history 11. mongol influence on russia there is great debate on how the mongol rule affected russia....
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Mongol Influence on Russia
• There is great debate on how the Mongol rule affected Russia. The time period actually benefited trade. They were able to keep the peace and open trade routes to all the areas they controlled.
• The Russian people adopted male authority. Women became subject to male authority.
• Concept of Absolute power for the ruler. • Cut Russia off from Europe while they were
advancing in arts and science.
• During the Mongol period, the princes of Moscow increased their power. This was due to the location near trade routes.
• The Orthodox church also made it the capital. • In 1380, the princes of Moscow took the lead
in battle against the Golden Horde at the battle of Kulikovo. This reduced Mongol power but did not end it.
Ivan the Great
• A driving force behind Moscow’s successes was Ivan III also known as Ivan the Great. From 1462 to 1505 he brought much of Northern Russia under his control.
• He was known as a great dictator. He fought off many Slavic states. And brought back many territories that had been lost.
Ivan the Great
Ivan the Great
• Czar is the Russian word for Caesar. He thought the title made him a God.
He married Sophia Zoe Paleologus, niece of the last Byzantine emperor. This helped to validate Russia. He adopted the Byzantine court practices.
Ivan The Terrible
• Ivan the IV, the grandson of Ivan the great helped centralize royal power even more.
• He limited the power of the old boyar families and granted land to nobles in exchange for military and other services.
• Ivan’s father Vasily, died when he was only three. His mother also died. He grew up on the thrown. He was well read, intelligent, religious, and was crowned Czar at age 17.
Ivan the Terrible
• According to his own letters, when he was a boy Ivan and his younger brother Yuri often felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families.
• For this reason he tried to limit the power of the Boyars, (the great landowning nobles).
• Under Ivan the Terrible the land base of Russia doubled. Russia went from a medieval state to an empire. Ivan was the first man to be crowned czar of ALL Russia.
• He showed absolute power. He created a standing army, and reformed the law code.
• Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, yet given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental illness.
• The nickname Ivan the Terrible came from his contemporaries.
• Around 1560, Ivan became increasingly unstable. He trusted no one and became subject to violent fits of rage. In a moment of madness, he even killed his own son.
• Ivan had seen his daughter in-law dressed immodestly and had tried to violently correct her. This resulted in a miscarriage of her baby.
• When his son who was also called Ivan heard of this he confronted his father and this resulted in a heated argument. During the argument Ivan hit his son with the sharp end of his staff and accidently killed him. Changed the way they appointed rulers.
• This is demonstrated in a painting by Ilya Repin
Ivan the Terrible and his Son Ivan on Friday
• He organized a group called the Oprichnike. They were agents of terror who enforced the czar’s will. They dressed in black robes and mounted on black horses. They went through killing rebellious boyars and sacked towns because they were suspected of disloyalty.
• The black robed oprichniki had their saddles decorated with dog’s heads and a broom symbol. These were symbols of their constant watchfulness to sweep away their master’s enemies.
• He left a legacy of extreme absolute power.
• At the end of his life. He recognized the terrible things he had done and tried to atone for his sins.
• He became a monk. He sent money to churches to pray for the names of those he had killed and tortured. When he died he left Russia in ruin.
1. What is a Boyar? Define Boyar? 2. What does czar mean?3. How did Ivan IV kill his son?4. What happened as a result of Ivan IV
murdering his son? What policy was changed?
5. Who were the Oprichniki?