Historical Methods of ESL

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<p>Historical Methodologies of teaching ESL</p> <p>Historical Methodologies of teaching ESLBy Brett RichardsHUEN 643The Natural ApproachHistorical Background:Founded by Tracy Terrell who was a Spanish teacher and with the help of Stephen Krashen in the mid 1970s early 1980sEmphasizes communication and does not focus on the grammar aspectStimulates child language acquisitionEmphasizes communication, comprehensible input, kinesthetic activitiesA book in 1983 was published called The Natural Approach.The Natural ApproachMethodology of its use:Teacher only speaks the target languageClass time is used for input acquisitionErrors in speech are not corrected, however it involves lots of grammar exercises.Its focus is learning and acquisition.Reading and Listening comprehension for beginning studentsTextbooks are not used and it is the teachers responsibility to make the classroom experience enjoyable and unchallenging.Stephen Krashen</p> <p>Schmidt, G. (2012). http://www.substancenews.net/articles.php?page=3425. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/jlo161/community-</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/AjaanRobCMU/the-natual-approach-teaching-methodology-presentationDisadvantages of the Natural Approach MethodLimited in its interest and relevance to studentsFocuses more on grammar and not speechMethod is considered somewhat outdated</p> <p>Stephen Krashen on language acquisition. (2012, October). Retrieved from http://adultesljobs.com/dr-stephen-krashen-on-language-acquisition/The Grammar Translation MethodHistorical Background:Originated in the 1500s from teaching Latin. Popular in the 18th and 19th centuryStarted by Roger Ascham and John LockeHas 2 main purposes. The first is to help students read and understand in the language they are learning. Second, is to develop the students overall mental discipline.Classes are usually conducted in the students native languageThis method is hardly ever used anymore and is considered more so outdatedRoger Ascham</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_AschamJohn Locke</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_LockeGrammar Translation Method AdvantagesTranslation is the easiest and shortest way of explaining meaning of words and phrases.Learners have no difficulties to understand the lesson as it is carried out in the mother tongue.It is a labor-saving method as the teacher carries out everything in the native tongue.Facilitated the teacher who teach usually straight from the textbooks</p> <p>Grammar Translation Method DisadvantagesThe method is good at teaching about the language, however it is not good at teaching the language.Speaking or any kind of spontaneous creative output was missing from the curriculum.Students lack an active role in the classroom.Very little attention is paid to communication.Very little attention is paid to content.Lots of memorization, students do not learn reading comprehension skills.Translation is sometimes misleading and confusing</p> <p>Grammar Translation Method Structure</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?pid=S0256-95742009000700016&amp;script=sci_arttextThe Total Physical Response (TPR) MethodHistorical Background:Method was developed by Dr. James AsherStudied this program in response as to the high drop-out rate of people learning a second language, but yet the majority dont have problems learning their first languageThe human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language including sign language for deaf people.A method of teaching language using physical activity/inputFound that stress is a factor in learning a second language. Less stress=more learningGrammar study is less effective than simple exposure.</p> <p>Dr. James Asher</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tpr-world.comTotal Physical Response MethodInvolves doing drills which the teacher commandsStudents respond by doing the physical actions with what they hearLanguage-body conversation. For example: Look at daddy! (and the child looks towards her dad)Dr. James Asher has his own website that he updates that can be found at www.tpr-world.com Dr. James Ashers StepsThe Bio-programBrain LateralizationReduction of Stress</p> <p>*** These 3 elements were deemed necessary in order to successfully learn a second language almost identical to learning your first language.AdvantagesSuccessful with children and adults learning any language.Understanding of any target language with Long-term retention and without stressEnjoyable for teachers as well as studentsThe Audio-Lingual MethodHistorical Background:Founded in the 1950s-1960sCharles Fries was the founder (1887-1967)Uses a system of reinforcement drills and repetitions to acquire a languageBased on positive/negative method. Eg: If something was taught positively, it would usually produce positive answers. If something was taught negatively, there would usually be a negative answer which was equivalent to forming habits (Psychological aspect)The Audio-Lingual Method came from the Direct MethodFocus is more direct towards grammarCharles Fries</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/research/collect/elt_archive/halloffame/fries/The Audio-Lingual Method Psychological aspects of the Audio-Lingual Method:Language learning is developed by habitsBad habits need to be eliminated immediately whilst good habits in the language learning need to be reinforced and continuedLanguage is learnt in audio form (orally) then after in its written formLots of memorization involved like the Grammar Translation MethodEstablished due to the flaws in the Direct MethodThe Direct MethodDoes not use the learners native language but more so the target languageAlso referred to sometimes as the Natural MethodEstablished in Europe in the 1900sClass activities and conversation is centered around the target language using the Direct MethodCalled the direct method because it is directed at the target language without translations of the native languageThe Direct MethodGives learners useful and meaningful knowledge enabling them to speak the languageRelies on language being taught without translation. This is the opposite to the Grammar-Translation method.A further belief is that the language can be taught better if it is actively used continually in a classroom setting by the teacher who uses demonstrations and hand gestures and voice tone (similar to that of the Berlitz Method).Eliminates teacher-student workbook exercisesAdvantages of the Direct MethodHelps students become actively involved in the languageAvoids the textbookGives the students the opportunity to interact with other students in the classroom speaking the languageBasic vocabulary is given first to help the students adapt to the languageMore oral activities instead of writtenDisadvantages of the Direct Method Some students will not understand everything that is demonstratedTeacher does not use textbooks at all where some students can grasp basic understandings through written contentStudents can become shy of speaking the language in an immersion type situationIf not taught properly, bad grammatical habits can startOnly effective if taught by the actual native speakerThe Silent WayHistorical Background:Founded by Egyptian educator Caleb Gattegno (19111988)The Silent Way found its way into classrooms following the publication of Gattegnos text, also called The Silent WayIts theory is that the student has to be actively engaged in learning the language on a personal levelCaleb Gattegno</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.apprenez-autrement.fr/gb/pedagogy.htmlThe Silent WayThe objective is to make learning automatic by encouraging students to discover, rather than memorize.This is achieved by teaching students to associate physical objects specifically, color-coded rods which represented a phoneme of the language.Pronunciation is a key element in learning the target language.Repetition and translation are not considered effective.The Silent WayTeacher acts as a facilitator and remains silent hence, the name of the method.Hand gestures, demonstrations and voice tone is used by the teacher to help the students. This is also used in the Berlitz Method and the Direct Method.Uses Cuisenaire Rods (color association) to assist in the learning process.Teacher uses prior knowledge of students to helpStudents problem-solve the situationSuggestopediaHistorical Background:Developed by Georgi Lozanov in 1979When the mind and body are relaxed, the brain absorbs knowledge without effort.Can teach a language up to three times faster.Surrounding environment plays a big role in how a student will learn. Uses songs, games etc,etc to assist in the learning process.A students belief of the method that it works depends on if they will learn the language or not (psychological). Method involves psychological factors in learning a language.Georgi Lozanov</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://phoenixclusive.wordpress.com/feature-stories/suggestopedia-a-revolutionary-learning-method-or-a-fraud/SuggestopediaBased on Suggestology or in other words, eliminating negative factors from a learners life to be able to learn effectively (psychological aspect)The learning environment is essential for a student to feel comfortable to learn (psychological)Teacher should be an active participant with the students, which is the opposite to other methods such as the Community Language Learning method and the Silent Way methodOther methods such as Superlearning, Suggestive Accelerated Learning and Teaching (SALT), and Psychopdie came about due to Suggestopedia.Community Language LearningHistorical Background:Founded by Jesuit Priest, Charles CurranIn groups, students decide what areas of language they want to learnTeacher=The Counselor/Student= The ClientThe teacher assists the needs of the studentPsychological aspect as counselor and clientNow spread to online social media and forums for language learningCharles Curran</p> <p>Gilbert, K. (2010, October 27). Dalls bishop condemns pro-abortion priest lecture. Retrieved from http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive//ldn/2010/oct/10102708Community Language Learning MethodLinguistic and behavioral skills are involvedLearners personal experiences contribute to the learning atmosphereInvolves the person completely and uses their feelings, emotion and knowledge to be able to learn a languageAdvantages to the Community Language Learning MethodThe counselor lets the students determine the conversation Helps the student make trial-error improvementsAllows in groups to support each otherDisadvantages to the Community Language Learning MethodThe teacher can be too non-functional with the students.Students might develop bad linguistic habits within the group.The translation by the teacher might not be sufficiently correct.Not enough interest in the area of Community Language Learning from many teachers.Considered a difficult method by teachers due to letting the students take control of the situation which could be disastrous. </p> <p>Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/jlo161/community-language-learningRetrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/jlo161/community-language-learning</p> <p>The Berlitz MethodHistorical Background:Founded by Maximilian Berlitz (1852-1921)Immigrated to the U.S. and was a French and German teacherWas teaching, became ill and hired Nicholas Joy who taught the class, upon Berlitz's return, the class spoke semi-fluent French due to Nicholas Joy using hand gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice and pointing to objects. Berlitz noticed it was effective and built upon this newly discovered method and called it the Berlitz Method which involves only speaking the target language, or in other words, complete immersion in the language.Maximilian Berlitz</p> <p>n.d.). Retrieved from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/research/collect/elt_archive/halloffame/berlitz/The Berlitz Method Achievements and where it stands today:Began opening up language institutions all over the United StatesTaught the German Kaiser EnglishReceived many distinguished awards from around the worldActively taught until his death at 68 years oldBerlitz is now an international tradesmark that has schools all over the world. Their official website is http://www.berlitz.com</p> <p>The Communicative ApproachHistorical Background:Popular in the 1970s and 1980sMany different linguist professionals in the U.K. and the U.S. such as Henry Widdowson and Dell Hymes (deceased) attributed to the methodHad a high demand throughout Europe due to migration and business purposesLanguages began to be taught in all schools and not just private institutions therefore, curriculums were changed in schools and implemented all through EuropeLessons are topic or theme based, engages learners and not grammatical based or repetitiveHenry Widdowson</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://nnesintesol.blogspot.com/2009/01/henry-g-widdowson.htmlDell Hymes (1927-2009)</p> <p>(n.d.). Retrieved from http://culturizatemundo.blogspot.comThe Communicative ApproachLanguage is used when it has real meaning or in other words, using the language in real communication situations. More hands on approachCame about due to dissatisfaction of the audio-lingual and grammar translation methodsEncourages students to learn more about the culture of the language being learnt and to have more direct interaction (if possible) of those that speak that particular languageInteraction is within pairs or groups to encourage the flow of conversation.46Advantages of the Communicative ApproachWorks well with students at lower levels of EnglishCreates a good environment of trust between the teacher and the studentTeacher (counselor) is more so a guide and lets the students direct the conversation and class to where it wants to go to let the students (clients) feel comfortableStudents become more confident and independantDisadvantages of the Communicative ApproachTeacher has to know the target language and the native language in order to effectively teachTranslation can become tedious especially if the teacher does not translate the language correctlyInvolves a lot of planningIf the teacher (counselor) does not guide the student well, the student (client) can become discouraged due to confusion and misunderstandings</p> <p>Bibliographyhttp://www.tpr-world.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_method_(education)http://www.apprenez-autrement.fr/gb/pedagogy.htmlhttp://phoenixclusive.wordpress.com/feature-stories/suggestopedia-a-revolutionary-learning-method-or-a-fraud/http://www.berlitz.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicative_language_teaching </p> <p>Bibliographyhttp://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/community-language-learninghttp://myenglishpages.com/blog/community-language-learning/http://teflpedia.com/Direct_Methodhttp://nnesintesol.blogspot.com/2009/01/henry-g-widdowson.htmlhttp://www.onestopenglish.com/support/methodology/teaching-approaches/teaching-approaches-what-is-suggestopedia/146499.article</p> <p>Bibliographyhttp...</p>