HIST Introduction

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  • Historical LingusticsWS 2005/6

  • TopicsPatterns of language changeExplanations of lanaguae changeImplications of language change

  • Grammatical changesWegen des Wetters>wegen dem WetterKme>wrde kommenMeinetwegen>wegen mirMeines Vaters Auto>mein Vater sein AutoWeil ich das nicht mag>weil ich mag das nicht

  • British newspapers We seem to be moving towards a social and linguistic situation in which nobody says or writes or probably knows anything more than an approximation to what he or she means. [The Sunday Times 1999]

  • British newspapers English used to be a language which foreigners couldnt pronounce but could often understand. Today it is rapidly becoming a language which the English cant pronounce and few foreigners can understand. [The Daily Telegraph 1968]

  • British newspapers We go out of our ways to promulgate incessantly the very ugliest sounds and worst possible grammars. [The Sunday Times 1986]

  • Recent changes in English (1)The media is not objective.(2)These sort of things.(3)He is like: .

  • Recent changes in English (1)Fortunately, I have a spare fan belt.(2)Honestly, you have no taste in clothes.(3)Hopefully, well be there in time for lunch.

  • Recent changes in English (1)My care is being broken.(2)My house is being painted.(3)This problem is being discussed in class.(1)My car is repairing.(2)My house is painting.(3)This problem is discussing in class.

  • What linguists say The history of all Aryan languages is nothing but a gradual process of decay.[Max Mller 1886]

  • What linguists say In the evolution of languages the discarding of old flexions goes hand in hand with the development of simpler and more regular expedients that are rather less liable than the old ones to produce misunderstandings.[Otto Jespersen 1922]

  • What linguists say Progress in the absolute sense is impossible, just as it is in morality or politics. It is simply that different states exist, succeeding each other, each dominated by certain general laws imposed by the equilibrium of the forces with which they are confronted. So it is with language.[Joseph Vendryes 1923]

  • ReadingsAitchison, J. Language Change. Progress or Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Croft, W. 2000. Explaining Language Change. An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman.

    McMahon, A.M.S. 1995. Understanding Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Hock, H.H. 1991. Principles of Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Trask, R.L. 1996. Historical Linguistics. London: Arnold.

  • Course scriptDigitale Bibliothek ThringenSearch: History of the English language

  • Everything that students have always wanted to know about phonology (but where ashamed to ask )

  • Classification of consonantsVoicingManner of articulationPlace of articulation

  • Voiced voiceless consonants[f]father[v]vase[s]salt[z]zoo[t]tree[d]door

  • Manner of articulationPlosivesFricativesAffricatesNasalsLiquidsGlides[p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] [?][c] [J] [q] [G][f] [v] [T] [D] [s] [z] [S] [Z][tS] [dZ][m] [n] [] [l] [r] [w] [y] [C] [x] [q] [G][ts] [pf] [] [R]

  • Place of articulationBilabialLabiodentalInterdentalAlveolarPala-Alev.VelarUvularPharyngeal[p] [b] [m] [w] [f] [v][T] [D][t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l] [r][S] [Z] [tS] [dZ] [y][k] [g] [] [w][c] [J][x] [] [q] [G][] []

  • English consonants

    BilabialLabio-dentalInter-dentalAlveol.Alveol.-palatalVelarStopp bt dk gAffricatetS dZFricativef vT Ds zS ZhNasalmnLaterall/rGlidewy

  • Classification of vowelsheightadvancementlip roundingtenseness

  • English vowel chart

  • English diphthongs

  • Phonemes and allophones[thOt]topaspirated[stOp]stopplain/p t k/[ph th kh] / #__, V'[p t k] elsewhere

  • Contrastive complementary distribution[l{k]lack[param]wind[r{k]rack[irim]name[lif]leaf[pal]foot[rif]reef[mal]horse[l][r] / V __ V[l] elsewhere[r] [l] / __#[r] elsewhere

  • Aspiration[thOt]topaspirated[stOp]stopplain/p t k/[ph th kh] / #__, V'[p t k] elsewhere

  • Nasalization[kn]can[km]come/V/[V] / __N[V] elsewhere

  • Vowel lengthening[bE:d]bed[h{:v]have/V/[V:] / __ [+voice][V] elsewhere

  • Flapping[bQr]butter[bEQr]better/t/[Q] / after stressed syllables at thebeginning of an unstressed syllable[t] elsewhere

  • Morphophomemics[k{ts]cats[kis@z]kisses[dOgs]dogs[dZ@r{fs]giraffes[bUS@z]bushes[garaZ@z]garages[karz]cars[m{tS@z]matches[laIts]lights[dETs]deaths[b{ks]banks[s]after voiceless speech sound[z]after voiced speech sounds[@z]after sibilants

  • Morphophonemics[ImpOsIbl]impossible[InsEns@tIv]insensitive[IkOnsIst@nt]inconsistent[m]before labials[n]before alveolars[]before velars

  • Exercise 1Provide the phonetic symbolHigh front tense unrounded vowelLow back lax unrounded vowelVoiced labiodental fricativeVoiceless palatal fricativeVoiced velar nasal[i][a][v][S][]

  • Exercise 2[z][dZ][y][I][U]Voiced, alveolar, fricativeVoiced, palatal-alveolar, affricate Voiced, palatal, glideHigh, front, lax, unroundedProvide the articulatory featuresHigh, back, lax rounded

  • Exercise 3[k, , g, x][v, Z, z, D][w, y][i, e, o, u][e, o, O, E]velarvoiced fricativesglidestense vowelsIdentify the common articulatory featuresmid vowels

  • Exercise 4thougheasyknifethoughtcontact[D][i][n][T]Provide the IPA symbol for the first speech sound[k]judgeThomasphysicscivicuse[dZ][t][f][s][y]

  • Exercise 5[ritS][rIdZ][kaIt][{ktSn][T{ks][Sules]reachridgekiteactionWrite in ordinary Englishthanksshoelace

  • Exercise 5 (Italian)[fago]mud[tinta]dye[tEnda]tent[tEgo]I keep[tigo]I dye[fugo]mushroom[nero]black[byaka]shite[ake]also[dansa]dance[dZEnte]people[sapone]soap

  • Exercise 5 (Italian)[fago]mud[tinta]dye[tEnda]tent[tEgo]I keep[tigo]I dye[fugo]mushroom[nero]black[byaka]shite[ake]also[dansa]dance[dZEnte]people[sapone]soap

  • Exercise 6 (German)[axt]eight[IC]I[bux]book[ECt]real[lOx]hole[sprIC]speak[ho:x]hoch[lEC@ln]smile[fluxt]flight[riC@n]smell[lax@n]laugh[fECt@n]to fence

  • Exercise 6 (German)[axt]eight[IC]I[bux]book[ECt]real[lOx]hole[sprIC]speak[ho:x]hoch[lEC@ln]smile[fluxt]flight[riC@n]smell[lax@n]laugh[fECt@n]to fence

  • Exercise 7 (Old English)[brigan]to bring[lUvU]love[drikan]to drink[mannes]mans[f{st]fast[mo:na]moon[fi:fta]fifth[ni:xsta]next[fOlk]folk[Offrian]to offer[fOnt]font[Ovans]oven[ha:t]hot[n:on]noon[hlo:T]troop[ru:x]rough[TUgEn]full grown[l@gan]to lengthen[nixt]night[hr{vn]raven

  • Exercise 7 (Old English)[brigan]to bring[lUvU]love[drikan]to drink[mannes]mans[f{st]fast[mo:na]moon[fi:fta]fifth[ni:xsta]next[fOlk]folk[Offrian]to offer[fOnt]font[Ovans]oven[ha:t]hot[n:on]noon[hlo:T]troop[ru:x]rough[TUgEn]full grown[l@gan]to lengthen[nixt]night[hr{vn]raven

  • Exercise 7 (Old English)[brigan]to bring[lUvU]love[drikan]to drink[mannes]mans[f{st]fast[mo:na]moon[fi:fta]fifth[ni:xsta]next[fOlk]folk[Offrian]to offer[fOnt]font[Ovans]oven[ha:t]hot[n:on]noon[hlo:T]troop[ru:x]rough[TUgEn]full grown[l@gan]to lengthen[nixt]night[hr{vn]raven

  • Exercise 7 (Old English)[brigan]to bring[lUvU]love[drikan]to drink[mannes]mans[f{st]fast[mo:na]moon[fi:fta]fifth[ni:xsta]next[fOlk]folk[Offrian]to offer[fOnt]font[Ovans]oven[ha:t]hot[n:on]noon[hlo:T]troop[ru:x]rough[TUgEn]full grown[l@gan]to lengthen[nixt]night[hr{vn]raven

  • The Indo-EuropeanLanguage Family

  • GermanicGermanic

    West GermanicNorth GermanicEast Germanic

    EnglishSwedishGothicFrisianDanishVandalGermanNorwegianBurgundianYiddishIcelandicDutchAfrikaans

  • RomanceFrenchCatalanItalian GalicianSpain SardinianPortugueseProvencalRomanianRhomansh

  • Sir William Jones

  • Old LanguagesIndo-European (3500)SemiticChineseJapaneseArabicTurkishDravidianAfrican languagesNative American languages

  • Phonetic evidence You spotted snakes with double tongue,Thorny hedge-hogs, be not seen;Newts, and blind-worms, do no wrong;Come not near our fairy queen. (Shakespeare)

  • Phonetic evidence cosulconsulcesor censor(Latin inscriptions)

  • Phonetic evidence We produce this letter by pressing the lower lip on the upper teeth. The tongue is turned back towards the roof of the mouth, and the sound is accompanied by a gentle puff of breath. (Roman grammarian)

  • 700English

    500Armenian400Gothic

    0200Latin400Classical Sanskrit

    800Greek

    1000Old Persian

    1200Hittite

    1500Vedic Sanskrit

    3000Proto Indo-European

  • Sound correspondences between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek

    SanskritLatinGreekasmiasiastismassthasantisumesestsumusestissunteinieiestiesmenesteeisi

  • EnglishGermanSwedishsunSonnesol house HaushuscatKatzekatappleApfelpplefatherVaterfaderhandHandhandgo gehengarseesehensarhearhrenhrarunrennenrnnardreamtrumendrmar

  • English-German sound correspondencestimeZeittongueZungetenzehntamezahmtentZelttozutwozweitwinsZwillinge

  • Second Germanic sound shifttimeZeittongueZungetenzehn

    thatdastheredathroughdurch

    panPfannepathPfadpolePfahl

    hathasseneatessenletlassen

    gripgreifendeeptiefsleepschlafen

  • English-German sound correspondencescheesechildchincheerychurch

    kingKseKindKinnKirscheKirche

    Knig

  • Sound correspondences in Romance

    ItalianSardinianRomanshFrenchSpanishHundredSkyStagWaxtSEntotSelotSErvotSerakEntukElukErbukEratsjEnttsiltsErftsairaEsa sjElsERsiRtSjentSjelotSjerbotSera

  • Numerals in Indo-European

    EnglishGothicLatin