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  • High Speed Vessel Fendering System DesignPresenters:Cameron Clark Dave MaharajOkason MorrisonJean-Pierre NjanteAlexandra OrtizAdvisor:Prof. SadeghSponsor:U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center

    May 17, 2005

  • OverviewNomenclatureProblem Definition Ship SpecificationPatent SearchGANTT ChartDesign Concept AlternativesFinal Fender DesignAnalysis of Final Fender Design ConceptFinal Fender Design SpecificationsManufacturing ProcessModifications performedTesting:Static Dynamic Testing ResultsConclusionFuture Work

  • NomenclatureFender: Absorb the kinetic energy of berthing vessels.Provide standoff distance to prevent contact with other vessels and supporting structures.Protect vessel from damage.CausewaysDockShip-to-shipOuter beam (donut)

  • Problem DefinitionDesign a pneumatic fender system for an Australian high-speed passenger ferry.Manufacture a scaled down prototype of the fender.Develop a deployment and storage mechanism.Fender should be designed for applications such as ship-to-ship, ship to causeways and ship to pier or dock.Fender must maintain a standoff distance of 6ft from contacting structure.Test prototype for abrasion and functionality.

  • HSV SpecificationsSwift Basic Dimensions:Length Overall = 318.92 ftBeam Overall = 87.25 ftFreeboard = 31.90 ftDraft = 11.25 ft Single Hull Beam = 15.50 ftVert Location of Rub Rail on Hull = 3.0 ft from water lineWeight:Deadweight = 669 long tons Displacement; loaded = 1772 long tons

  • Patent SearchPatent #6161494 highlightsInflation-deflation bodies.Activation by command.Reduce storage space.

    Patent #5357888 highlightsElongated inflatable buoyancy tube.Deflated before use.Patents used as guidance for concept development:

  • Design GANTT Chart (Schedule Table)

  • Manufacturing GANTT Chart

  • Existing Fender Designs

  • Design Concept Alternatives 1 & 2Advantage Ensures that the ships do not come within the specified minimum distance. Absorbs the impact energy by the extra beams. The pressure is kept approximately constant in the air beams.DisadvantageManufacturing issues of the extra beams.Manufacturing issues at the connections.

  • Design Concept Alternative 3AdvantageEnsures that the ships do not come within the specified minimum distance.Absorbs the impact energy by the expansion beam. The pressure is kept approximately constant in the beams.DisadvantageManufacturing issues at the expansion beam connections.

  • Design Concept Alternative 4AdvantageIndependent translation & rotation of the outer beam donut.Donut absorbs most of the energy. (Takes the abuse)Disadvantage Corrosion issues with bottom bushing.Buoyancy issues.Require lubrication.Storage.Single air beams configuration withcommercial fender protection as an outer beam donut

  • Final Fender Design Concept

  • Final Fender Design ConceptAir ReleaseRingSeparation of air beamAnd water reservoir

  • Water Reservoir Functionality

  • Air Beam CalculationsConfiguration Equations

  • Sensitivity of air beam diameter to crush distance and pressure

    Table L = 12 ft

    Change dDiameterP2V1V2

    064.2565.2565.2

    0.164.52481565.2524.627

    0.264.88658565.2485.787

    0.365.29101565.2448.656

    0.465.74491565.2413.207

    0.566.25655565.2379.417

    0.666.83594565.2347.259

    0.767.49534565.2316.709

    0.868.24991565.2287.741

    0.969.11854565.2260.331

    1610.125565.2234.453

    1.1611.2995565.2210.083

    1.2612.6812565.2187.194

    1.3614.3207565.2165.763

    1.4616.2856565.2145.763

    1.5618.6667565.2127.17

    1.6621.5885565.2109.959

    1.7625.2258565.294.1037

    1.8629.8296565.279.5801

    1.9635.7706565.266.3628

    2643.6154565.254.4266

    2.1654.2636565.243.7465

    2.2669.2139565.234.2972

    2.3691.1136565.226.0536

    2.46125565.218.9907

    2.56181.44565.213.0833

    084.21071.791071.79

    0.184.445931071.791012.5

    0.284.712651071.79955.196

    0.385.002491071.79899.853

    0.485.318141071.79846.444

    0.585.662671071.79794.943

    0.686.039641071.79745.327

    0.786.453121071.79697.57

    0.886.907891071.79651.646

    0.987.40951071.79607.531

    187.964451071.79565.2

    1.188.580391071.79524.627

    1.289.266411071.79485.787

    1.3810.03331071.79448.656

    1.4810.89411071.79413.207

    1.5811.86431071.79379.417

    1.6812.9631071.79347.259

    1.7814.21341071.79316.709

    1.8815.64431071.79287.741

    1.9817.29151071.79260.331

    2819.21071.79234.453

    2.1821.42731071.79210.083

    2.2824.04721071.79187.194

    2.3827.15631071.79165.763

    2.4830.88231071.79145.763

    2.5835.39751071.79127.17

    0104.21779.331779.33

    0.1104.399051779.331698.82

    0.2104.611551779.331620.54

    0.3104.838671779.331544.47

    0.4105.081761779.331470.59

    0.5105.342311779.331398.87

    0.6105.621981779.331329.28

    0.7105.922621779.331261.81

    0.8106.246331779.331196.42

    0.9106.595451779.331133.08

    1106.972661779.331071.79

    1.1107.380941779.331012.5

    1.2107.823731779.33955.196

    1.3108.304911779.33899.853

    1.4108.828941779.33846.443

    1.5109.400921779.33794.943

    1.61010.02671779.33745.327

    1.71010.71321779.33697.57

    1.81011.46821779.33651.646

    1.91012.30091779.33607.531

    21013.22221779.33565.2

    2.11014.24481779.33524.627

    2.21015.38371779.33485.787

    2.31016.65691779.33448.656

    2.41018.08581779.33413.207

    2.51019.69651779.33379.417

    Diameter Graph

    4.24.24.2

    4.524814.445934.39905

    4.886584.712654.61155

    5.291015.002494.83867

    5.744915.318145.08176

    6.256555.662675.34231

    6.835946.039645.62198

    7.495346.453125.92262

    8.249916.907896.24633

    9.118547.40956.59545

    10.1257.964456.97266

    11.29958.580397.38094

    12.68129.266417.82373

    1.310.03338.30491

    Dia. = 6 ft

    Dia. = 8 ft

    Dia. = 10 ft

    Crush Dis. (ft)

    Pressure (psig)

    Pressure vs Crush Distance4.2 psig Initial Pressure and L = 12 ft

  • Initial Pressure vs Displacement of a 6 ft diameter air beam when it reaches the final pressure of 8 PsigMax. pressure of 8 psig is reachedwhen a 6ft dia. air beam of 4.5 psig is displaced by 1.8 ft

    Table for 8 ft Dia.

    change in dP1

    5.80.5

    5.01.0

    4.21.5

    3.82.0

    3.22.5

    2.83.0

    2.43.5

    2.24.0

    1.84.5

    1.65.0

    1.25.5

    1.06.0

    0.86.5

    0.47.0

    0.27.5

    Graph for 8 ft Dia.

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    5.5

    6

    6.5

    7

    7.5

    Displacement (ft)

    Initial Pressure (Psig)

    Initial Pressure vs Displacement Dia. 6 ft for L = 12 ft Cylindrical Beam 8 psig limit

  • Outer Beam Donut CalculationsWhere:r = density of donut material.w = density of water.a = density of air.Rfender = radius of fender.T = total donut thickness.t = thickness of donut material.Thickness Determination

  • Final Design SpecificationsPneumatic fender configuration air beam size:Height : 12 ftDiameter: 6 ftInternal pressure: 6 psigEstimated maximum displacement at 8 psig: 1 ft

    Outer beam donut configuration:Height: 5 ftInner diameter: 6.5 ftOuter diameter: 9 ft Donut thickness: 1.25 ftwall thickness: inchinternal pressure of donut: 4 psig

    Clearance between donut and fender is 3 inches.

  • Finite Element AnalysisSymmetric model with concentrated Load ApplicationLoad: 108 kipsConstraintsInternal pressure: 8psig

  • Finite Element Analysis Deformation3.47in

  • Finite Element Analysis Stress237.7ksi

  • Finite Element Analysis Symmetric Model with distributed Load ApplicationLoad: 108 kipsInternal pressure: 8psigConstraints

  • Finite Element Analysis Deformation0.22in

  • Finite Element Analysis Stress171.7ksi

  • Fender ModificationsThe following modifications were done to the fender due to manufacturing limitations. No weights at the bottom. Crown location was moved. Straps were added. Foam was used inside the outer beam instead of air.

  • Manufacturing Material used for the air beam:Brown tarpWhite strapPlexy glassThreadsCopper wire (made into a ring)Materials used for the outer beam:RubberAdhesiveBlack spray paint Materials:

  • Manufacturing Process

  • Manufactured PrototypeScale: 1/10th

  • Manufacturing ProcessCrane

  • Deployment and Storage

  • Inflation of the Air Beam

  • Deployment Testing

  • Free Body Diagram

  • Testing Setup

  • Stability Testing

  • Static Testing Results

    Chart4

    1.84

    3.715

    5.535

    7.36

    9.195

    11.04

    12.885

    14.715

    16.56

    18.41

    20.24

    25.5525

    30.6775

    Deflection (in)

    Load (lbs)

    Load vs Deflection (Static Loading, Damped)

    with spring

    Lbf(lbs)Lbf(oz)Deflection (in)Total lbf(lbs)del defdel load

    120.31251.1250.060.4375

    190.3751.56250.100.3125

    1140.4751.8750.060.625

    280.53752.50.090.5625

    310.6253.06250.100.625

    3110.7253.68750.031

    4110.754.68750.130.5

    530.8755.18750.040.5

    5110.91255.68750.090.4375

    621.001256.1250.120.375

    681.1256.50.381.3125

    7131.57.81250.361.6875

    981.86259.5-1.86-9.5

    00.000

    00.000

    00.000

    00.000

    00.000

    00.000

    0

    0

    with spring

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0