories might !e maintained in India at

    llaha!ad and Madras" ,he gun.arriage fatory at 'om!aywas to !e losed down"

    (b) Gunpowder FactorieB ? ,he three gunpowder fatories atIshapore# Madras and Fir+ee were to !e retained with furthere4tensions !y inorporating mills in eah fatory"

    (c) Small Arms AmmunitionB FactorieB ? ,he two fatories at umum and Fir+ee were to !e retained and the fatory at Fir+eewas to !e e4tended" ,hese were supplying small armsammunitions"

    (d) Foundr H S!ell Factor: ,he only fatory in India whih wasthen manufaturing artillery projetiles was at Cassipore" It was

    to !e retained and e4tended"

    (e) ameBB H Saddler Factor: ,he only suh fatory in Indiawas at Fanpur" ,he Commission reommended inreasedesta!lishment and pant for this fatory"

    Pro#ed*re

    ,he Commission also turned its attention to the tas+ of simplifying theproedures and ma+ing them more sientifi and effiient" It reommended

    a system so well oneived and sound that muh of it survived till 1*1-"Some proedural reommendations are as follows ?

    (a) #$uipment %ableB ? ,he Commission reommended that theE$uipment ,a!les should !e pu!lished for all the !ranhes andunits of the Servie# showing the proportions or periods of weat5for all e$uipment"

    (b) &ndent': ,he Commission reommended that the demands forstores should !e made twie a year and authorised indentsshould !e sent diret to arsenals for he+ and ompliane"

    (c) Condemned Stores: ,he Commission reommended that thestores should !e ondemned only when they !eameunserviea!le" Suh ondemned stores were to !e disposed ofdepartmentally# through pu!li aution"

    (d) eseres: ,he Commission reommended that eah arsenalshould +eep full sale of reserve of all lasses of stores for its

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    own dependeny of troops# and the depots should hold /00rounds per gun and %00 per rifle# together with entrenhingtools for their own respetive dependenies"

    (e) %ransport ? ,he Commission reommended that the

    Commissariat should unnerta+e all transport responsi!ility"(f) Barrac* Furniture H +t!er Supplies: ,he Commission was

    against 2rdnane underta+ing this responsi!ility"

    (g) eceipts and &ssues ? ,he Commission reommended thatthere should !e separate ondutors of reeipts and issues#with full responsi!ilities"

    (!) Gate ,ut ? ,he Commission reommended that in all thearsenals# a warrant or non.ommissioned offier should !eplaed on gate duty !y roster"

    (i) or*s!ops: ,he Commission reommended that in everyarsenal# the wor+shops should !e a separate harge under a 1st

    lass permanent Condutor# with a Staff Sergeant to assist him"

    (*) Camp #$uipage' ? ,he 2rdnane was to provide and supplyamp e$uipments"

    Or+a"iatio" o! Sto#-

    ,he Commission was of the view that in the 1st lass arsenals# storesshould !e divided into eight or nine setions5 or 5!ranhes5# eah in hargeof a

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    @!A the e4tent to whih reserves of suh e$uipment might !e held!y the units should !e defined# and

    @A replaements to the units should !e onduted on a uniformsystem"

    2n the 2rdnane side# it was reommended that ?.

    @aA storage and distri!ution should !e onentrated in a minimumnum!er of large entres# and

    @!A all superfluous# outlying esta!lishments !e a!andoned"

    ,he Commission also laid down the priniples on whih reserves L2rdnane stores in arsenals were to !e alulated" uniform system ofinternal eonomy and proedures for arsenals and depots was alsoformulated" Similarly# the num!er of fatories was onsidered and

    onentration suggested"

    T.E ARM/ IN INDIA COMMISSION, 1870

    9,EB the Great Mutiny of 1-/8# the 'ritish arried out e4tensive reformsin the Indian rmy# in 1-61# to assuage the hurt feelings of Indian soldiers

    and develop a greater sense of loyalty and disipline in them" For morethan two enturies# the 'ritish had now seen the Indian soldier in ationand +new that with right type of inentives and proper onditioning# thissoldiery ould !e !uilt into a mighty fore for the protetion and e4pansionof the 'ritish domination"

    lthough the 1-61 reforms of the rmy were $uite e4tensive !ut stillmuh was wanting as was proved later" ,he first oasion when the Indian

    rmy partiipated in onsidera!le strength in any ation was provided !ythe ;nd fghan

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    made a num!er of reommendations of far reahing signifiane" Its mainreommendation was for the unifiation of the servie !y virtual a!olition ofthe three (resideny rmies# and division of the army into five Commands#vi" (unja!# 'engal# 'om!ay# Madras and 'urma" ,his was not aepted!y the Seretary of State immediately# !ut was implemented muh later# inthe year 1-*/" "

    ,he 2rdnane portion of this report though rather small# was yet $uitesignifiant" 3ere too# the main reommendation was the amalgamation ofthe three (resideny 2rdnane epartments into a single all.Indiaorganiation under a iretor.General of 2rdnane" ,he InspetorsGeneral of 2rdnane for 'engal# Madras and 'om!ay were to !efuntionally responsi!le to the iretor General of 2rdnane"

    nother aspet of the Commission5s reommendation was that !yand !y the fatories5 organiation should !e plaed diretly under theiretor General of 2rdnane"

    ,he upshot of the two ommissions.the Speial 2rdnaneCommission of 1-8/ and the rmy in India Commission of 1-8*.was that in1-- a omplete revolution was !rought a!out in the struture of the2rdnane Servies in India"

    2n 1 pri11--7# the 2rdnane esta!lishments of the three (residenieswere amalgamated into one department# aned the 52rdnane epartment inIndia" ,he department was su!ordinate to the Government of India !ut wasunder the immediate e4eutive ontr01 of the iretor General of 2rdnane# an

    appointment reated for the first time" ,he iretor General of 2rdnane# inaddition to !eing responsi!1e for the effiient wor+ing of the department# !eamethe offiia1 adviser to the Government on all 2rdnane matters"

    ,he department was divided into three ir1es of superintendene andsupply.'engal# Madras and 'om!ay.eah under the harge of an Inspetor.General of 2rdnane" ll the three Inspetors General were p1aed diretlyunder the iretor.General and were now to assist him in the administrative wor+of the arsenals and depots in their respetive ir1es" Eah Inspetor.General of2rdnane was allowed an ssistant) in 'engal# however# a eputy was alsoallowed"

    3owever# in 1-*0# the Government !ifurated the 'engal Cir1e into twoir1es? Eastern and

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    merged into the four ommands"

    ,he first iretor General of 2rdnane @G2A was appointed on 1 pril1--&" ,he iretor.General of 2rdnane had a dual role to play" 3e was !asiallyunder the Military Mem!er of the Counil and yet had to !e an adviser to the

    Commander.in.Chief on 2rdnane matters affeting the rmy" 3e was the offiialadviser to the Government of India on an $uestions of e$uipment and supply ofstores) and on him devolved the duty of providing# holding# and issuing munitionsof war re$uired for the servie of the several !ranhes of the rmy in India" 3ewas responsi!le for the manufature of suh warli+e stores as for whihindigenous prodution had !een esta!lished in the 2rdnane fatories in India"3e was a1so the adviser to the Commander.in.Chief on an 2rdnane matters"

    9or the first time the iretor.General !eame the E4eutive head of anintegrated epartment and thus inevita!ly gained in prestige H authority" 3ee4erised fun ontrol over the staff# deiding their appointments# transfers and

    promotions"

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    Command" It was also round this time that the designation of the Commissary of2rdnane was hanged to that of 2rdnane 2ffier"

    (roof epartment was also set up at 'alasore on 1 pril 1-*6" ,hisepartment arried out proofs of e4plosives# ammunition and even of ordnane"

    ,his esta!lished the priniple that one and the same ageny should not !e maderesponsi!le for !oth its manufature and $uality testifiation"

    Im%orta"t Or+a"iatio"al Cha"+e

    3arness and Saddlery

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    Saddlery

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    ,he e4periment# however proved short lived for in 1*0* Lord Morley#the then Seretary of State for India# 5as a measure of eonomy# a!olishedthe Military Supply epartment" 3eneforth# the Commander.in.Chief hadfull ontrol over the rmy" ,hus for the first time in history# the 2rdnaneServies ame to !e administered !y the Commander.in.Chief"

    (ACTORIES ADMINISTRATION

    ,3E year 1-*- forms an important landmar+ in the evolution of2rdnane Servies as it was in this year that the administration of thefatories was removed from the jurisdition of the several Inspetors.General of 2rdnane and onentrated under the diret ontrol of theiretor General of 2rdnane in India" In many ways this was a logialdevelopment# as the 2rdnane organiation had !y then !eome too large

    and speialiation was needed in !oth fields# i"e"# the arsenals and thefatories"

    ,he year 1-*- also witnessed an interesting development in thegeneral administration" Influened !y the e4ample of :F the Government ofIndia deided to institute an ageny for the inspetion of e4plosives"

    Early in 1-**# two Carriage E4aminers from the Gun.Carriage9atories at 9atehgarh and 'om!ay were detailed to inspet artillerye$uipment with the troops" ,his was pro!a!ly the first open reognition !ythe 2rdnane Servies in India of their responsi!ility for the ondition ofe$uipment @other than small armsA in the hands of troops" It was alsoanother step in the differentiation !etween inspetion and manufature#whih su!se$uently led to the formation of a separate inspetion servie"

    )ro6th o! the (a#torie

    Sine the East India Company# and later the 'ritish Indian rmy hadintimate lin+s with England# the rate of growth of the 2rdnane fatories inIndia was# to a large e4tent# affeted !y the systems of transportation andommuniation with England" uring the 18th H 1-th enturies when

    ommuniations with England were prearious# it was onsidered essentialthat India should !e self suffiient in the matter of supplies e4 warli+estores" ordingly# esta!lishment of fatories in India reeived greaterimpetus" In the latter part of the 1*th entury# however whenommuniations with England improved# the dependene upon England forthe supply of artillery# small arms and ammunition inreased" ,he fator ofinreasing omple4ity of armament stores was perhaps# also responsi!le

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    on its rollK5)"

    Metal a"d Steel (a#tory

    ,he history of the Metal and Steel 9atory !egan with the eretion of aSiemenss Martin open hearth steel plant at the 9oundry and Shell fatory#

    Cossipore in 1-*;" In 1-*6 a rolling mill was ereted" In 1*00# the Iron andsteel furnaes and the steel !ar mill were moved to Ishapore# 'y 1*0/# thefatory started manufaturing as a !ranh of the Gun Shell 9atory"Lyddite'(illi"+ (a#tory

    In 2to!er 1-** it was deided to e$uip the two Indian /"&= howiter!atteries# 6= howiter of the orthwest 9rontier defenes as we! as Indianoastal defenes with lyddite shell" 9or that a shell filling fatory wasesta!lished as a !ranh of the e4isting small arm ammunition fatory atFir+ee" It started operating in 2to!er 1*01"

    Small Arm Amm*"itio" (a#torie

    ,he two Small rm mmunition 9atories at um um and Fir+eeontinued to do useful wor+ and ma+e good progress"

    The .ar"e a"d Saddlery (a#tory

    ,he 3arness and Saddiery 9atory at Fanpur was esta!lished in1-/*" As the Fanpur fatory was una!le to meet the ever.inreasingdemands of the whole army# another fatory at Madras was esta!lished in1-*-# from the nuleus provided !y the 3arness and Saddlery

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    9renh" ,he 'ritish Government adopted the interrupted review srewsystem of !reeh loading" In 1--% the first all.steel 'L gun.a 1; pdr 8 wtmade its appearane"

    ,owards the lose of the nineteenth entury the 9renh and the

    German armies were issued a new field gun with highly aurate rapidfiring" ,he famous 9renh 8/ mm gun made its appearane in 1-*8 andushered in the modern era of field artillery" ,he advent of this gun made thefield artillery of other ountries o!solete" ,he priniples of the 9renhonstrution# espeially the reoil mehanism# were +ept a seret# and itwas not until

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    epartment after its formation an !e separated into % ategories ?

    (i) Commissioned 2ffiers# 3onorary Commissioned 2ffiers

    (ii)

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    5Store.holders5 @e4ept that of the

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    system of onduting reliefs !y road @whih often meant a marh of threeor four monthsA# provided une$ualled opportunities for training"

    'ut the South frian war !rought a!out a hange of attitude) itwidened the horions of military thought and ativity" o longer ould a

    system# whih after all was !ased mainly on the onditions of frontierwarfare# suffie as the main field of military e4periene"

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    9urther the reorganiation of 1*11 !rought many alterations inonditions of servie !oth of Boyal rtillery 2ffiers and the departmentalran+s" ,he former were given the !enefit of a time sale of pay# a very realImprovement on the former graded list system" ,he

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    Gun.Carriage 9atory#a!alpur

    Cordite 9atory#ruvan+adu

    3arness H Saddlery

    9atory# Fanpur Bifle 9atory# Ishapore

    Bangoon No9; Char+eGun Carriages 3>a!alpurGeneral Stores Charges3> Fanpur

    (roof H E4perimental2ffier# 'alasore#Chief ChemialE4aminer# ainital

    ,he esta!lishment of Boyal rtillery 2ffiers of the Indian 2rdnaneepartment in 1*11 was as followa ?

    iretor General of 2rdnane 1

    eputy iretor General of 2rdnane 1

    ssistant iretor General of 2rdnane 1

    iretor of 9atories 1

    eputy iretor of 9atories 1

    iretor of Store 1

    eputy iretor of Stores 1

    eputy ssistant iretor of Stores 1

    iretor of Inspetion 1

    ssistant iretor of Inspetion 1

    "Superintendents of 9atories 8

    ssistant Superintendents of 9atories 1%

    ssistant iretor of Stores# of rsenals 82rdnane 2ffiers ;%

    Inspetion %

    (roof 2ffier 1

    2rdnane 2ffier in Inspetion -

    ssistant 2rdnane Consulting 2ffier 1

    at India 2ffie

    Total < 7;

    In 1*0-# the Indian rmy had !een organied into two armies# theorthern and the Southern"" (rior to

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    2rdnane Servies"

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    reruits for the offier as well as the non.ommissioned ran+s" ,hedespath of 2rdnane 9ield (ar+s to 9rane# Mesopotamia andmisellaneous personnel to other theatres onstituted a severe drain on anesta!lishment whih was# in any ase# not designed on a generous sale"oung offiers" and non.ommissioned offiers found themselves inresponsi!le positions" ,han+s to their sound training# they a$uittedthemselves well"

    REOR)ANISATION O( 1018

    9,EB the "end of the Great war in ovem!er 1*1-# the Indian2rdnane epartment had to get through the stupendous tas+ of disposingof aumulations of war materials# and evolving a peae time order out ofthe haos of war and its aftermath"

    s the heavy war.time re$uirements tapered off# the Indian Munitions'oard was a!olished and was replaed !y the Indian Stores epartment inanuary 1*;;# a peae.time organiation for the purhase of storesre$uired !y the various departments of the Government of India"

    Reor+a"iatio" o! 1018

    'earing in mind# the de!ale in Mesopotamia# the Government ofIndia re$uested the 'ritish Government to depute a senior offier of the :F

    rmy 2rdnane epartment to report on the desira!ility and pratia!ility ofmodifying the Indian 2rdnane system to onform to the pattern in the =:F"Major General 3 (erry# was seleted for this speial assignment"2n 1 Marh 1*1-# he presented his report" General (erry5s +eyreommendations were as follows ?

    @aA ,hat the administration of the arsenals should !e separatedfrom other 2rdnane Servies and the ontrol of these arsenalsesta!lishments should !e transferred from 2rdnane to the>uarter Master General"

    @!A Clothing and ertain general stores dealt with !y Supply and,ransport group should !eome artiles of 2rdnane supply"

    @A ,he designation of iretor of 2rdnane Stores !e altered tothat of iretor of E$uipment and 2rdnane Stores"

    s a result of these reommendations on 1 pril 1*1-# the then retorof 2rdnane Stores !eame iretor of E$uipment and 2rdnane Store

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    under the >uarter Master General" ,his virtually meant that the fatoriesorganiation# whih remained under the iretor General of 2rdnane

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    general improvement in the storage onditions in arsenals and depots inIndia"

    S*%%ly o! Clothi"+

    1; Clothing epots @administered !y the E2SA were opened for

    !ul+ storage and retail issues" Steps were also ta+en to standardie thestores purhased from the trade upto an 2rdnane standard"

    ,he iretor of E$uipment and 2rdnane Stores also too+ over thesupply of !oots" 'oot epot was opened at Fanpur to store !ootsreeived from the trade"

    (ORMATION O( T.E INDIAN ARM/ ORDNANCE CORPS

    s a result of the 1*1- reorganiation# the Indian ordnane

    epartment was split into two separate entities" ,he manufature andinspetion @during the ourse of manufatureA of lethal weapons and othermilitary e$uipments# e4ept lothing# !eame the responsi!ility of theiretor General of 2rdnane" ,he erstwhile Stores 'ranh# +nown as2rdnane and Clothing Servies# !eame the harge of the iretor ofE$uipment and 2rdnane Stores ontrolled !y the >uarter Master Generalin India" It was on the histori day of 1- uly 1*;; that the 2rdnane Corps#as it is +nown today# too+ the final shape and got organied as a self.ontained !ody# having the status of a epartment and designated as the

    5Indian rmy 2rdnane Corps5" ,he Corps was to !e ommanded !y theiretor of E$uipment and 2rdnane Stores @E2SA under the overalladministrative ontrol of the >uarter Master General in India" Its funtionswere to o!tain army supplies of 2rdnane Stores and E$uipments from the2rdnane 9atories and other soures as well as their storage anddistri!ution to the troops" It was also responsi!le for the manufature#storage and issue of lothing to the rmy" ,he e4isting arsenals# 2rdnanedepots and lothing depots as also the lothing fatories# formed part of theCorps" ,he E2S was also made responsi!le for the inspetion of2rdnane e$uipment and lothing in the hands of the regular rmy# the

    Boyal ir 9ore and the u4iliary and ,erritorial 9ores"

    ,he E2S was assisted !y two eputy iretors# one in eah of theCommands e4ept 'urma# and a eputy ssistant iretor in eah militarydistrit"

    ,he Inspeting 2rdnane 2ffiers for ammunition and e4plosives#and Inspetors of Mahinery# loated in various arsenals inspeted artillery#

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    2rdnane vehiles and onneted e$uipment in the areas allotted to them"Civil Chief Master rmourers inspeted small arms# mahine guns and!iyles" n Inspetorate of General Stores was loated at Fanpur#onsisting of a Chief Inspetor of General Stores# an Inspetor of 3arnessand Saddlery and Inspetors of Clothing# and lothing stores# suh as un.manufatured material" ,here was also a (roof and E4perimental 2ffier toproof he+ ordnane# artillery# vehiles and ammunition made in India" ,hefinal shape of the two epartments as they e4isted in 1*;; will !e learfrom the followings?

    ,he Indian rmy 2rdnane Corps was organied as follows ?

    rmy 3>

    >MG

    E2S

    (ead of t!e &ndian Arm +rdnaru:e Corps)

    s 2S istrits s 2S Commands Inspetorate of General Stores

    Are"al Ord"a"#e De%ot Clothi"+ De%ot>(a#torieagraden 'om!ay 9ort uetta (eshawar

    Bawalpindi9eroepore

    llaha!adFir+ee

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    Bangoon>uettaMadras

    ,he Indian 2rdnane epartment was organised as follows ?

    2rdnane 'ranh @rmy 3>A

    G2

    Indian 2rdnane epartment

    2rdnane Consulting 2ffier in India 2ffie in :F"

    iretor 2rdnane 9atories iretor of 2rdnane Inspetion

    Inspetor of Gun.Carriage H Jehiles# a!alpurInspetor of Gun H Billes# IshaporeInspetor of mmunition# Fir+ee(roof 2ffier# 'alasore

    ChemialInspetor# Fir+ee

    mmunition 9atory#um um

    mmunition 9atory# Fir+eeCordite 9atory# a!alpurGun H Shell 9atory#

    Cossipore3arness H Saddlery9atory# FanpurBille 9atory# IshaporeMetal H Steel 9atory# Ishapore

    I"dia"iatio"

    In 1*;; the 2rdnane Servies were thrown open to offiers!elonging to a: !ranhes of the army" lso# it was deided to turn the

    2rdnane into a purely Indian rmy department" ow offiers# aftersuessfu:y ompleting % years5 pro!ation in the 2rdnane# !eameoffiers of the Indian rmy"

    Dire#ti"+ Sta!!

    In 1*;6 a hange in nomen1ature was introdued insofar as theterm 5dministrative 2ffier5 was hanged as the ireting Staff"

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    ppointments to the ireting Staff of the loe were to !e made fromoffiers of a: !ranhes of the servie# whether serving in India orelsewhere"

    Time'S#ale Promotio"

    In 1*;8 a time sale of promotion was introdued for departmentaloffiers#

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    Mater )e"eral o! S*%%ly

    ue to finanial diffiulties# the report ould !e implemented only !ythe end of 1*;%" ,he Government favoured the minority reommendationfor the appointment of Surveyor.General in harge of prodution under the

    Commander.in.Chief" As no suita!le ivil offier ould !e found# it wasdeided to have a military offier# for whom the title 5Master General ofSupply5 was seleted"

    ,he Master General of Supply was to ontrol the 2rdnane fatoriesinluding lothing fatories" ,he 2rdnane 'ranh at rmy 3ead$uarters#under the iretor General of 2rdnane was renamed Master General ofSupply 'ranh and it ontrolled the iretorate of 9atories"

    Mater )e"eral o! Ord"a"#e i" I"dia

    ,he a!ove organisational setup !rought a!out in 1*;& did not provesatisfatory !eause of the dual ontrol of the >MG and the MGS" 2n 1/une 1*;*# therefore# the offie of MGS was a!olished and the first MasterGeneral of 2rdnane in India was appointed" ,he entire 2rdnane Serviese plaed under him" 3e was diretly responsi!le to the Commander.in def",his that the Indian rmy 2rdnane Corps# so far funtioning un er the>MG# now ame under the MG2"

    Dire#tor o! Ord"a"#e Ser$i#e " "

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    In addition there was a 2S @(rovisionA# a Staff5 Captain and a,ehnial 2ffier @(rovisionA"

    Ord"a"#e at Other Le$el

    9ollowing offiers were attahed at various levels to advise on

    2rdnane matters ?

    @iA Il 2S at Command 3ead$uarters

    @iiA 2S at istrit 3ead$uarters

    @iiiA 'rigade 2rdnane

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    Boutine espath Cler+s . 1*1

    CORPS AT T.E O4TBREA O(

    ORLD AR II 10;03

    I 1*%-# two ommittees were appointed to review the situation in Indiaand ma+e reommendations for the mehaniation and moderniation ofthe Indian rmy" 2ne was presided over !y Lord Chatfield and its report ispopularly +nows as the Chatfield Committee Beport" ,he other wasappointed !y the Commander.in.Chief in India" General uhinle+# and is+nown as the Moderniation Committee or the uhinle+ Committee"

    ,hese ommittees made many reommendations !ut !efore these ould!e implemented the Seond

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    BlSC personnel was 110 administrative offiers# /6 departmental offiers#/8- 'ritish uetta# Bawalpindi# 9eroepore#llaha!ad and Fir+eeA and / epots @9ort

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    was entralised at rmy 3># the 2S also had under him a (rovisionSetion"

    rsenal had !een well organised !y 1*%1" o further importanthanges too+ plae" ,he following harts will indiate the typi-"1

    organisation of an arsenal"

    OR)ANISATION O( T.E ARSENAL 4NDER T.E COO

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    ard @2ld ivision IJA

    Inspetion @2ld iovision IIA (rodut H Sales @2ldivision JIA

    ,he Senior 2rdnane Mehanial Engineer# who was the C22stehnial advisor ontrol the following organiation?.

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    the arsenals during

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    s$" ft" of overed aommodation and inluded o ;0/ Indian'ase 2rdnane epot whih was to hold one month5s supply ofgeneral stores and lothing items of indigenous supply# andthree months5 supply of imported stores for the entire fore of;0 ivisions" 'y mid of 1*&& the depot was handling 1%#000tons of stores per month" large ammunition depot and ane$ually large vehile depot were also esta!lished at (anagar" Inaddition# an ammunition depot was developed at 'anaras as apart of this Beserve 'ase to feed up to / ivisions operating onthe northern line" 'y mid 1*& 'anaras depot was maintainingas many as - ivisions"

    @!A No reer$e Bae at A$adi "ear Madra39 ,his Beserve'ase was developed with &/0#000 s$" ft" of aommodationand had o" ;06 Indian 'ase 2rdnane epot whih heldwarli+e stores inluding mehanial transport spares for theentire fore of ;0 ivisions" speial responsi!ility of this epotwas to prepare speial pa+ages of stores for amphi!ianlanding operations +nown as Landing Beserve Sets and 'eahMaintenane (a+s @LBSs and 'M(sA" large Jehile epotwas also esta!lished in this Beserve 'ase" n mmunitionepot# as part of the Beserve 'ase# was esta!lished atGummudipundi at a distane of ;6 miles from Madras"

    @A No 5 Reer$e Bae'altair "ear ia+a%al"am3" :nli+e the

    other two Beserve 'ases# this was an e4tensive e4port transit!ase with ;/0#000 s$" ft" of transit storage" 2nly an 2rdnaneStore and mmunition ,ransit epot was esta!lished here" ,hisepot was a stand.!y arrangement in the event of a !rea+downof the Calutta port"

    @dA S%e#ial (or#e De%ot9,wo speial depots were installed.theSpeial 9ore epot at gra for holding speialied e$uipmentfor the

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    Ne6 De%ot

    2rdnane had to fae an aute shortage of storage aommodationduring

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    iretorate and the transfer of the saling Setion @MGIS.;&A to the

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    with $uestions of poliy and top seret and seretorrespondene"

    @!A (lanning 'ranh was responsi!le for maintaining depotstatistis and ating as an =effiieny !ureau= on systems and

    proedures"@A dministrative 'ranh loo+ed after the Military Esta!lishment#

    the Civilian Esta!lishment# epot 9inane# the Seurity Setion#the 9ire 9ighting# the ,ransport Setion# the Medial InspetionBom#

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    @gA epot ounts 2ffier handled the store aounts in a depotand was also responsi!le for sto+.ta+ing"

    @hA (reservation 2ffier loo+ed after pest ontrol"

    @iA 2rdnane 2ffier# Beturned Stores epot ensured smooth

    handling of reeipts from the units"

    Sta"dardiatio" o! Pro#ed*re

    ue to rapid e4pansion during the war and enormous inrease in therange of stores held !y the 2rdnane Servies# oupled with untrainedstaff# ertain wea+nesses unavoida!ly rept into the 2rdnane system" ,oeradiate the shortomings# two 'ritish offiers were !rought to India as(lanning dvisers" fter a short tour of some depots and arsenals# theysu!mitted a report" in Septem!er 1*&;# suggesting that a system ofplanning and statistial ontrol should initially !e introdued at one depotwhih would fun5"12n as a training esta!lishment for prospetive planningoffiers for other depots ordingly# in ovem!er 1*&;# a (lanning Cell ofthe 2rdnane Shool

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    overing normal peae wastage# initial re$uirements of new units#authoried inreases in sales and ertain learly defined reserves"(rovision was made for eah finanial year on the stritly limited !asisditated !y finanial onsiderations"

    In Septem!er 1*&0 a system of 9orward (rogramming was evolvedto plae demands in !ul+ for antiipated re$uirements to over the initiale$uipment for new units# maintenane and reserves for the period right upto marh 1*&%" ,his ena!led the Supply epartment to plan prodution andpurhase on a long term !asis"

    De#e"traliatio" o! Pro$iio"i"+

    In Marh 1*&% the provisioning was deentralied so that the atualalulations were arried out at the main holding site5 of the relevant stores#i"e# the various Central 2rdnane epots" ,he only e4eptions were the

    General Staff 5Controlled5 stores.mainly weapons# vehiles# ammunitionand main tehnial e$uipments# and ertain important general stores"3owever# the provisioning poliy and diretion ontinued to !e vested in theStores Setions of the 2rdnane iretorate and instrutions wereonveyed to (rovision 2ffiers in C2s through periodial diretives"

    A*tomati# S*%%ly o! S%are

    s the range and types of new e$uipments inreased and soures ofsupply were e4tended to llied and 'ritish Commonwealth ountries# alarge measue of automati maintenane was adopted" ,his amounted to aonurrent and automati supply of spares and onneted stores# andsu!se$uent periodial maintenane of all supplies of urrent and newe$uipments reeived in India"

    (ormatio" o! Pro$iio", Coordi"atio" a"d S*%%ly Se#tio"

    ,he (rovision# Coordination and Supply @(CHSA Setion of the MG2'ranh was formed early in 1*&1 under the ontrol of a 'rigadierdesignated 'rig (CHS" ,his setion provided a lin+ !etween the rmed9ores India @i"e" all (rovision 'ranhes of rmy# aval and ir 9ore

    head$uartersA and the epartment of Supply" It was finally wound up inuly 1*&6"

    I"dia" M*"itio" Ai+"me"t Committee lMAC3

    ,he Government of India had agreed to the esta!lishment of anIndian Munitions ssignment Committee in India in anuary 1*&%" It

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    onsisted of (a) Master General of 2rdnane in India# (b) Controller#General rmy (rovision @Eastern GroupA) @A eputy Chief of General Staff#and (d) ,wo merian mem!ers"

    ,he KMC ativities were not onfined only to munitions# !ut it had

    jurisdition over all general stores and their provision and supply" Itontrolled the total Indian prodution of suh stores# and the distri!ution ofsurplus "left over after meeting India5s own re$uirements" ,he KMC wasa!olished on 1 ovem!er 1*&/"

    Pro$iio" o! ehi#le a"d Related Store

    In 1*%- the M, fleet onsisted of a!out /00 vehiles inludingreserves of various ma+es and types reeived from the :F" Soon after theaeptane of the Chatfield Committee Beport# additional vehiles wereordered" ,he M, fleet then started e4panding steadily and !y 1*&/ it had

    soared to %/0#000 vehiles of various ma+es" ,hen it was passed on toIEME"

    ORDNANCE (IELD 4NITS AND DEPOTS

    Ord"a"#e (ield Com%a"ie

    uring the war# there arose a need for immediate 2rdnane serviein the different theatres of war" So# five 2rdnane 9ield Companies wereraised and dispathed to different theatres of war" Later# another 2rdnanefield Company was raised and dispathed to Ira$" In 1*&1 reinforements

    were sent to onvert the two 2rdnane 9ield Companies in Ira$ into anIndian dvane 2rdnane epot"

    Bae a"d Ad$a"#e De%ot

    t the end of 1*&1# two new units# an Indian 'ase 2rdnane epotand an Indian 'ase mmunition epot were raised and sent to Ira$" 9romthese two units# an Indian dvane 2rdnane epot and an Indian

    dvane mmunition epot were also raised in 1*&;" In addition the Indianrmy 2rdnane Corps dispathed the following depots overseas and toother operational areas ?

    @aA 2ne Complete 'ase 2rdnane epot and one 'asemmunition epot to Sudan in 1*&0"

    @!A n 2rdnane epot to den in 1*&0"

    @A 2ne 'ase 2rdnane epot# one 'ase mmunition epot andan dvane 2rdnane epot to 'urma in 1*&1"

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    @dA Beinforements# e$uivalent to a 'ase 2rdnane epot and andvane epot to 'urma in 1*&1"

    @eA n 2rdnane 9ield epot to Malaya in 1*&1"

    @fA ,hree 'ase 2rdnane epots# three dvane? mmunition

    epots# and a num!er of other small units to ssam and East'engal during 1*&;.&&"

    Ord"a"#e (ield Par-

    o 2rdnane 9ield (ar+s e4isted at the start of

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    !een raised" Meanwhile# in uly 1*&; the Salvage iretorate was set up!ut 2rdnane Servies ontinued to have the overall responsi!ility"

    Mo&ile Amm*"itio" 4"it

    In 1*&%# the 2rdnane Servies too+ over the responsi!ility for the

    inspetion# maintenane and repair of all ammunition and e4plosives in theservie" ,wenty Mo!ile mmunition La!oratories and ;& Mo!ile

    mmunition Inspetion :nits were raised" In 1*&/# these two types of unitswere amalgamated to form a new unit +nown as 5Mo!ile mmunition Bepair:nit5 whih was allotted one per ivision"

    Port Ord"a"#e a"d Amm*"itio" Deta#hme"t

    t the end of 1*&%# (ort 2rdnane etahments and (ortmmunition etahments ommanded !y (ort 2rdnane 2ffiers and (ortInspeting 2rdnane 2ffiers# respetively# were formed to advise the do+personnel on all tehnial matters onneted with the handling of 2rdnaneStores and ammunition onsignments" 9ourteen suh detahments wereraised"

    T.E ORS.OP BRANC.

    9B2M the earliest times the 2rdnane Corps had !een responsi!lefor provisioning# repairing and maintaining all 2rdnane stores"

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    with a view to lose down ertain depots after the war"

    3owever# as the news of the rapid progress of the Indian troops in'urma started oming in and after the Indian troops# entry in the ity ofBangoon on ; May 1*&/# orders were given that all low priority projets !e

    re.e4amined and a!andoned even if with ;/N of ompletion unlessonsidered vitally neessary" So# e4pansion programme was drastially utdown espeially in ase of Jehile epots" E4pansion wor+s for ;0/ I'2#C2 Fanpur# and planned wor+ at C2 gra# were allowed to ontinue"Closing of epots and Centraliation of Sto+s

    9inanial stringeny made it neessary to lose down depots whihwere not re$uired in the postwar period" nother way to redue the num!erof sto+.holding installations was to entralie sto+s" So# it was deided toonentrate M, spares and warli+e tehnial stores in as few depots aspossi!le# prefera!ly one per Command" ,o illustrate this# we may give the

    e4ample of the Southern rmy where it was deided to onentratetehnial stores of armaments and signal range at 2rdnane epot#seundera!ad" M, spares for the orth merian vehi1es and 55vehi1es spares were to !e issued from C2 ehu and its su!.depot atFir+ee# respetively" Similarly# M, spares for vehi1es of the :F origin wereto !e held at the Command 2rdnane epot at Fir+ee" ,his poliy wasontinued later in respet of general stores and 10thing also"Conentration of

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    PARTITION AND ITS E((ECT ON T.E CORPS

    ,3E interim government whih was esta!lished in India to prepare for

    the transfer of power# set up a ationaliation Committee under SirGopalaswamy Iyengar towards the end of 1*&6" It was deided that the twoself.governing dominions of India and (a+istan would ome into !eing on1/ ugust 1*&8" ,he old Indian rmy was to !e split into the Indian rmyand (a+istan rmy"

    ,he iretor of 2rdnane Servies of the undivided army at that timewas Maj 2en ouglas"ones" fter the partition# the appointment to thepost of the 2S was su!ordinated to that of a 'rigadier and 'rig SA) Shri F Ghosh# ddl @9 @GA and 'rig

    autam Mitra# JSM# as % Corps# visited the Indian Institute ofManagement @IlMA hmeda!ad in Marh 7*-6 and after deli!erationsre$uested 11M hmeda!ad to ondut a study on 2rdnane systems witha view to identify the steps to ut down inventory levels and redue ost ofdistri!ution" ,he study team omprised the following mem!ers ?

    @aA (rofessor marlal 3 Falro

    @!A (rofessor ayant F Satia

    @A (rofessor ra!inda ,ripathy

    ,he team was assisted !y Maj Gen B( garwal# JSM @now Lt GenB( garwal# (JSM# JSMA and Lt Col JIP Sa4ena in advisory apaity" ,he11M study team after visiting depots gave their presentation on ;8Septem!er 1*-6" ,he gist of their reommendations is summarised!elow ?

    @aA Pro$iio"9 ,he (rovisioning proedure needs to !e suita!lymodified"

    @!A Pro#*reme"t9,his should !e deentralised to the lowest levelpossi!le for seleted ivil end use items"

    @A Stora+e9 (roper storage fai1ities and modern materialhandling e$uipment were reommended"

    @dA Di%oal" isposalsalvage operations need to !e !othrationalised and deentra1ised"

    @eA Tra"%ortatio"*Boad transport to !e used where possi!le"

    ,o implement reommendations# the team suggested the followingourse of ation ?

    @aA eentralised# omputer !ased5information systems"

    @!A 'asi hanges in organisational struture"

    @A Badial improvement in wor+ systems and ulture"

    ,he study team suggested the following areas for further detailedstudies ?

    @aA Bedution of lead time for purhases"

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    oneived in 1*6;" (unh Card Mahine System was proposed for C2#elhi Cantt" 3owever# this proposal never materialised as in the meantimeEletroni ata (roessing Systems was planned for the 2rdnane"

    6.mem!er ll rms 9easi!ility Study ,eam @ontaining one

    2rdnane 2ffierA was appointed in 2to!er 1*68 to identify andreommend areas for automation at rmy 3ead$uarters" s a result of thereport of this team# an Eletroni ata (roessing @E(A Centre wasesta!lished at the rmy 3ead$uarters" ,he 2rdnane 2ffier onduted thestudy at 2rdnane iretorate"

    n E( (ilot (rojet was esta!lished in C2 elhi Cantt in une1*6-# with the mandate to ondut the feasi!ility study for !ringing %#000items of issan spares on the E( system" ,his team developed thesoftware for the reeipt# issue and provision systems" 3owever# !efore

    these systems ould !e tested# the team was dis!anded in 1*8;"In 1*8 an Implementation ,eam was santioned to implement these

    systems" ,his team got into position in 1*8/ and developed# tested andproved all the five !asi systems of issue# reeipt# provision# dues.in andaounts and onduted parallel runs on /#000 items of issan spares in1*88" 9or re.writing these developed systems into the E( !asedproedures# an E( (roedures ,eam was appointed in 1*86"

    In uly.1*8* a full fledged E( 'ranh at C2 elhi Cantt"omprising ;; offiers and a staff of ;&* personnel was santioned" ,he

    team was to 7nderta+e development of the remaining systems and !ringthe entire InJentory of C2 elhi Cantt under automation" ,he team hasautomated reeipt# issue# provision# aounts# dues.in# dues.out# indentvalidation# sto+ ta+ing and (CH( funtions overing over &%#000 [email protected] dead and o!solete itemsA" ,he rest is planned for automation in1*-6.-8 when a suita!le hardware enhanement @under prourementAis"provided at the E( 'ranh# C2 elhi Cantt for handling the additionaldata"

    plan was prepared !y the General Staff at rmy 3ead$uarters for

    omputerisation in the whole rmy overing all 2rdnane depots so that inthe not too distant future# we will see omputers operating in various2rdnane depots holding vital inventory" ,o spread omputer literay in the

    2C and to generate E( trained manpower for underta+ing automationwor+ in various depots# a Mini Computer for the CMM a!alpur has !eenproured installed the CMM is urrently onduting 'asi ( ourses forall personnel of 2C to meet the trained manpower re$uirements"

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    Palletiatio"

    2ne of the far.reahing deisions ta+en to modernise 2rdnanedepots was to introdue the onept of palletisation# whih proposed thatmaterials !e handled in lots instead of one at a time" dvaned ountries

    and armies li+e the :S rmy and the B2C have laimed that the greatestsingle gain in industrial handling effiieny has !een ahieved throughpalletisation"

    well planned and metiulously e4euted palletisation programmehas the following advantages ?

    @iA Inreased storage apaity in the same area througheffiient use offloor spae and inreasing the sta+ [email protected]# e4ploitation ofthe third dimension# as they say it in themanagement jargonA"

    @iiA Bedution in handling osts"

    @iiiA Shortening of loading and unloading time"

    @ivA Elimination of inauraies in aounting of stores andsimplifiation of inventory ontrol"

    @vA Elimination of damage to goods"

    @viA Minimum hanes of pilferage in storage and transit"

    @viiA Elimination of e4pensive onveyor system"

    @viiiA Less interruptions and !ottlene+s"

    @i4A Less aidents and greater safety in handling heavystores"

    @4A :niform and even plaement of sta+s"

    (alletisation of small arms ammunition was tried in C (ulgaon# ehu Boad# 18 9 and 'haratpur in 9e!ruary 1*-&"

    (alletisation an only !e !rought a!out if the proper material handlinge$uipments are availa!le" 9or this purpose#5 an amount of Bs" two rores

    was !udgeted for the period 1*-0.-/ towards 5Modernisation of 2rdnaneepots"5 2ne.third of the amount was intended for the G29forpalletisation of seleted ammunition items while the rest of the amountwas for prouring the material handling e$uipments" ,he money wasreleased !y the Government in 9e!ruary 1*- and the material handlinge$uipment was proured and distri!uted to ammunition depots in ugust1*-/"

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    ,he railways are designing a suita!le wagon design for pallets#whereafter a design for pallets would !e finalised and manufature started"

    Store .o*e

    Most of the sheds and overed aommodation in depots are of

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    lead iime and avoid dou!le handling" ,o find an effetive solution# a studyteam was appointed in 1*-6" ,he study team !roadly ategorised thestores into four types ? as those whih lent themselves to?.

    @aA ,he lassial transportation model#@!A ,he onsignment model#@A ,he traditional model @multi.ehelon supply [email protected] o form of transportation model"

    ,his ategorisation sorted out the pro!lem and the study team thenmade useful reommendations" Sine these reommendations involveseveral agenies and re$uire high.teh infra.struture# their implementationwould ta+e time" ,he study team has therefore identified suh measures asan !e implemented !y the 2rdnane on its own# without muh delay" Morestudies are however re$uired into the other aspets of the matter"

    Li!e Cy#le Co"#e%t !or 4"i!ormIn 1*-% the rmy made an important hange !y issuing new uniforms

    as well as starting a new system of their replaement on the life yleonept"

    ,he new uniforms have two sets now# i"e" one for om!at usage andthe other for non.om!at usage" ,hese uniforms have !een designed to !emore funtional and more eonomial for the ountry in the long run"

    ,he earlier system of replaement of lothing in the !asis ofondemnation has now !een hanged to reissue of the items after a periodof time fi4ed on the !asis of their average life" ,he life of an item has !eenfi4ed on the !asis of its average wear and wastage# intensity of usage indifferent areas# its intrinsi dura!ility# authorisation sale# views of formationommanders and its availa!ility and attrativeness" fter the end of thisfi4ed life of an item# the reipient inum!ent automatially !eomes eligi!lefor the reissue of the item" ,he life yle system assures ontrol overonsumption whih provides a sound rationale to !ase foreasts whihould not !e done ade$uately for the system of ondemnation"

    Sele#ti$e I"$e"tory Co"trol

    In pril 1*- the 2rdnane iretorate issued instrutions toimplement on an e4perimental !asis# provisioning# prourement andsto+ing of stores pertaining to Catalogue Setions C%# G;# 3I#

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    lassified as items# the ne4t ;0 per ent as ' and the remainder as Citems" ,he trials was to last for si4 years with a mid term review after threeyears"

    ,he levels of supervision inluded progressing of dues in# judiious

    1earene of dues out# sto+ ta+ing and its onneted ations anddetermination of repair priority in BSS" ,he fre$ueny of review was fi4edas one a year for items# one in two years for ' items and one in threeyears for C items and the M( refi4ed aordingly" ll (B9s# dues in ards#aounts ards and dues out ards were to !e prominently enfaed withthe letter # ' or C as applia!le in red" etailed instrutions for the systemof review and phasing of deliveries were issued"

    Seletive inventory ontrol when applied throughout# an only add tothe effiieny of the Corps"

    Carto">Corr*+ated Bo Pa#-i"+ ? ,o eonomi in the seast of pa+ing#the 2rdnane iretorate re$uested the 001 to introdue artonsorrugated !o4es instead of the wooden !o4es for pa+ing of ordnanestores" 'y eem!er 1*-%# the B2 had designed pa+ages for (i) SoapIndustry# (ii) Mugs ename11ed# (iii) Lanterns hurriane# (i) 'oot an+le# ()Shoes anvas# and (i) 'oot ru!!er +nee"

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    9s# and others"

    In view of the errati power supply.rmy 3ead$uarter is alsoonsidering to provide stand !y power supply e$uipment for thesemahines in loations where the pro!lem is more aute"

    D)O( B*d+eti"+

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    'esides# rores of rupees worth inventory was lo+ed up and wasdepreiating gradually"

    s a one.time measure to dispose of this unwanted inventory# theGovernment ofIndia santioned the formation of the Speial Surplus Storesisposal Committee @SSSCA" ,he Committee was given a life span of oneyear from the date of its omposition"

    Composed in uly 1**1# the SSSC has !een a!le to identify over%8#000 tons of surplus stores of an estimated value of rupees /8 rores#lying with different depots"

    ,he formation of the SSSC also !eame the ause for anotherlandmar+"

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    ,he Central viation epot was reated in CJ elhi Cantt in9e!ruary 1**0 for managing inventory funtions" Begional viation [email protected] at 1 92 and % 92 along with four rmy viation Liaison [email protected] at 'arra+pore# 'angalore# 3ydera!ad and Lu+now were alsoreated from within the Corps resoures"

    Initial training for seleted offiers and men was organised at the ir9ore aademy and ir 9ore Station 'elgaum" Su!se$uently# CMMa!alpur too+ on the responsi!ility" ,wo ourses of viation EngineeringSpares Management @ESMA were onduted" ,hereafter the su!jet has!een merged in the sylla!us of the MM @,SA Course"

    Inventory of aviation spares at present is of a range of appro4imately1;#000 items" ,he value of spares and the effet of non.availa!ility on theoperational effiieny of the rmy has posed a hallenge" 2C is gearing

    up to meet this hallenge"PRESENT COLONEL COMMANDANTS

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    PEACE ESTABLIS.MENTS

    Ce"tral Ord"a"#e De%ot, A+ra

    Sine long !efore

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    types of fast moving !atteries are onveyed diretly !y the firms to theforward sto+ing ehelons" Several minor detahments have startedfuntioning in the C2 sine its raising as per the dates given againsteah" L2 . 1/ 2to!er 1*/%) ClI.1 9e!ruary 1*61) CIL.;% 9e!ruary 1*68)Signal Liaison Cell 1 uly 1*68) ,G 1&.;; Septem!er 1*8;) 'EL LiaisonCell.1 Marh 1*8& and MG 1*.%0 Marh 1*-K"

    In 1*68# outlying su! depots e4ept one in gra 9ort# were loseddown" 2ver years store houses of various sto+ group got mi4ed up" ,osort out this mess up a vast reorganisation plan was put into ation inanuary 1*-6" Storage aommodation was realloated and reorganisationstarted" Beently the unit mandir has !een shifted to an impressive new!uilding" ,he depot5s Main Gau# has also !een sprued up"

    uila wasthe seat of 2rdnane ativities even !efore the ommenement of theoffiial history of the 2rdnane Corps" It was loasted in the 7rea" !ehindthe present ,own 3all of 'om!ay oupied today partly !y" Indian aval'arra+s and partly !y aval rmament epot

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    in the magaines of the main depot while the other ammunition ande4plosives were stored on the 5'uther5s Island a!out si4 miles from it" ,hissite was eventually handed over to the avy" Similarly# there were some 18miles from 'om!ay" ,his site funtioned as a su! depot of 2rdnaneepot" 'om!ay# right through

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    the 2 'om!ay @SewriA was also shifted to this loation as C2 '[email protected]" Sine there were now two major 2rdnane Installations in oneStation within a distane of only %.& +ilometres e4pedieny ditated theirmerger" So the two depots# i"e"# C2 Malad and 2 'om!ay @SewriA wereamalgamated and redesignated as C2 'om!ay on 01 pril 1*88"

    C2 'om!ay is responsi!le for provisioning of tyres# ,u!es# 9+aps#Busts# Bim

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    Ce"tral Ord"a"#e De%ot, Deh* Road

    ,his epot was raised in ugust 1*&; primarily to reeive returnedstores from 'urma" 3owever# later in 1*&%# it was onverted into a Central2rdnane epot for M, spares of vehiles of orth merian origin"

    'eauK?5e of its pro4imity to port 'om!ay# it was ideally loated to reeivelarge onsignments of spares a under the automati Maintenane (a+system"

    uring

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    store these and other suh onsignments# fifteen !lo+s of temporarysheds and two !lo+s ofparmanent sheds inluding one air.ooled shedomprising an area of ;6# /1/ s$ ft for storing ru!!er items wereonstruted !y Septem!er 1*&1" 'y this time# the administrative staff of thedepot had already gathered and G3> had issued orders to move all M,spares pertaining to vehiles of 'ritish origin from Cha+lala to this epot#,his was the start of the elhi epot"

    Some general stores and lothing from depots li+e llaha!ad#Bawalpindi# Lahore and Shahjahanpur had to !e diverted to this infantdepot just to relieve ongestion in those depots" 'y the !eginning of 1*&;appro4imately /#%60 tons of stores had !een reeived in this depot and !yMarh 1*&; there was further heavy influ4 of frustrated argoes divertedfrom Singapore# Malaya and 'urma" t this stage it !eame a!solutelyneessary to relieve this depot of general stores and lothing" ordingly#another depot was reated at Sha+ur!asti and all general stores andlothing held in C2 elhi Cantt# were transferred to Sha+ur!asti" lso# theJehile Beeipt Group of the depot was moved to an adjaent area +nownas 5the 2val5"

    ow the depot performed entral depot responsi!ility for sparespertaining to all vehiles of 'ritish origin @LJ .8 'ritish Setion of voa!ularyof 2rdnane StoresA and all ommon user items of M, falling in LJ6 M,Setion" It also had ommand and holding responsi!i3ties for an M,Setions of orth5 merian origin for whih the entral responsi!ility rested

    with C2 ehu" It also !eame the Central epot for the entire mahineryof the Indian rmy !elonging to

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    ,here was a sharp rise in the epot holdings of vehiles from!a+loadings after

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    D*ri"+ orld ar II, other ammunition depots were set up ataushera# Fala# Fasu!egu# rnla# ehu# (anagarh and Gummudipundiwith a CentMLinmunition epot at (ulgaon" 9rom then on# this depot isfeeding the units in Madhya (radesh and :ttar (radesh only"

    ,o meet war time re$uirements a Central 2rdnane epot for smallarms# artillery and transportation stores was onstruted here" ,he C2was also to funtion as a ommand depot for lothing and general storesas well as for anti.gas stores# tim!er and pa+ing ases" Similarly harnessand saddlery# tentage and !arra+ stores were ta+en on !y this depotpending the esta!lishment of C2 Fanpur"

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    2n the setting up of a Command epot at llaha!ad# the Commanddepot funtions of 2 @in respet of Eastern CommandA were transferredto L with effet from 1 uly 1*60" mmunition Su!.epot of the C2has !een given additional responsi!ility of storagelinspetion of missiles"Some magaines of mmunition Su!.epot have !een aironditioned foraommodating missiles" system Su! epot has !een set up in 2 forthe 1// mm gun to ena!le issue of orret items along with the maine$uipment for easy identifiation and loation"

    Ce"tral Ord"a"#e De%ot, a"%*r

    s a se$uel to the poliy deision ta+en during

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    Ce"tral Amm*"itio" De%ot, P*l+ao"

    Central mmunition epot (ulgaon was esta!lished to hold largeonsignments of ammunition from the :F and :S" It was loated at the!ase of the ean (eninsula whih !eing entral to the entire ountry" ,he

    area had hard soil# good rail ommuniations and ade$uate waterresoures" ,he epot started funtioning on 16 May 1*&;"

    ,he depot was oneived as an Inter.Servie projet for storage ofe4plosive" ,hus# !oth the avy and the ir 9ore had their detahmentswith this depot till 1*&8 and 1*81 respetively whereafter the depot !eamea singl e servie =en tity"

    In 1*&&&/ the depot played a very important role in supplyingammunition to the South East sia Command for the offensive againstapan" t the end of the war the depot faed a giganti pro!lem of disposal

    of unwanted surplus ammunition through !rea+down# demolition ordumping in the deep sea" uring this phase on 1& pril 1*&6 the depot hada major e4plosion involving 6/% tons of ammunition" It too+ nearly twoyears to lear at the !linds from the area"

    ,o provide permanent aommodation here onstrution of%/e4plosives storehouses and 1% magaines was underta+en in 1*6%"Constrution of more magaines# ammunition la!oratories# wor+ers#anteens and living aommodation was underta+en during 1*66 to 1*81"

    Sine Independene the depot has played a vital role during thevarious onflits" uring the Chinese aggression in 2to!erlovem!er1*6;# the depot issued as muh as 1*#000 tons of ammunition in less thantwo months" ,his amounted to loading 1;/0 wagons and running of ;1speial trains" uring the (a+ aggression in Septem!er 1*6/# the depotwor+ed round the lo+ and issued appro4imately 1*#000 tons ofammunition in one month in all time reord" In ovem!ereem!er 1*81the depot supplied appro4imately 1-#000 tons of ammunition in twomonths" t the end of 1*81 operations# this depot reeived more than 1000tons aptured ammunitions# this depot reeived more than 100N inspetion

    and very areful handling",he depot saw another major aident on / May 1*8; whih too+

    plae when !o4es ontaining grenades 3E %6 M were !eing loaded into alorry" ,he e4plosion aused detonation of the other ammunition lying on theplatform and appro4imately.1I6 tons of aptured ammunition and 6- tons ofother ammunition was destroyed" ,hree wor+ers were +illed on the spotand another three were injured" 2ne three.ton lorry and two railway

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    wagons were ompletely destroyed" fire also !ro+e out in the epot on 1&pril 1*-% and raged the whole day engulfing over ;00 ares" ,he em!erssmouldered for % day" heroi fire fighting effort was put up !y military andivilian personnel whih ensured that neither any property nor ammunitionwas destroyed"

    9rom 1/ uly 1*/- the depot also too+ over the all India provisioningof non.e4plosive stores from C2 a!alpur" In 1*/* an Italian firm wasgiven the ontrat to arry out the !rea+ down and !oiling out ofammunition" 'y adopting this new method# valua!le metal worth rores ofrupees was saved" Later the mahinery used !y this firm was purhasedfrom it and the *& depot esta!lished itS own Central 'rea+down :nit whihhas !een funtioning smoothly eversine and thousands of tons ofammunition has !een !ro+en down and !oiled out"

    ,o provide eduational failities for the employees5 hildren the epothas a Central Shool and a La!our Camp 3igh Shool and unior College"Ce"tral Loadi"+ Plat!orm' Central Loading (latforms are underonstrution in the depot to ena!le entire speial trains to !e loaded orunloaded at the same time"

    )ol! Co*re9 'y the main artery of the amp a si4 hole Golf [email protected]!le 1- holesA has !een arved out" ,he layout is so good that the"ourse has !een reognised !y the Indian Golf :nion in 1*-/"

    Ce"tral Armo*red (i+hti"+'/ehi#la De%ot, ir-ee

    ,he onstrution of Fir+ee rsenal was started in 1*0/ andompleted in 1*08" uring

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    Jehile Group was later designated as Jehile Su! epot of C2 elhiCantt and with wartime e4pansion its holdings reahed 8#000 vehiles !y1*&&"

    ,he need for a proper Command Jehile epot at elhi Cantt was

    aepted !y t"he Government in 1*&-" In uly 1*/; when only 10 sheds outof the &0 proposed had yet !een onstruted# the holdings targets of thedepot were drastially saled down to &00 55 vehiles# /000 5'5 vehiles#1/00 motoryles and 1;00 trailers" In 1*/& the proposed holdings wereagain revised down to a total holding of 6#;%0 vehiles of all types"

    ,he depot eased to !e Jehile Su! epot of C2 elhi Cantt from1 ugust 1*/8 and was given the independent status of Jehile epot for

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    Command" fter the hostilities in 1*&/# the Jehile Beserve Groupe4periened a heavy influ4 of vehiles# whih it ould not handle with theavaila!le resoures" So an outlying Jehile (ar+ had to !e esta!lished at2ndal# %- Fms away" So heavy were the reeipts that this Jehile (ar+ hadto have su! depots at irsa @*6 FmsA han!ad @1;- FmsA and '[email protected];8% FmsA" ,he holding of these su! depots inreased very rapidly and !y1*&8 the total holdings at different stations e4eeded ;/#000 vehiles with2ndal heading the list with more than 11#000" It was then onsideredprudent to transfer the administrative ontrol to 2ndal and the JehileBeserve Group (anagarh !eame Jehile epot# 2ndal on 1 pril 1*&8"

    ue to several administrative hanges at (anagarh 'ase#onsidera!ly overed aommodation was released at (anagarh" So on 1

    pril 1*&-# (anagarha was reommended as the loation for the Jehileepot 2ndal as wen as the IEME

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    laim with pride its assoiation with ontemporary history" ,he first(resident ofIndia# r" Bajendra (rasad stayed in 2rdnane epot

    llaha!ad in 9e!ruary 1*/& to partiipate in the Fum!h Mela" 3e used theCommandant5s offie as his residene and the adjoining terrae as a viewpoint" ,he terrae is now popularly +nown as 5(resident5s (oint"5

    Ord"a"#e De%ot, Cal#*tta

    ,his depot is the diret desendant of the Grand rsenal of 9ort

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    'ut the Government aepted the reommendations of the E4pertCommittee and issued orders on * Septem!er 1*-0 for the dis!andment of2 Calutta !y %1 anuar"y 1*-1 and transfer of speified num!er of staffto 2 llaha!ad and C2 'om!ay"

    ue to large sale representations from the ivilian wor+ers of thedepot as well as other elements with politial overtones# the deisionremained pending onsideration at the Ministerial level till anuary 1*-%when the Government issued orders that there would no retrenhment andalternative employment would !e provided to loally ontrolled employeesof the 2 Calutta"

    ording to the revised orders issued on 6 anuary 1*-%# 2Calutta was now to !e dis!anded !y %0 un 1*-%" ,he ivilian wor+ers ofthe depot filed a writ petition in the Calutta 3igh" Court against the

    proposed dis!andment" In the mean time# the Eastern Command unitswhih were dependent on 2 Calutta e4periened great diffiulties" Sothe rmy 3ead$uarters realised the need for retaining the depot"

    ordingly the government ofIndia too+ the deision not to lose down thedepot" 2rdnane epot Calutta# now stands reativated" 2ne of our oldest2rdnane esta!lishments has displayed its staying power and has survivedagainst heavy odds"

    Ord"a"#e De%ot, Math*ra

    2rdnane epot# Mathura was raised in Septem!er 1*&%=!y Maj

    3M Edwards# B2C# for holding the ever inreasing tonnage of generalstores and lothing reeived from the near!y 2rdnane Clothing 9atory at

    gra and from trade through the 2rdnane Inspetion epots at elhi#Morada!ad and igarh" fter

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    In aordane with the reommendation of the Frishna BaoCommittee# this epot was losed on %1 eem!er 1*8*"

    Ord"a"#e De%ot, Sha-*r&ati

    ,his depot started life in 2to!erovem!er 1*&; as a holding su!

    depot of C2 elhi Cantt whih at that time had a setion for generalstores and was getting heavy reeipts offrustrated argoes from Singapore"Later# when C2 elhi Cantt assumed its proper role of C2 spares of5'5vehies of 'ritish origin# the general stores setion was shifted toSha+ur!asti"

    In une 1*&% this small stores setion of elhi Cantt was reorganisedas a holding depot for general stores and othing on !ehalf of C2sFanpur and Chheo+i" ,he depot e4panded further during 1*&& and 18more sheds were added" 'y this time it had also assumed another very

    important responsi!ility of t5he reeipt# storage and pa+ing of 'eahMaintenane (a+s and Landing Beserves re$uired for amphi!ianoperations ontemplated in the South East sia Command"

    t the end of

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    diverted to other depots" 'y 1*&& the epot had e4panded to its optimumsie and had three su! depots loated at ehu# 'egedewadi andGhorwadi"

    fter

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    time5# helped the5 ivil authorities for ontrol of flood= to whih this area ispartiularly prone" ,hus in 1*68# 1*6*# 1*80 and 1*8/ the dppot undertoo+life saving missions during heavy floods" 2ther great jo!s done !y thisepot was when it helped in E4tinguishing two fire5s in the5 Feoladeoational (ar+# a !ird santuary near!y# in 1*-/"

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    Amm*"itio" De%ot, Deh*

    ,his was the first depot to !e raised in ehu during

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    ompleted only on ;/ 9e!ruary 1*/6"

    ,heseond e4plosion too+ plae on 16 ovem!er 1*i1 aK 1%// hours#in the mmunition ,ehnial rea where unseniea!le detonators o" ;8were !eing segregated" CSF and seven ma2doors died on the spot" ,h;

    first day only three !odies ould !e reovered as the others lay underheavy de!ris with detonators strewn around and remaining !o4es filled withsimilar detonators sattered all over" wall of empty ammunition !?V4esfilled with earth was !uilt all roun the !uilding" 3eavier de!ris inludingonrete pillar !lo+s and ross !ar were removed !y remote ontrol withthe help of a rane" It too+ %/ days of easeless effort to lear the entirearea" !efitting monument# in the memory of those eight wor+ers who laiddown their lives has !een onstruted in the depot" In 1*8/# mmunitionepot ehu was tas+ed to !rea+down and replae the E4ploder SafetyLo+ @ESLA of all 100 MM 3E, ammunition held !y the depot# CC HShool hmednagar and rtillery Shool# eolali" ,he depot !orrowedsome mahinery from CI Fir+ee and loally manufatured a num!er of+eys and tools and repaired thousands of rounds in reord time"

    Amm*"itio" De%ot, Pa"a+arh

    ,his depot was raised on 1/ 2to!er 1*&% as part of the o"%Beserve 'ase" In 1*/1 it was made an independent ammunition depot" Itv"itnessed a very serious aidental e4plosion in 1*&/ when a whole shedwas !lown up resulting in t!e loss of a num!er of lives"

    In the post

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    multifarious funtions inlude C2 role for ertain missiles" ,o savetransportation osts# responsi!ility of !ul+ reeipt and distri!ution of ertainlothing items from Ludhiana and (anipat# on !ehalf of C2 Fanpur# has!een assigned to it""

    1 (OD1 2rdnaned 9ield epot was ordereed to !e raised in C2 elhi

    Cantt# on 1% anuary 1*&-# on realisation of the inade$uay of the ad hodetahment of B 9ore 2rdnane 9ield (ar+ for sustaining operationsagainst the raiders in the Fashmir Jalley" fter raising it was moved toammu where it started funtioning from 1- anuary 1*&-" In 1*/8# it wasshifted further orth" 2n 11 pril 1*/-# it was redesignated as 1 9ield2rdnane depot"

    returned vehiles (ar+ started funtioning within the premises of 1

    29 from ;/ Marh 1*&*" 2n %1 Marh 1*// it was shifted to (athan+otand merged in the 2rdnane ,ransit Group"

    1-0 mmunition etahment whih was raised as part of 1 29 wasonverted in 1*6% to 1/ 9ield mmunition epot"

    2n the raising of orthern Command in une 1*8;# the tehnialontrol over the depot was transferred from '2C

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    Slll!,uri was !ifuratBd into two 2MCs in earlyU *6%" ,he 2MC in orthern'engal was rt5organised into / 92 in une 1*6%"

    G (OD

    [email protected] Communiation Qone Su! rea 2M( was raised on ;&

    eem!er 1*6- to providt5 2rdnane over to formations of SouthernCommand" ,he 2M( t#"as a omposite unit with an 2rdnane Stores(latoon" It was reorganised into 6 92# in situ on * une 1*8; and newfuntions as one of the Begional epots in Southern Command"

    0 (OD

    1 Corps ,roops 2rdnane 9ield (ar+ rais7d at llaha!ad in 9e!ruary1*6/ was suessively reorganised as 1 Corps 2rdnane Maintenane(ar+ in Septem!er 1*6/ and as 1 Corps 2rdnane Maintenane CompanyE4atly a year later" In ovem!er 1*8 the unit was reorganised into *92"

    ,he unit was moved thrie" 9irst from llaha!ad to an operationalloation in

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    were now onverted into su!.depots and the installation did Comen servieduring the period of the Chinese atta+" ,his was the first 9 to !e raisedafter independene"

    2n ;0 pril 1*-%# 1& 9 thwarted the attempts of some

    unsrupulous elements in ssam to steal e4plosives from the depot"15 (AD

    unng the H F operations in 1*&-# a small detahment aned 1-0mmunition etahment was raised as a part of 1 29 to hold %#000 tensof ammunition" ,he responsi!ilities of the detahment inreased with timeand in 1*6% it !eame a separate entity as 1/ 9ield mmunition epot"

    ,he (rime Minister# Late Shrimati Indira Gandhi# visited 1/ 9 in May1*-%"

    1G (AD/; 2rdnane Maintenane (latoon was raised in 1*/-" uring the

    Chinese aggression in 1*6; the unit was upgraded to /; 2rdnaneMaintenane Company" Later# /; 2MC was !ifurated into two 2MCs) /;2MC and /- 2MC" In une 1*6% the two 2lRlCs were raised into / 92 H16 9 respetiveiy"

    In une 1*6%# the ammunition sto+s of /; and /- 2MCs weretransferred to 16 9"

    17 (AD

    2n 8 Marh 1*/0# two Independent mmunition (latoons startedrrosing at mmunition epot Gurgaon" 2n 1% Marh 1*/0# o"1 H ;(latoons were despathed to holewal"BS handari Falan nearLudhiana" Su!se$uently# o"% Independent (latoon was rrosed at 'easand o"& and / Independent (latoons were rrosed at Suranussi in 1*/;",hese platoons formed part of erstwhile % 92 Suranussi" In ovem!er1*/-# these five Independent platoons were formed into 11 mmunitionCompany with 3ead$uarters at holewal" 11 mmunition Company wasresponsi!le for holding large sto+s of ammunition"

    n mmunition (latoon of 11 mmunition Company partiipated inthe Goa operations in eem!er 1*61 with distintion"

    In une 1*6 11 mmunition Company was redesignated as 18 9with its 3> and 1 S to !e loated together at the main loation# ; Sloated at Suranussi and % S loated at 'eas" 3> and 1 S movedfrom holewal Camp in 1*80" ,wo more Ss were opened at Fasu!egu

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    and Moga in 1*6/ to meet the operational re$uirements" S Fasu!eguwas handed over to a Corps 2MC in une 1*6* and S Moga washanded over to erstwhile 3issar in uly 1*8%"

    n ammunition detahment was esta!lished at !ohar at a very short

    notie !y this depot during 1*81 ations" ,his detahment was later movedto 'hatinda and su!se$uently merged with erstwhile 3issar inSeptem!er 1*8;"

    ; S and % S of 18 9 were reorganised into ;% 9 and ;6-&/6 mmunition (latoons !eame ; S of this depot from 1/ eem!er1*8*"

    uring the 1*81 war with (a+istan ; S of 18 9 was !om!ed !y

    the (a+istan ir Force'

    18 (AD1- 9 was raised in the first wee+ of Septem!er 1*6fA at Suranussi

    and moved to its operational loation on 6 Septem!er 1*6/" In ovem!er1*6/ the depot too+ over the mmunition (latoon of 1 Corps 2MC" ,hiswas redesignated as ; S @1- 9A" ; S was handed !a+ to 1 Corps2MC in early 1*6* !ut again ta+en over !y 1- 9 in 1*81" n mmunitionSu! epot at 'eas was also part of 1- 9 !etween 1*6* and 1*8%"

    ,he (a+istan ir 9ore tried to !om! the depot during the 1*81 war!ut al tne !om!s fell outside the perimeter and no damage was done"

    10 (AD

    1* 9 was# one time Su! epot of % 9# reorganised as an 9 inSeptem!er 1*81 to provide ammunition over to the Eastern Setor" ,hedepot ompleted its raising at arangi and in 2to!er 1*81# it was movedw thf. antiipated operational area where it esta!lished two su!.depots at,eiamurra and :daipur# separated !y a distane of 1/0 +ms" ,he railheadwas also 1/0 +ms away from the nearest su!.depot" uring the 1& days ofatual operations# this depot handled appro4imately 1/#000 tons ofammunition# with all issues made only at night"

    fter the suessful ompletion of the operations in 'angladesh thedepot !a+loaded all its sto+s to rear depots within two months# whihInvolved handling of 16#000 tonnes" ,hereafter# it moved from the farthestend of Eastern Command to a new loation in Southern Command.;&00+ms aR where it too+ over the ammunition held !y erstwhile 61 2M( @692) anti esta!lished five far flung su! depots" / S was# however#

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    losed down in anuary 3455'

    :1 (AD

    ; 92 had an mmunition Su! epot with it sine its raising" ,heS was moved to another loation# appro4imately 80 +ms away in 1*/0"

    ,he S of ; 92 served as the nuleus for the raising of ;1 9ieldmmunition epot in une 1*8;" ,he depot also too+ over all theammunition from 66& 2MC and ;1 mmunition Company# units whih have!een dis!anded"

    ,he S was atta+ed !y enemy raiders in the 1*6/ Indo.(a+

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    ,he ivisional 2rdnane :nits were C==eated in 1*-0 !y merging thefollowing ?

    . 3> C2C

    . ivisional 29(2MC2M(

    . Mo!i1e Cinema Setion @MCSA

    . Mo!i1e mmunition Bepair Setion @MBSA

    . ry Cleaning Setion @CSA

    . 'rigade 2rdnane 2ffiers with respetive 'rigades"

    'efore 1*-0 the unitselements were independent# having their ownesta!3shments e4ept 'rigade 2rdnane 2ffiers who were on thestrength of their respetive 'rigade 3ead$uarters" ,he reation ofivisional 2rd"nane :nits !rought a!out savings in manpower and moreimportant# hannonious# oordinated and purposeful funtioning of the2rdnane servies in the field formation"

    ,he Independent 'rigade 2rdnane 9ield (ar+s2rdnaneMaintenane Companies were also redesignated as 'rigade 2rdnane:nits 2nly /0 :ndepA (ara 'rigade 29( was permitted to retain its olddesignation for historial reason"

    Army Liaio" Cell

    ,he rmy Liaison Ce11 was reated 'angalore on 1/ 2to!er 1*88",he ativities of the ce33 involve monitoring of prodution at the (rivate

    setor :nits li+e 'harat Eletronis# Indian ,elephone Industries# 3industanelepnnters# MIC2# MEC# MC2 et"# as per the nny5s demands"

    Mai"tai"a&ility Ad$iory )ro*% 6ith COOS

    1* Maint"H""ll1a!i3ty dvisory Groups @MGsA were raised inovem!er -0" ,he role of an MG is to?.

    (a) Monitor maintenane and repair parameters as laid down inGS>B"

    (b) Identify re$uirements of SM,s and test e$uipments"

    @A (repare EMEBs and other tehnial douments"

    (d) (repare sales "

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    (e) Investigate defets and wor+ out modifiations" (f6 ssessre$uirements of speial training ourses"

    MGs are manned !y EME personnel and are loated in thepremises of manufaturers# s3S(# 'ase

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    COLLE)E O( MATERIALS MANA)EMENT

    AND AOC CENTRE

    Colle+e o! Material Ma"a+eme"t,he College of Materials Management was instituted as the 2C

    Shool in 2to!er 1*;/ on a temporary !asis shape as a permanentesta!lishment only in 1*;8 and was loated near the mmunition 9atoryat FIr+ee and was loated near the mmunition 9atory at Fir+ee and wasdesignated as the l2C Shool of Instrution"

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    the 55 Jehiles Cell at C9J Fir+ee# and the rmament Su!

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    Separate ourses for diret entry 2rdnane 2ffiers @ivilianA#mmunition ,ehnial 2ffiers# Material Management# Civilian (ersonnelManagement and >