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DESCRIPTIONHerbal Supplementation. Discussing the concepts, potentials, and effectiveness of herbal supplementation. HW499-01-Unit 4 Assignment Jacqueline Taylor Kaplan University Bachelor's Capstone in Health and Wellness HW499-01 Edward Eaves October 16, 2013. Objectives. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Herbal SupplementationDiscussing the concepts, potentials, and effectiveness of herbal supplementationHW499-01-Unit 4 AssignmentJacqueline TaylorKaplan UniversityBachelor's Capstone in Health and WellnessHW499-01Edward EavesOctober 16, 2013
Objectives Explain history and trends of herbal supplements use in US Most commonly used herbal supplements and their uses.Uses of herbal supplements and potential risks.
DefinitionIntended to supplement regular diet.Contains one or more dietary ingredients.Taken by mouth in various forms.Properly labeled as a supplement.
RegulationHerbal supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Their regulation is based on the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994This act was passed to make natural medicine available to the population at a faster rate then if they went through the rigorous testing of the FDAThe act worked under the assumption that natural medicines were safe and did not need to be as regulated
SafetyManufacturers of herbal supplements do not need to demonstrate efficacy of their product or safety profilesThey market their products making claims that have never been properly tested Herbal manufacturers are also not required to present evidence of safety
UsageUse of herbal supplements is on the rise.Increase in use from 3% in 1990 to 12% in 1997 to 30% in 2008 for US adults.Retail sales of herbal products increased from $8.8 billion in 1994 to $14.7 billion in 1999.In patients greater then age 65, 12.9% reported using an herbal supplement in the previous 12 months (study in 2002).
Some uses for herbal medicineAsthmaEczemaPremenstrual syndromeRheumatoid arthritisMigraineMenopausal symptomsChronic fatigueIrritable bowel syndromeCancerThousands of others not mentioned.
**Consult with your primary care physician or healer before taking any herbs.
HistoryPlants used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. Ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal uses for plants as early as 3,000 BC.
History (cont.)Herbs used in healing rituals.Ayurveda and Traditional Oriental Medicine were developed using herbal therapies. Same or similar plants used around the world for the same purposes.
Top 10 used herbal supplements in USGinkgo biloba* (Ginkgo biloba)
Saw palmetto* (Serenoa repens)
Echinacea - (from Echinacea purpurea and other Echinacea species)
*statistically significant evidence of working
Top 10 used herbal supplements in US (cont.)Grape seed extract
St. Johns wort*
Most commonly used herbal supplements in GeriatricsGlucosamine EchinaceaGarlicGinkgo bilobaFish oils Ginseng Ginger Saw palmettoSoy Peppermint St. Johns wortRagweed/chamomile
SummaryBe an informed consumer.The word natural does not always mean safe.Be aware of possible interactions with other herbs and prescription medications.Be aware of the potential for contamination.Keep your health practitioner informed.
ReferencesBruno, J. J., & Ellis, J. J. (2005, ). April. PubMed, 4, 643-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15741417Dietary Supplements. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/food/dietarysupplements/Dietary and Herbal Supplements. (2013). Retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/supplements
References (cont.)Glucosamine sulfate. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/807.htmlHerbal medicine. (2011). Retrieved from http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/treatment/herbal-medicineHerbs at a Glance. (2013). Retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/Time To Talk About Dietary Supplements: 5 Things Consumers Need To Know. (2013). Retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/tips/supplements
This presentation will give a brief explanation of the history and trends of herbal supplementation that is used in the United States, along with the most commonly used herbal supplements, the uses of herbal supplements and potential drug interactions. Caution is always advised as to always check with your health provider, no matter if it is western (allopathic), oriental, or ayurvedic so that you use these herbs correctly and there is no counteraction with any other form of healing that is taking place.*Unfortunately, this is actually happening in our physicians offices. The example I am thinking about is several years back when western physicians used to prescribe antibiotics at the drop of a hat just to make the patient feel as though they were legitimately ill. This alone has caused many people to become antibiotic resistant and to help perpetuate superbugs that antibiotics are not able to control.*A dietary supplement, as defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), is a product that:Is intended to supplement the diet.Contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and certain other substances) or their constituents.Is intended to be taken by mouth, in forms such as tablet, capsule, powder, softgel, gelcap, or liquid.Is labeled as being a dietary supplement ("Dietary and Herbal Supplements," 2013, para. 1).
*FDA regulates both finished dietary supplement products and dietary ingredients. FDA regulates dietary supplements under a different set of regulations than those covering "conventional" foods and drug products. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA):The manufacturer of a dietary supplement or dietary ingredient is responsible for ensuring that the product is safe before it is marketed.FDA is responsible for taking action against any unsafe dietary supplement product after it reaches the market.Generally, manufacturers do not need to register their products with FDA or get FDA approval before producing or selling dietary supplements.* Manufacturers must make sure that product label information is truthful and not misleading ("Dietary Supplements," 2013, para. 1 and 3).*Under FDA regulations at 21 CFR part 111, all domestic and foreign companies that manufacture, package, label or hold dietary supplement, including those involved with testing, quality control, and dietary supplement distribution in the U.S., must comply with the Dietary Supplement Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) for quality control. In addition, the manufacturer, packer, or distributor whose name appears on the label of a dietary supplement marketed in the United States is required to submit to FDA all serious adverse event reports associated with use of the dietary supplement in the United States. FDA's responsibilities include product information, such as labeling, claims, package inserts, and accompanying literature. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulates dietary supplement advertising ("Dietary Supplements," 2013, para. 1 and 3).
*Analysis of weighted data revealed that 12.9% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SE) of US elderly people had used an herbal supplement within the past 12 months. Use was greatest among individuals 65-69 years of age, females, Hispanic and non-Hispanic ethnic minorities, and respondents with a greater income, higher education level, or more positive self-reported health status. Among elderly people purchasing over-the-counter and prescription drugs, herbal use was 13.9% +/- 0.6% and 12.8% +/- 0.6%, respectively. Glucosamine, echinacea, and garlic supplements represented the most common herbals used. Benefit from combined herbal and conventional therapy was the most common reason cited for use; however, 50.9% +/- 2.2% of users did not discuss herbal therapy with a medical professional. Several theoretical herb-disease interactions were identified (Bruno & Ellis, 2005, para. 4).*Herbal medicine is used to treat many conditions, such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and cancer, among others. Herbal supplements are best taken under the guidance of a trained health care provider. For example, one study found that 90% of arthritic patients use alternative therapies, such as herbal medicine. As with all other medications, it is critical to be sure to consult with your primary care physician before taking any form off medication because of possible interactions. *It is important to note that while our western, or allopathic, form of medicine came on the scene about 100 years ago, other forms of healing and herbal supplements have been around for thousands of years and while not having been proven under western scientific measure, have been proven over time to be effective. Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. Ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal uses for plants as early as 3,000 BC. In the early 19th century, when chemical analysis first became available, scientists began to extract and modify the active ingredients from plants. Later, chemists began making their own version of plant compounds and, over time, the use of herbal medicines declined in favor of drugs. Almost one fourth of pharmaceutical drugs are derived from botanicals ("History," 2011, para. 2-3).*Indigenous cultures (such as African and Native American) used herbs in their healing rituals, while others developed traditional medical systems (such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine) in which herbal therapies were used. Researchers found that people in different parts of the world tended to use the same or similar plants for the same purposes.*Gingko Biloba - ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba, fossil tree, maidenhair tree, Japanese silver apricot, baiguo, bai guo ye, kew tree, yinhsing(yin-hsing): Numerous studies of ginkgo have been done for a variety of conditions. Among the most widely researched are dementia, memory impairment, intermittent claudication, andtinnitus. There are some data to suggest that ginkgo can increase bleeding risk, so people who take anticoagulant drugs, have bleeding disorders, or have scheduled surgery or dental procedures should use caution and talk to a health care provider if usingginkgo.
Saw Palmetto - saw palmetto, American dwarf palm tree, cabbagepalm; Latin Name:Serenoa repens, Sabalserrulata: Saw palmetto is a small palm tree native to the eastern United States. Its fruit was used medicinally by the Seminole Tribe of Florida. Saw palmetto is used as a traditional or folk remedy for urinary symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate gland (also called benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH), as well as for chronic pelvic pain, bladder disorders, decreased sex drive, hair loss, hormone imbalances, and prostatecancer.
Ginseng: Some studies have found that ginseng may boost the immune system. There is some evidence that one particular type of American ginseng extract might decrease the number and severity of colds in adults. Several studies in people have also shown that ginseng may lower blood sugar levels.There is some early evidence that ginseng might temporarily -- and modestly -- improve concentration and learning. In some studies of mental performance, ginseng has been combined with ginkgo. While these studies are intriguing, many experts feel that we need more evidence.
There are nine known species of echinacea, all of which are native to the United States and southern Canada. Echinacea has traditionally been used for colds, flu, and other infections, but research studies on echinacea for colds have had inconclusiveresults.
Garlic is the edible bulb from a plant in the lily family. It has been used as both a medicine and a spice for thousands of years. Garlics most common folk or traditional uses as a dietary supplement are for high cholesterol, heart disease, and high blood pressure. Other folk or traditional uses include prevention of certain types of cancer, including stomach and colon cancers. Garlic cloves can be eaten raw or cooked. They may also be dried or powdered and used in tablets and capsules. Raw garlic cloves can be used to make oils and liquidextracts.
*Grape Seed Extract - The leaves and fruit of the grape have been used medicinally since ancient Greece. Today, grape seed extract is used as a folk or traditional remedy for conditions related to the heart and blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and poor circulation; complications related to diabetes, such as nerve and eye damage; vision problems, such as macular degeneration (which can cause blindness); swelling after an injury or surgery; cancer prevention; and woundhealing. The grape seeds used to produce grape seed extract are generally obtained from wine manufacturers. Grape seed extract is available in capsule and tabletforms.
Green Tea - All types of tea (green, black, and oolong) are produced from the Camellia sinensis plant using different methods. Fresh leaves from the plant are steamed to produce green tea. Green tea and green tea extracts, such as its component EGCG, have traditionally been used to prevent and treat a variety of cancers, including breast, stomach, and skin cancers, and for mental alertness, weight loss, lowering cholesterol levels, and protecting skin from sundamage. Green tea is usually brewed and drunk as a beverage. Green tea extracts can be taken in capsules and are sometimes used in skinproducts.
St. Johns wort is a plant with yellow flowers whose medicinal uses were first recorded in ancient Greece. The name St. Johns wort apparently refers to John the Baptist, as the plant blooms around the time of the feast of St. John the Baptist in late June. Historically, St. Johns wort has been used for centuries to treat mental disorders and nerve pain. St. Johns wort has also been used for malaria, as a sedative, and as a balm for wounds, burns, and insect bites. Today, St. Johns wort is used as a folk or traditional remedy for depression, anxiety, and/or sleepdisorders. The flowering tops of St. Johns wort are used to prepare teas, tablets, and capsules containing concentrated extracts. Liquid extracts and topical preparations are alsoused. Research has shown that St. Johns wort interacts with many medications in ways that can interfere with their intended effects. Always be sure your physician is aware of the use of this herbal supplement.
Soy, a plant in the pea family, has been common in Asian diets for thousands of years. It is found in modern American diets as a food or food additive. Soybeans, the high-protein seeds of the soy plant, contain isoflavonescompounds similar to the female hormone estrogen. Traditional or folk uses of soy products include menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, memory problems, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, breast cancer, and prostatecancer.
Kava is native to the islands of the South Pacific and is a member of the pepper family. Kava has been used as a ceremonial beverage in the South Pacific forcenturies. Historically, kava was used to help people fall asleep and fight fatigue, as well as to treat asthma and urinary tract infections. It also had a topical use as a numbing agent. More recent folk or traditional uses include anxiety, insomnia, and menopausalsymptom ("Herbs at a Glance," 2013).
*It is interesting to note the herbs that are the most used by our older adult population. Glucosamine sulfate, which is at the top of the list, is a naturally occurring chemical found in the human body. It is in the fluid that is around joints. Glucosamine is also found in other places in nature. For example, the glucosamine sulfate that is put into dietary supplements is often harvested from the shells of shellfish. Glucosamine sulfate used in dietary supplements does not always come from natural sources. It can also be made in a laboratory. Glucosamine sulfate is commonly used for arthritis. Scientists have studied it extensively for this use. It is most often used for a type of arthritis called osteoarthritis. This is the most common type of arthritis ("Glucosamine sulfate," 2013, para. 1). *Many people take dietary supplements in an effort to be well and stay healthy. Herbal medicines or botanicals, also called natural products, are one type of dietary supplement. Dietary supplements can come in the form of pills, powders, or liquids and are widely available. While there is a lot of evidence that dietary supplements help in preventing and treating nutrient deficiency, there is much less evidence about their usefulness in preventing or treating other diseases. So, there is a lot we dont know. If you are thinking about or are using a dietary supplement, here are five points to consider:1. Take charge of your health by being an informed consumer. The standards for marketing supplements are very different from the standards for drugs. Dietary supplements are marketed with the same regulations and labels as food. For example, marketers of a supplement do not have to prove to the FDA that it is safe or that it works before it arrives on grocery store shelves. Find out what the scientific evidence says about the safety of a dietary supplement and whether it works. The resources below can help you. 2."Natural" does not necessarily mean "safe. When you see the term standardized (or verified or certified) on the bottle, it does not necessarily guarantee product quality or consistency. 3.Interactions are possible. Remember, herbal supplements have been used by healers for thousands of years and are the original medicines. Some dietary supplements may interact with western medications (prescription or over-the-counter) or other dietary supplements, and some may have side effects on their own. For example, research has shown that St. Johns wort interacts with many medications in ways that can interfere with their intended effects, including antidepressants, birth control pills, antiretrovirals used to treat HIV infection, and others. 4.Be aware of the potential for contamination. Some supplements have been found to contain hidden prescription drugs or other compounds, particularly in dietary supplements marketed for weight loss, sexual health including erectile dysfunction, and athletic performance or body-building. It is best, if you are going to use herbal supplements, to purchase the herb and capsulize them yourself. That way, you know what is in them. 5.Talk to your health care providers. Tell your health care providers about any complementary health products or practices you use, including dietary supplements. This will help give them a full picture of what you are doing to manage your health and will help ensure coordinated and safe care ("Dietary Supplement Need To Know," 2013, para. 1-6).*Always go to verifiable websites for the most up-to-date information regarding herbals. These listed sites all contain information and advice that is constantly monitored for accuracy and quality.*