hin trng mi trng l u vc sng cu i. gii thiu l u ... ??bắc ninh 807,6 998,4 1.236 8.356,8 1.099,4...

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    HIN TRNG MI TRNG lu vc SNG CU

    I. Gii thiu lu vc sng Cu 1.1 c im t nhin

    Sng Cu l ph lu ca sng Hng; LVS Cu c din tch 6.030 km2 l mt phn ca LVS Hng-Thi Bnh (chim khong 8% din tch LVS Hng-Thi Bnh trong lnh th Vit Nam). Lu vc c tng chiu di cc nhnh sng khong 1.600 km. Lu vc bao gm gn nh ton b cc tnh Bc Kn, Th i Nguyn v mt phn cc tnh Bc Ninh, Bc Giang, Vnh Phc, Hi Dng v H Ni (huyn ng Anh, Sc Sn).

    Lu vc sng Cu c c 3 vng sinh th i: ng bng, trung du v min ni. a hnh chung ca lu vc theo hng Ty Bc - ng Nam.

    Mng li sng sui trong lu vc sng Cu tng i pht trin. Cc nhnh sng chnh phn b tng i u dc theo dng chnh, nhng cc sng nhnh tng i ln u nm pha hu ngn lu vc, nh cc sng: Ch Chu, u, Cng, C L... Trong ton lu vc c 68 sng sui c di t 10 km tr ln.

    Tng lng nc trn LVS Cu khong 4,5 t m3/nm, trong ng gp ca sng Cng, sng C L l khong 0,9 t m3/nm. dng chy c c sng thuc LVS Cu c phn bit thnh hai ma r rt l ma l v ma kit. Ma l thng bt u t thng VI n thng X; lng dng chy trong ma l khng vt qu 75% lng nc c nm. Ma kit di 7 n 8 thng, chim khong 18-20% lng dng chy c nm. Ba thng kit nht l I, II, III dng chy ch chim 5,6-7,8%.

    Trong lu vc c VQG Ba B v VQG Tam o, khu BTTN Kim H, v cc khu vn ha - lch s mi trng vi gi tr sinh thi cao. Lu vc sng Cu kh giu cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin: ti nguyn rng a dng, ti nguyn nc di do, ti nguyn khong sn phong ph... che ph ca rng trong lu vc sng Cu c nh gi l trung bnh, t khong 45%. Tuy nhin, rng b ph hy mnh m cng nhng hot ng pht trin kinh t, x hi kh c nh cng nghip, khai thc m, lng ngh th cng v hot ng nng nghip gy p lc ln ln mi trng trong lu vc.

    Khung 1.1. Tm tt c im t nhin LVS Cu:

    Cc tnh trong lu vc sng Cu: Bc Kn, Thi Nguyn, Bc Ninh, Bc Giang, Vnh Phc, Hi Dng v H Ni.

    Din tch t nhin ca lu vc: 6.030 km2.

    Mt li sng: ( di sng trn mt n v din tch) trong lu vc bin i trong phm vi 0,7 - 1,2 km/km2.

    H s tp trung nc: t 2,1 (thuc loi ln trn min Bc).

    Tng lng nc hng nm: khong 4,5 t m3

    Cc nhnh sng chnh: Chu, Nghinh Tng, u, Cng, C L, Ng Huyn Kh.

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    Hnh 1.1. Bn cc tnh nm trong LVS Cu

    Ngun: Cc Bo v mi trng

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    1.2. c im kinh t, x hi Lu vc chim khong 47% din tch ca 6 tnh. Tng dn s 6 tnh thuc lu vc

    nm 2005 khong 6,9 triu ngi. Trong , dn s nng thn khong 5,9 triu ngi; dn s thnh th khong 1 triu ngi. Mt dn s trung bnh khong 427 ngi/km2, cao hn 2 ln so vi mt trung bnh quc gia.

    Vng ni thp v trung du l khu vc c mt dn c thp nht trong lu vc, chim khong 63% din tch ton lu vc nhng dn s ch chim khong 15% dn s lu vc. Mt dn s cao vng trung tm v khu vc ng bng.

    Thnh phn dn c trong lu vc c s an xen ca 8 dn tc anh em: Kinh, Ty, Nng, Sn Du, Mng, Sn Chay, Hoa, Dao trong ngi Kinh chim a s.

    C cu kinh t da trn nng nghip, lm nghip, cng nghip; thy sn ng gp khng ng k vo c cu ny. GDP tng trng mnh m, tng gn gp i trong vng 5 nm ti hu ht cc tnh; Hi Dng c GDP tng cao nht.

    Tc tng trng ngnh cng nghip cao hn t l trung bnh quc gia. Sn phm t nng nghip, lm nghip, thy sn chim khong 26% v c xu hng gim. Cc tnh Th i Nguyn, Bc Ninh v Vnh Phc tng trng nhanh v cng nghip, xy dng v dch v.

    0,0

    2000,0

    4000,0

    6000,0

    8000,0

    10000,0

    12000,0

    14000,0

    16000,0

    Bc Kn T hi Nguyn Bc Giang V nh Phc Bc Ninh Hi Dng

    T ng

    2001 2002 2003 2004 S b 2005 Hnh 1.2. GDP mt s tnh thuc

    LVS Cu

    Ngun: Nin gim thng k, 2005

    Bng 1.1. Tm tt c im kinh t x hi ca LVS Cu

    Tnh Din tch (km2)

    Dn s (nghn ngi)

    Mt (ngi/km2)

    GDP (t ng)

    Thu nhp bnh qun (nghn ng/thng)

    Tc tng trng so vi

    2004 (%) Bc Kn 4.857,2 289,9 60 1.032,7 1.050,2 114,5 Thi Nguyn 3.542,6 1.109,0 313 6.459,0 1.229,1 117,8 Bc Ninh 807,6 998,4 1.236 8.356,8 1.099,4 121,5 Bc Giang 3.822,7 1.581,5 414 7.559,8 1.095,3 123,0 Hi Dng 1.648,4 1.711,4 1.038 13.664,7 1.242,7 118,2 Vnh Phc 1.371,4 1.169,0 852 9.565,3 1.025,9 122,0

    II. Hin trng cht lng nc lu vc sng Cu

    Lu vc sng Cu tip nhn nc thi ca 6 tnh nm trong lu vc v mt phn nc thi ca H Ni (huyn Sc Sn, ng Anh), cht lng nc hin ang b nh hng bi cc hot ng sn xut nng nghip, cng nghip, sinh hot, khai khong... ca cc tnh thnh ny.

    Cht lng nc sng Cu hu ht cc a phng u cng khng t tiu chun cht lng l ngun nc cp cho mc ch sinh hot (TCVN 5942-1995, loi A).

    Nc mt ti vng trung lu v h lu ca lu vc sng Cu hin ang b nhim cc b bi mt s cht gy nhim hu c, cht rn l lng (SS) v du m (c ni ang b nhim trm trng).

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    2.1. Thng ngun lu vc sng Cu

    Thng ngun sng Cu nm trn a bn tnh Bc Kn, ngoi dng chnh l sng Cu cn c ph lu l sng Ch Chu. Cht lng nc sng Cu v sng Ch Chu tng i n nh,

    Sng Cu qua tnh Bc Kn bt u b nhim nh mt vi v tr: Theo s liu quan trc, khu vc cu Ph v cu Thc Ring (Bc Kn), mt s gi tr BOD5 v SS vt TCVN 5942-1995 i vi ngun loi A (Hnh 2.1 v hnh 2.2).

    05

    1015202530

    Cu Ph Thc Ring

    mg

    /l

    Thng 10/2005 Thng 11/2006

    Thng 12/2007 TCVN 5942-1995 (A)

    TCVN 5942-1995 (B)

    Hnh 2.1. Gi tr BOD5 trn sng Cu on chy qua tnh Bc Kn

    Ngun: Cc Bo v mi trng, 2005

    0

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    100

    Cu Ph Thc Ring

    mg

    /l

    Thng 10/2005 Thng 11/2006Thng 12/2007 TCVN 5942-1995 (A)TCVN 5942-1995 (B)

    Hnh 2.2. Gi tr SS trn sng Cu on chy

    qua tnh Bc Kn Ngun: Cc Bo v mi trng, 2005

    2.2. Trung lu Lu vc sng Cu (qua tnh Thi Nguyn)

    Lu vc sng Cu on chy qua Thi Nguyn gm dng chnh l sng Cu, v 3 ph lu: sng Nghinh Tng, sng u, sng Cng.

    on sng Cu trc khi chy vo thnh ph Thi Nguyn, bt u chu tc ng do cc hot ng sn xut cng nghip, khai thc khong sn, sn xut nng nghip dc bn b sng. Ngoi ra, on sng ny tip nhn hai ph lu l sng Nghinh Tng v sng u nn cht lng nc sng Cu b nh hng bi ngun nc t hai ph lu ny sang. Sng Nghinh Tng chu tc ng ca hot ng khai thc vng, on cui sng u tip nhn nc thi ca m than Phn M, tuy nhin mc nhim nc i vi hai dng sng ny cha ng k.

    on sng Cu chy qua thnh ph Th i Nguyn nhn nc thi ca c c nh my sn xut giy, nhit in, gang thp; cc bnh vin; khu dn c th nh nh my giy Hong Vn Th, nhit in Cao Ngn, khu cng nghip gang thp Thi Nguyn, nc thi sinh hot. ng thi, on sng cng chu tc ng ca nc sui Phng Hong chy sang.

    Ti phng Tn Long, nc rt c, c mu en nu v mi. on sng Cu chy qua khu cng nghip gang thp Thi Nguyn, gi tr cc thng s SS, BOD5, COD vt TCVN 5942-1995 (loi A) t 2- 3 ln; nc sng c mi du cc r rt (hnh 2.3 v 2.4).

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    0,000,050,100,150,200,250,300,35

    VnLang

    HaBnh

    SnCm

    CuGiaBy

    pThc

    Hung

    CuMy

    mg/l

    Trung bnh 2004 Trung bnh 2005

    TCVN 5942-1995 (A) TCVN 5942-1995 (B)

    Hnh 2.3. Din bin du m trn sng Cu on chy qua Thi Nguyn Ngun: Cc Bo v mi trng, 2005

    0

    10

    20

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    40

    50

    Vn Lang Ha Bnh Sn Cm Cu GiaBy

    pThc

    Hung

    Cu My

    mg/l

    2003 2004

    2005 TCVN 5942-1995 (A)

    TCVN 5942-1995 (B)

    Hnh 2.4. Din bin COD trn sng Cu on chy qua Thi Nguyn

    Ngun: Cc Bo v mi trng, 2005

    Sau khi ra khi thnh ph Th i Nguyn: do khng c cc khu cng nghip v t cc hot ng sn xut nn nng c c cht nhim trong nc sng gim. Ti khu vc Thun Thnh pht hin d lng thuc bo v thc vt nhng vn nm trong gii hn cho php loi A.

    Sui Phng Hong (nhnh sui nh chy trn a bn phng Tn Long - Tp Thi Nguyn), nc sui b nhim hu c nghim trng do nc thi ca nh my sn xut Giy thi trc tip, hm lng cc hp cht hu c cha nit rt cao. Cc thng s c trng nhim l BOD5, COD, phenol... (hnh 2.5)

    Sng Cng l sng ln th hai trong lu vc, chy qua a phn Th i Nguyn v nhp lu vi sng Cu ti a Phc. Nc sng bt u b nhim hu c, du m. D lng thuc bo v c pht hin mt s im. Hnh 2.6 biu din gi tr hm lng du m trung bnh nm 2004 v 2005 trn ton tuyn sng. y l khu vc chu nh hng bi hot ng ca cc thuyn du lch trn H Ni Cc, tu thuyn khai thc ct trn sng, nc thi ca hot ng khai thc khong sn v nc thi ca KCN Sng Cng.

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    BOD5 COD

    mg/l

    Thng 10/2005 Thng 11/2005

    Thng 12/2005 TCVN 5942-1995 (A)

    TCVN 5942-1995 (B)

    Hnh 2.5. Din bin BOD5, COD ti sui Phng Hong, Thi Nguyn

    Ngun: Cc Bo v mi trng, 2005

    0,000,050,100,150,200,250,30

    PhCng

    CuHuyNgc

    H NiCc

    Ca xh NiCc

    Tx.SngCng

    Cu aPhc

    mg/l

    Trung bnh 2004 Trung bnh 2005

    TCVN 5942-1995 (A) TCVN 5942-1995 (B)

    Hnh 2.6. Din bin du m ti trn sng Cng on chy qua Th i Nguyn

    Ngun: Cc Bo v mi trng, 2005

    2.3 H lu Lu vc sng Cu (t Cu Vt n Cu Ph Li )

    Cht lng nc sng ti vng h lu (chy qua Bc Giang v Bc Ninh) ca sng Cu b nhim hu c tng i nghim trng (hnh 2.7). on cui sng Cu ti Ph Li, nc sng c nhiu vng du do hot ng giao thng ng thy. Vng h lu ca

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    lu vc cn tip nhn nc ca sng C L ti Bc Giang v sng Ng Huyn Kh ti Bc Ninh. Trong , nhim nc sng Ng Huyn Kh l vn ng lu , gp phn lm gia tng