History of art n design (week 3)

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HISTORY OF ART AND DESIGNBy Assoc. Prof.Hj. Mohamed Ali Abdul Rahman&Erry Arham AzmiFaculty of ART AND DESIGN , UNISEL , session 2011 / 2012CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 3: NATIONAL CULTURE AND HERITAGE 3.1 National Museum of Malaysia And National Visual Art GalleryIn order to keep younger Malaysian generation aware of their own cultural heritage, two institution of art were set up immediately after the independence of Malaya.

The National Museum and National Visual Art Gallery ( before 2011 recognize as National Art Gallery) are responsible for the collection, documentation and conservation of all artifacts and artworks that reflect Malaysian values.

3.1 National Museum of Malaysia The National Museum, locally known as Muzium Negara, has four galleries on both the first and second floors.

On the first floor in both the east and west wings are located cultural, archeological and historical collection and evidence of the existence of early civilization from the Neolithic age until present day.

There are many other smaller and older museum that controlled by several state such as Malacca, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Johore, Penang, Kelantan, Terengganu, Sarawak and Sabah.

ObjectiveResponsible for preserving, conserving and disseminating knowledge about the countrys historical, cultural and natural heritage in order to create awareness among the people of the countrys rich heritage of history, multiracial cultures and natural environment to create a harmonious society with high moral standard and to assist the government in promoting and developing the tourism industryVisionTo become the leading museum institution in AsiaMissionTo collect and preserve significant museums collections.

To produce and document research work on museums collections and exhibitions.

To organize various theme exhibitions continuously.

To become a major tourist attraction in the country

On the second floor of the National Museum, in the east wing was located information pertaining to all the economic resource of Malaysia.

This section has been divided into two galleries. The Ceramic gallery displays all pots made since the prehistoric time that have been found in Malaysia and Ceramic from Islamic countries in middle east, European, Asian and South East Asean.

All species or vertebrated and invertebrated animal that inhabit Malaysian waters and jungled are located In the west wing.

In the east wing of the National Museum (first floor) one may find a good collection of both archeological findings an historical documentation.

Among these item displayed are artifacts such as megalith, potteries of the Neolithic age, stone, bronze ornaments, brass, swords and keris, models of traditional palaces and mosque, wood- carving and so forth.

The evidence of an Islamic influence in Malaysia since fifteen century A.D. is also reflected in various artifacts such as banners, wood-carvings of Koranic verses, embroidery in golden-thread, and under glazed chinaware with calligraphy and geometric pattern.

In the historical section are arranged chronologically all evidances of the historical development of the Malay peninsula since the opening of Mallaca by Parameswara around the year 1403 A.D. until the formation of Malaysia in 1963

The culture heritage section in the west wing of the first floorLife-size statue Royal couple in the bersanding or wedding ceremony .Dressed in the actual colourful ceremonial garments that had been used by royal family in Malaysia.Dressed in kain songket, the traditional golden threaded cloth, and jewellery.Huge collection of destar special royal headgear, mostly made of songket cloth which is folded into certain floral twists and pattern.

Hindu wedding ceremonySit in state both the bride and bride groom as Raja Sehari or King and Queen of the day.

Cultural dance such as joget, inang and fisherman danceMalay self-defence art bersilatEast coast cultural Menora and Mak yongMalay joyful activities gasing, layang-layangMythological burung petala waliMalay musical instruments- gendang raya, kecapi, nafiri.Chines and Indian cultural lion dance, chinese opera, indian dance

National Art Gallery was started in 1954, the idea developed by Malaysia Arts Council of.

Y.T.M. Tunku Abdul Rahman (at that time held the office of the Chief Minister), when opening Open Annual Exhibition of the three artists of Malaya, March, 1956, has given consent to Malaya has basically the National Art Gallery (Report of the National Art Gallery, 1963 : 3; Syed Ahmad Jamal, 1983).

On 27 August 1958, four days before the first anniversary of Independence Day (August 31), National Art Gallery was officially opened by Prime Minister Federation of Malaya, YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj.

National Art Gallery, when it was temporarily part of the Dewan Tunku Abdul Rahman building and move to the building which was formerly used as a four-storey hotel; known as Hotel Majestic.

3.1 National Visual Art Gallery

In 1998, the National Art Gallery made a historical to its permanent three storey building, which is situated between National Theater Complex and National Library of Malaysia on Jalan Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur.

National Art Gallery had changed its name twice, first as National Museum of Art and now to the National Visual Arts Gallery since 2011 under the Akta Lembaga Pembangunan Seni Visual Negara 2011.

The National Art Gallery policy is presenting an exhibition of art originally originated from inside and outside country and establish a permanent collection of works of art, but over the years the policy was developed and changed at present with new objectives include:-

ObjectiveTo have a collection of artworks as the National Visual Art Permanent Collection that portrays the creativity and cultural arts aspirations in local and international aspects.To restore, preserve, document and research the National Visual Art Permanent Collection and the historical of national arts.To promote and improve the quality of national visual arts by organizing exhibitions, seminars, workshops, competitions and arts activities in local and international aspects.To create awareness, understanding, appreciation and respect towards arts.VisionTo become the ultimate centre for the development and collection of the national visual arts and the trustee for the national art heritageMissionTo collect, restore, preserve, exhibit, promote and nurture awareness, understanding and appreciation of art for all community

With this brief description of our cultural heritage that is situate on the gallery of the National Museum and National Visual Art Gallery, one can feel how rich the Malaysian culture is and at any moment a creative art student easily choose and derive some idea from this wide range of cultural heritage motifs, and thus render them into his or her own contemporary art work.

3.2 Malay Form and Content

History and Civilization of the MalaysDuring the Paleolithic age (between 4,000 to 10,000 years ago) The Hoabinians people who were hunters and food gatherers passed Malay Peninsula as they moved southwardly.

While inhibiting this region, they left traces of their cultures in caves and rock shelters; such as stone tools, remnant of their food and of course their dead families ( i.e. Perak-man skeleton).

Lenggong Perak, A Perak Man has been found by archaeologists

Between 3,500 to 4,500 years ago, during the Neolithic age another groups of people from Yunnan in Southern China, namely the Proto-Malay and Deutero-Malay moved into this region and spreaded among the Malay Archipelago (West and East Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines).

The Deutero-Malay, the more advanced people was responsible for the introduction of the Bronze age in about 300 B.C. (about 2,500 years ago).

The transition from Neolithic to the Bronze age culture is also known as Dongson Culture.The only artefacts found were three bronze bells and two drums. One of the drums and a bronze bell were found in Klang and the rest were found in Tembeling, Pahang.With the knowledge of using more refined tools, practiced common cultures and well-organized societies, the Deutero-Malay occupied the coastal areas and became the fore-fathers of modern present Malays.The downfall of Malay Kingdom in Tumasik (Singapore) in fourteen century forced the ruler; Parameswara to escape to Malacca. Hence, the beginning of Malaccas sultanate.

Source of Malay Form and CultureThe Sejarah Melayu or Malay Annals by Tun Sri Lanang.

The conversion to Islam by Makhdum Saiyid Abdul Aziz from Jeddah to people of Malacca and their ruler. The ruler Raja Tengah took the title and name as Sultan Muhammad Shah of Malacca.

Source of Malay Form and Culture

Other literary works such as Bustanul-Salatin, Tajul-Salatin, Misa Melayu and Hikayat Abdullah and Pelayaran Abdullah.

Hikayat Abdullah had written about Raffles ship which full with Malay literary books that caught on fire in 1824.

Hindu epics; i.e. Mahabharata.

Naubat or nobat was introduced by ruler of Mecca; Ibrahim Khalil to Sultan Malik Al-Saleh of Pasai.

Source of Malay Form and CultureThe design of Malay applied arts reflect various styles.Especially that reflect the Malay culture and wood-carving on the wooden palaces and fishermen boats.

The influence of Dongson culture was adapted and used as motifs for decoration in textile and weaving.This culture brought in both the organic and geometric styles (Chou and Hall stat styles).Both styles were used together with other motifs: i.e. plants, flowers, bamboo shoots and birds.These motifs were also exploited and used as the design for textile and pottery, in wood-carving on fisherman boat (Bangau and Okok) and in Malay sultanate wooden palaces (kerawang or awan larat).

Traditional Wood Carving Design in Malay Sultanate PalacesIstana Kerawang or Istana Kenangan in Kuala Kangsar Perak was used as the dwelling palace for Sultan of Perak from 1931 till 1933.

Besides it was decorated with wood carving and weaving bamboo walls; it was also painted with white, yellow and black; the colours of Perak state flag.

Presently, this palace is used as the Perak Royal Museum.


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