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  • 1

    High Fraction

    Hybrid Solar in

    Canadas North

    Making $s and Sense


    Dave H. Gerwing B.Eng., M.Sc., P. Eng.


    Sr. Technical Engineer Lockheed Martin Canada


  • 2

    Objectives of Presentation

    1. Communicate Lockheed Martins Product

    and Service Offerings

    2. Share Test Results for Solar Hybrid

    Renewable Energy Systems

    3. Present Simulation Results for Hybrid

    Renewable Energy Systems for Northern

    Canada Communities

  • 3

    Lockheed Martin Canada Offerings

    1. Engineer, Procure, Construct & Manage

    Complete Projects

    2. Proprietary Solar Tracking Hardware

  • 4

    Existing Off Grid Power Systems

  • 5

    Off Grid Renewable Power System

    Typically Small Non-Scalable

    kW sized Solutions


    Controller &

    DC-AC Inverter

  • 6

    Lockheeds Hybrid Solar Solution

    Scalable Solutions kW MW size


    Inverter = Charge Controller

    & DC-AC Inverter

    & AC-DC Rectifier

  • 7

    Lockheeds Hybrid Solar + Wind Solution

    Hybrid Solar + Wind Power


    Scalable Solutions kW MW size


    Inverter = Charge Controller

    & DC-AC Inverter

    & AC-DC Rectifier

  • 8

    Northern Solar Resource


    Low geographic

    resource variability

    Simple to install and


    No special skills or




    3 months of winter


    Needs storage or

    additional energy


    Anemic resource


    Map Source NRcan

    Fixed Tilt Panel

    @ Latitude

    TRT Tracked

    Solar Panels


    Trackers Make Canadas Northern Solar Resource Better Than The South

  • 9

    Wind Furling of PV Array

    Wind and Snow

    Compliant Solar

    Panel Mounting

    Lowers Anchoring

    and Structural


    Tracked Panel Mounting = Lower Cost and Increased Energy Captured

  • 10

    Additional Benefits of Tracking


    panels are

    clear of



    snow on

    fixed panels

    can take

    months to


    Solar Panels Clear of Snow Capture Up to 10% More Energy Per Year

  • 11

    Type of Mounting Matters

    1.6x More Customers Served From The Same Solar Panels When Tracked

  • 12

    Compact Shipping & Wind Furling

    Patent Pending

    Pre-Assembly and Pre-Wiring = Reduce Cost for Remote Solar

  • 13

    14 kWdc System

    Minimum Touch With Minimum Equipment = Fast & Low-Cost Deployment

    On-Site Off-Loading and Deployment

    Field Labor: 2 men x 2 hours to erect from boom truck drop

  • 14

    How to Measure Success


    = & ($)


    Hybrid Solar Energy Systems have a lower LCOE than

    Diesel Generators

    in Canadas North TODAY!

    RF and LCOE are Key Metrics for Understanding Energy Solutions

  • 15

    Why Tracked Hybrid Solar in the North

    Validated universally available solar resource +/-15%

    Trackers add up to 60% more energy than fixed mount panels

    Pre-wiring and pre-assembly reduces field labour by up to 75%

    Low-skill deployment & maintenance

    Minimum on-site equipment

    Batteries and Hybrid Inverters enable renewable fractions >70%

    Return on Investment 4-8 years

    Resident Health Enhancements

    Lower noise

    Reduce up to 80% of diesel odor, & particulates

    Avoid up to 80% of Diesel Generated Greenhouse Gases

    Solar & Battery Hybrid = Enhanced Physical and Financial Health

  • 16

    Sustaining the Success

    Avoid the Stranded Asset Syndrome pick a pedigree integrator

    A high inertia company as an integrator will outlast the product

    Lockheed Martin Canada has:

    75 years in Canada

    Competencies are:

    Proprietary solar tracking systems

    Integrated energy solutions

    Small, medium and large scale project management

    In service support for aging equipment

    Remote site logistics

    Training & re-training systems

    Lockheed Martin Excels at Long-Term In-Service Support

  • 17

    Solution Benefits





    Cost ($/kWh)

    Return on

    Investment (years)


    Run Time (hours/year)


    Fraction (% Renewable Energy/

    Total Energy)



    Alone -2

    See below Base line 8760 0%

    Solar +

    Diesel +

    Battery -1

    $0.76 SDB

    $0.93 Diesel Only

    6.8 years 4290 26%

    Solar +

    Diesel +

    Wind +

    Battery -2

    $0.58 SDWB

    $0.75 Diesel only

    6.9 years 3330 58%

    Based on delivered diesel fuel cost of $2.00/liter & NREL - Homer simulations with Meteonorm Solar Data

    1. 68 North Latitude - Canada 2. 58 North Latitude - Canada

  • 18

    High Fraction Hybrid Solar Energy Now Making $s and Sense in Canadas North

    www.lockheedmartin.ca/solar-energy for product information, white paper & presentation

    Dave H. Gerwing B.Eng., M.Sc., P. Eng. dave.gerwing@lmco.com

    613 599-3280 x 3456

  • 19

    Back-Up Slides

  • 20

    Analyze Total Community Energy Use

    Energy Not Suitable In One Category May Be Perfect For Another

  • 21

    Advantage of Solar Tracking

    40-60% more

    energy vs. fixed mount solar panels

    Location Latitude




    Paulatuk, NWT 69.4 161%

    Iqaluit, NT 63.7 141%

    Brochet, MB 57.9 146%

    Shamattawa, MB 55.9 138%

    Toronto, ON 43.7 137%

    Tracked Solar In Canadas North = Huge Performance Gains vs. Fixed

  • 22

    Power Plant Capacity Factors

    = ()


    Typical Capacity Factors

    Solar in Canadas North 10-12%

    Wind in Canadas North 5-40% (highly variable by geography)

    Solar in Nevada 19%

    Hydro 40%

    Concentrated Solar with Storage in Spain 75%

    Nuclear 91%

    Perception is that Capacity Factor = Maximum Renewable Fraction

    No Longer True With Cost Effective Storage and Hybrid Inverters

    Renewable Energy Capacity Factors Renewable Fraction

  • 23

    Wind Power

    Small Wind Speed Changes = Large Impact on Energy Supplied


    ()= 36%

    Wind Power is Proportional to Wind Speed^3

  • 24

    Wind Prospecting with Lockheed Lidar

    Lockheed 3D Wind Energy Mapping Enhances Project Success

  • 25

    Renewable Fraction (RF) & Fuel Price

    Hybridizing Appropriate Technologies Maximizes Renewable Fraction

  • 26

    LCOE & Fuel Price

    Northern Tracked Solar is Less Expensive Than Diesel Electricity Today !



    g P



  • 27

    Cycle Charge vs. Load Following

    Under load following, the genset varies its output power to

    follow the load meeting current electricity demands:

    None of the electricity produced by the diesel generators is stored

    by the battery but the genset runs 8760 hrs/yr

    Under cycle charging, the genset operates very efficiently at full

    capacity intermittently. Any surplus power charges the battery:

    Battery state of charge set points keep the battery at optimal

    charge levels automatically starting and stopping the genset

    Under this scenario, the diesel generators can be turned off, but a

    grid forming inverter is needed

    Integrating renewables with cycle charge can cost-effectively

    maximize their fraction of total energy supplied and dramatically

    reduce diesel fuel use, run times and maintenance costs

    Cycle Charging + Hybrid Inverter Minimize Diesel Run Times & Fuel Use

  • 28

    Hybrid Inverters

    Perform the following functions:

    Enable seamless transfer from grid forming Islanded operation

    mode to frequency following Grid Tie mode when gensets are

    powering the majority of the system


    Inverters for DC to AC load support from battery or DC

    renewable source

    AC-DC charger/rectifier to enable genset to charge the batteries

    DC to DC charge controllers to enable renewables to charge the


    Keep the grid stable with 0-100% renewable fraction, genset on

    or off, using batteries as the system inertia

    Capable of no power Black Starts for remote system resets

    Full remote control and system monitoring

    Hybrid Inverters + Batteries Enable High Penetration RE Solutions

  • 29

    68N Latitude Arctic Circle Canada

    @ $2.00/Liter fuel price:

    31% reduction in fuel

    51% less genset run time

    Positive Net Present Value

    IRR in the teens

    ROI < 7 years

    Community Renewable Energy is Economic Today!

    Solar-Battery & Genset

    Cycle Charge Example

    26% Renewable Fraction

    Community System:

    90 kW Genset

    135 kW Solar

    120 kWh Battery