History of Australia. The Aborigines Historians believe the first humans arrived in Australia between forty thousand and sixty thousand years ago. They.

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New Research on Migration Patterns


History of Australia The Aborigines Historians believe the first humans arrived in Australia between forty thousand and sixty thousand years ago. They traveled from Southeast Asia. They first settled in northern Australia. They may have used boats or walked across land that once connected Australia to Asia. New Research on Migration Patterns First Route to Australia Europeans later called these people Aborigines, which means from the very first. Aborigines formed many different groups that lived in different parts of Australia. They spoke different languages. They developed their own cultures. Early Aboriginal Culture Aborigines usually lived and traveled in small groups called clans. Clans included one to five families. They shared a common language and religion. Neighboring clans often traded food, tools, and other goods. Hunters and Gatherers Early Aborigines were hunter-gatherers, They hunted kangaroos, possums, turtles and seals. They used bones, wood, and stones, to construct tools and weapons for hunting. They used nets and harpoons to catch fish. In the Outback, Aborigines used spears and boomerangs to hunt. A boomerang is a piece of carved wood thrown by hunters at their prey. Many Aboriginal tribes also gathered edible fruits and plants. Religion and Art The religious beliefs of the Aborigines centered on the environment. Their myths explained the creation of the world and the origin of plants and animals. Aborigines used dances and songs to pass stories from generation to generation. Early Aborigines valued art. They added charcoal and colored dirt to pint their bodies. They painted pictures on rocks, trees, and other surfaces too. Their ceremonies features dances, songs, and instruments. The Aborigines made baskets and necklaces. They also liked to tell stories to entertain and pass down their beliefs and history. European Exploration and Colonization Captain James Cook In 1770, an English explorer, Captain James Cook, arrived in Australia. He claimed the territory for Great Britain. Most of the early European visitors only stayed temporarily. They traded with the native populations, but did not try to take their land. They tended to have peaceful relations with the Aborigines. Guns and Disease Europeans traded many things in Australia. Sometimes they brought advanced European weapons. Advanced weapons made wars between Aboriginal peoples deadlier than ever before. European also brought diseases. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, European diseases killed thousands of Aborigines. Does this remind you of any other "New World" situations? The Prison Colony In the late 1700s, a new group of Europeans arrive. Unlike previous explorers and traders, these people came to stay. In 1788, Britain sent one thousand people to settle in Australia. Most of these settlers were prisoners. The Prison Colony As cities in Great Britain grew, so did crime. Great Britain decided to use Australia as a prison colony. Prisoners performed hard labor until they finished their sentences. Eventually, more than one hundred fifty thousand British prisoners lived in Australia. Many remained in Australia after their release. Colonial Conflict Australias usable land was limited. Colonists in Australia needed space to build prisons, farms, and towns. In many cases, they simply took the land they needed from the Aborigines. Hostility between the settlers and the Aborigines increased between 1840 and A number of violent battles occurred. Because of their advanced weapons, the British settlers usually won. Gold For years, Europeans believed that large amounts of gold existed in Australia. Some people sold all of their possessions to travel to the continent in search of wealth. A gold rush began in the late 1850s that brought tens of thousands of foreigners to Australia and surrounding islands. The growth in population caused by the gold rush made Australia very wealthy. The Aborigines did not share in the prosperity. Australian Independence In 1931, Great Britain passed a law giving Australia the right to be an independent nation. Australia became an independent country in 1942 after it voted to accept the new law. POP QUIZ Question 1 What is the Australian Outback? a. a steakhouse b. the northern shores of the continent c. the center of the continent which is desert d. the ocean around Australia Question 2 Captain James Cook is famous because he A.Claimed Australia for Great Britain B.Started a prison colony in Australia C.Discovered gold in Australia D.Led Australia to independence Question 3 Native inhabitants of Australia are known as A.Aborigines B.Native Americans C.Colonists D.Missionaries Question 4 Which of the following existed among the Aborigines before Europeans arrived? A.Guns and alcohol B.Smallpox C.Religion and art D.Prisons Question 5 European weapons and diseases had which of the following effects on native populations in Australia? A. They allowed Aborigines to get rich B. Wars became deadlier, and many natives died of diseases C. They helped natives increase their immunity to diseases and defend their land against colonists D. Diseases did not hurt native populations because they were immune to them Assignment: Australia Map Labeling using Google Maps


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