Historical Context of Globalization International Trade I30047 Wu Bolin
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Historical Context of Globalization
International TradeI30047 Wu Bolin
1Questions 1What is the idea of international society?
----refers to the rules, institutions, and shared practice that different groups of political communities have developed in the course of their interaction.
Hedley Bulla society of states exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values, forms a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another, and share in the working of common institutions.Many perspectives on major transitions driven by various deep-seated economic, power-political, or cultural factors,
Human agency has always played the key role in determining the underlying rules, norms and institutions that shape the relations among international actors at any given time.
Ancient worldsChristian and Islamic ordersMedieval Europes international society was a complex mixture of supranational, transnational, national and subnational structures.
The Catholic Church played a key role in elaborating the normative basis of medieval international society.canon law.
Islam developed its own understanding of international society the umma
The emergence of the modern international societyPrinciples of sovereignty and non-intervention Problems of global international societyTraditional social identities virtual communities emergeThe global financial markets limitThe post-cold-warorder collapsed, failed, or fragmenting statesAmerican military powerGreater than next ten most powerful states combinedEarlier European international societiesCommon culture and shared values.Environment and povertyDifficult to accommodate within a sovereignty-based international societyInternational history1900-1990
9ContentsModern total war End of empireCold war Conclusion
1Introduction Since 1990 world politics has been transformed in a variety of ways, three are examined in this chapter:
The transition from Europe crises to modern, industrialized total war;
The end of empire and the withdrawal of European countries from their imperial acquisitions;
The cold war between the USA and the Soviet Union.Modern total war WWI WWIITriggers and Causes:Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in June 1914. Militarism, Imperialism, nationalism and alliance systemPolitical and economic instability in Germany. The harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles Rise of power of Adolf Hitler and his alliance with Italy and Japan to oppose the Soviet UnionNatural of War:War between countries for acquiring colonies or territory or resources.War of ideologies, such as Fascism and Communism.Method of warfare:Fought from lines of trenches and supported by artillery and machine guns, infantry assault, early airplanes and poisonous gas. Mostly static in nature, mobility was minimal.nuclear power and missiles were used, modern concepts of covert and special operations. Submarines and tanks were also more heavily used. Encryption codes for secret communication became more complex. Germany used the Blitzkrieg fighting method.Casualties:Estimated to be 10 million dead, 21 million wounded, and 7.7 million missing or imprisoned. 1/20 of casualties were civilians.More than 40 million men and women were serving in the armed forces by 1944, and civilian and military deaths exceeded 55 million. 2/3 of casualties were civilians.Outcomes: The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict.The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers. The United Nations was established to foster international cooperation and prevent conflicts.Genocide:The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) carried out genocide of Armenians.German Nazis committed genocide against Jews and gypsiesCold war http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpYCplyBknI