high and late middle ages 1050-1450

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High and Late Middle Ages 1050-1450. Chapter 8. Royal Power Grows. Section 1. William the Conqueror. Who: King of England What: conquered England & set out to control the land Where: England (Normandy, France) When: 1028-1087; 1066* - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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High and Late Middle Ages 1050-1450

High and Late Middle Ages1050-1450Chapter 8Royal Power GrowsSection 1William the ConquerorWho: King of EnglandWhat: conquered England & set out to control the landWhere: England (Normandy, France) When: 1028-1087; 1066*Why: he conquered England to defeat his cousin & became king; change the power of England to the NormansWilliam the Conq (wksht) King of England- Edward- died w/o an heirHis brother Harold inherited itBut William said it was his= conquer England to take the throne= Anglo-Saxons gone- Normans are in chargeCommon LawWho: Royal courts, Henry IIWhat: a legal system based on customs & court rulings Where: EnglandWhen: 1154 ADWhy: unlike local feudal laws, this applied to all of England instead of just local; ppl brought disputes to royal courts instead of church; centralized the law

Henry II (workbook)Inherited the throne in EnglandClaimed rights to rule clergy (church officials) & the royal courtsHe developed common law & a jury system- unifying the legal system under one power- no longer local law but one central lawJuryWho: group of men that spoke the truth, Henry IIWhat: group of men determined what cases would be brought to trial Where: EnglandWhen: 1154Why: this was an early form of todays Grand Jury; this led to trial jury- an accused person is judged by 12 of his neighborsKing JohnWho: son of Henry II, King of EnglandWhat: a clever, cruel, & untrustworthy rulerWhere: Enlgand When: 1205Why: lost a war = lost land & popularity; argued w. the Pope over his choices; angered his nobles w. oppressive taxes & abuses = Magna Carta (limited his power)King John (workbook)He abused power & overtaxed his nobles= ppl unhappy=Magna Carta = limited royal powerMagna CartaWho: King John, groups of rebellious barons (nobles)What: a document that limited the kings power due to his abusesWhere: EnglandWhen: 1215*Why: this shaped the future of English government-- this said nobles had rights (eventually given to all ppl not just nobles), made it so that the monarch had to obey the law; also introduced due process of law & Habeas CorpusDue Process of Law Who: King John, townspeopleWhat: a clause that prpotected freemen from arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, &other legal actionsWherE: EnglandWhen: 1215Why: formed the basis of the rights we know &have today- we have rights even when being arrested Habeas CorpusWho: citizens, people that are arrestedWhat: a right that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crimeWhere: England, WEWhen: 1215-todayWhy: this right was later confirmed in the Petition of Right & is still around today protecting citizens from unjust arrestParliamentWho:What:Where:When:Why: The Holy Roman Empire and the Church Section 2Holy Roman EmpireWho: Charlemagne; Otto IWhat: empire that ruled throughout WE from Germany to ItalyWhere: Central & Eastern Europe (Germany, Italy)When: 1077-Why: The Pope was the most powerful man on earth = he gave power of this Empire to the most trustworthy leaders (the Empire was Holy) ; largest Empire in Europe since the fall of Rome Henry IVWho: King of Germany, Holy Roman EmperorWhat: leader of the HRE; was excommunicated by Pope in 1076 b.c. not following rules of Gregory VIIWhere: Germany, HRE, WEWhen: 1054-Why: Henry fought w Pope Gregory VII; was excommunicated; later repented & was forgiven but he led an army to Rome to force Pope into Exile (fought about Lay Investiture) Henry IV (Workbook)Actions: fought w. Pope Gregory VII about Lay Investiture; later repented but led an army to Rome to kick the Pope outEffects: he was excommunicated by the Pope but later brought back into church; he signed the Concordat of Worms= took away his power to appoint religious leaders (= Pope more powerful) Gregory VIIWho: PopeWhat: Pope that instituted many church reforms such as banning Lay Invest. Where: Rome, Italy (WE)When: 1054-1077Why: he banned the practice of Lay Investiture which caused an issue w. Henry IV; his policies created hatred & contempt b.c. ppl wanted to be independent from the church (secular) Gregory VII (Workbook)Actions: caused controversy when he banned Lay Invest. ; excommunicated Henry IV for arguing about itEffects: he wanted to make the church independent of secular rulers so he banned Lay Invest- making him the most powerful b.c. he now appointed all religious officialsLay InvestitureWho: Gregory VII vs. Henry IVWhat: a church practice where an Emperor or lay person (not relig) vested a person as a religious official or presented bishops w. rings that symbolized their office Where: Rome, Italy, (WE)When: 1054-1077Why: this caused conflict b.n Greg VII & Henry IV which led to Henrys excommunication; ppl were mad about Gregory VII banned this- they rebelledFrederick BarbarossaWho: Holy Roman Emperor, known as Red Beard , ambitious German rulerWhat: fought to bring cities into Italy under his control so he joined w. the Pope to have more control; he wanted to expand his EmpireWhere: Germany, ItalyWhen: 1100-1200 Why: he wanted to build an Empire from Baltic to Adriatic Seas ; he succeeds in expanding his Empire through marriage = German Emp. Are more deeply involved in Italian affairsFrederick Barbarossa (workbook)Actions: he fought to expand his Empire & succeeded in bringing Northern Italy under his powerEffects: b.c. of his expansion Germany was more deeply involved in Italian affairsPope Innocent IIIPope Innocent III (Workbook)The CrusadesSection 3CrusadesWho: European Christians vs. Muslims What: a series of wars where Christians battled the Muslims over control of the Holy Land in the Middle East (ME)Where: Middle East (ME)When: 1096-1296Why: they learned that the world was larger than they thought & these encounters outside of Europe accelerated change w.in Europe expand their economies (new goods); monarchs become more powerful; CrusadesWho: Christians vs. MuslimsWhat: a series of religious wars over control of the Holy Land for control of the Middle East Where: Middle East (ME)When: 1096-1291Why: European Christians found the world was much larger than they thought & their encounters outside of Europe accelerated change IN Europe- economies expand (new goods), monarchs increase in powerCrusadesWho: European Christians vs. Muslim TurksWhat: a series of religious wars fought over control of the Holy Land Where: Middle East (ME)When: 1096- 1291Why: Christians battled for control of land in the Middle East, West. Europeans learned the world was much larger than they thought & their encounters out of Europe accelerated change @ home- economies expand (new goods); the power of the monarchs increasesHoly LandWho: Muslims vs ChristiansWhat: the land that Christians believed Jesus was from so it was the origin of their religion; Muslims believed it was the origin of theirsWhere: Jerusalem & Palestine (ME)When: 1071Why: Muslims groups controlled this region which prevented Christians from being together; This land was fought over in the CrusadesHoly LandWho: Christians, MuslimsWhat: land in the Middle East where Christians believed Jesus lived & preached meaning it was the origin of their religious; Muslims felt the same about Muhammad hereWhere: Jerusalem & Palestine, MEWhen: 1071Why: this land was the start of both Muslim & Christian religions = Muslims had control here = Christians were prevented from being here = Crusades (war)Holy LandWho: Muslim Turks vs. European ChristiansWhat: loaction in the Middle East where Christians believed Jesus preached so it was their Holy Land; Muslim founder Muhammad was from here so it was theirs alsoWhere: Jerusalem & Palestine, ME When: 1071Why: Muslims controlled this land= Christians couldnt go here = Crusades (war) for control of the landPope Urban II (3rd) Who: PopeWhat: got bishops & nobles to fight against the Muslim Turks for control of the Holy LandWhere: Rome, Italy, WEWhen: 1095-1291Why: he wanted Christians to stop fighting each other & fight Muslims instead; he hoped this would increase his power; & he wanted to heal the split b.n the 2 churches (Orthodox & Catholic)Pope Urban II (6th) Who: Roman PopeWhat: gave Christian knights to the Byzantine Empire to help fight against Muslims in the Holy LandWhere: Rome, Italy, WEWhen: 1095Why: he wanted to increase his power; he hoped to heal the schism (split) of the church & he wanted Christians to fight Muslims not other ChristiansPope Urban II (7th)Who: PopeWhat: gathered Christian knights to fight for Christianity against the Muslim TurksWhere: Rome, Italy, WE; MEWhen: 1095-1145Why: He hoped to increase his power in Europe; heal the schism (split) in the Byzantine & WE Christian churches; set the Crusades to fight Muslims instead of other ChristiansReconquista (2nd )Who: Christian kingdomsWhat: a campaign to drive Muslims from the Iberian peninsula (Spain) Where: Iberian peninsula, SpainWhen: 1085-1491Why: the Christians sought out to take over Muslim lands- by 1300 Christians controlled the whole peninsula, Muslim influence remained strong; Ferdinand &Isabella completed the Recon. By making Spain all ChristianReconquista (6th) Who: Christians vs. MuslimsWhat: the Christians strove to drive the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain & Portugal) and make it all ChristianWhere: Iberian Peninsula, Spain, WEWhen: 1085-1492Why: The Christian kingdoms wanted to push the Muslims out of Spain & they succeed- Ferdinand & Isabella complete the Recon. By getting rid of the Muslims Reconquista (7th) Who: Christians vs. MuslimsWhat: Christians drive the Muslims off the Iberian peninsula to make it all ChristianWhere: Iberian peninsula, Spain, WE When: 1085-1492Why: Christians drove most of the Muslims out of Spain, they conquered most of Spain & tried converting them to ChristianityFerdinand & IsabellaWho: Ferdinand of Arag

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