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<ul><li><p>HelpingYour Child</p><p>Learn Science</p></li><li><p>U.S. Department of EducationMargaret SpellingsSecretary </p><p>First published in September 1992. Revised in 2004 and 2005.</p><p>This booklet is in the public domain.Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part for educational purposes is granted. While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: </p><p>U.S. Department of Education, Office ofCommunications and Outreach,Helping Your Child Learn Science,Washington, D.C., 2005. </p><p>To order copies of this publication in Englishor Spanish, write to:</p><p>ED PubsEducation Publications CenterU.S. Department of EducationP.O. Box 1398Jessup, MD 20794-1398;</p><p>or fax your request to: (301) 470-1244;</p><p>or e-mail your request to: edpubs@inet.ed.gov.</p><p>or call in your request toll-free: 1-877-433-7827(1-877-4-ED-PUBS). If 877 is not yet available inyour area, call 1-800-872-5327 (1-800-USA-LEARN).Those who use a telecommunications device for thedeaf (TDD) or a teletypewriter (TTY), should call 1-800-437-0833.</p><p>or order online at:www.edpubs.org/webstore/Content/search.asp</p><p>This publication is also available on theDepartments Web site at:www.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/hyc.html</p><p>On request, this publication is available inalternate formats, such as Braille, large print,audiotape, or computer diskette. For moreinformation, please contact the DepartmentsAlternate Format Center at (202) 260-9895 or(202) 205-0818.</p><p>Childrens books and magazines are mentioned inthis booklet as examples and are only a few ofmany appropriate childrens books and periodicals.Other materials mentioned are provided as resourcesand examples for the readers convenience. Listingof materials and resources in this book should notbe construed or interpreted as an endorsement bythe Department of any private organization orbusiness listed herein.</p><p>HelpingYour Child</p><p>Learn Science</p><p>with activities for children in preschool through grade 5</p><p>U.S. Department of Education Office of Communications and Outreach</p></li><li><p>Helping Your Child Learn ScienceHelping Your Child Learn Science</p><p>ContentsForeword</p><p>Why is the sky blue?Why do things fall to the ground?How do seeds grow?What makes the sound and music?Where do mountains come from?</p><p>Young children ask their parents hundreds of questions like these. In search of answers, we use scienceto both enlighten and delight. Being scientific involves being curious, observing, asking how thingshappen and learning how to find the answers. Curiosity is natural to children, but they need helpunderstanding how to make sense of what they see and to relate their observations to their existingideas and understandings. This is why parental involvement is so important in childrens scienceeducation. When we encourage children to ask questions, make predictions, offer explanations andexplore in a safe environment, we lend them the kind of support that they need to become successfulscience students and scientific thinkers.</p><p>As a parent, you dont have to be a scientist or have a college degree to help your child learn science.Whats far more important than being able to give a technical explanation of how a telescope works isyour willingness to nurture your childs natural curiosity by taking the time to observe and learn together.</p><p>Science happens all around us every day, and you have endless opportunities to invite your childinto the wonders of science. Without expensive chemistry sets, equipment or kits, a child can beintroduced easily to the natural world and encouraged to observe what goes on in that world. Whenyou least expect it, a moment for learning will occur: A bit of ice cream drops on the sidewalk and antsappear; some cups float and some sink when youre washing dishes; static electricity makes your hairstand on end when you put on a sweater. </p><p>Through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, President George W. Bush has made clear his commitment tothe goals of raising standards of achievement for all children and of providing all children with highlyqualified teachers and with instruction that is based on scientific research. Helping Your Child Learn Scienceis part of the presidents efforts to provide parents with the latest research and practical informationdesigned to support childrens learning at home, at school and in the community. It reflects theimportance of inquiry processes and content in science achievement as described in the National ScienceEducation Standards, released in 1996 by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.</p><p>This booklet includes a range of activities for families with children from preschool age through grade 5.The activities use materials found in your home and make learning experiences out of everyday routines.The activities are designed for you to have fun with your child while developing and reinforcing scienceskills. We hope you and your child will enjoy the activities suggested in this booklet and develop manymore of your own.</p><p>iiiii</p><p>Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Developing Your Childs Scientific Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11</p><p>Science in the Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13A Science Walk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Breaking the Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Bubbles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Bugs! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Float or Sink? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Slime Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Celery Stalks at Midnight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Icky Sticky Stuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Splish Splash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Hair-Raising Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Let Em Make Cake! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Science in the Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Zoos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37Museums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39Planetariums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40Aquariums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40Science at Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1Community Science Groups and Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Other Community Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42</p><p>Working With Teachers and Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47</p><p>Federal Sources of Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Publications for Parents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Books for Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49Magazines for Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60Science Toys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62Science on TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62Science on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64Science Camps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65</p><p>Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68</p></li><li><p>Helping Your Child Learn Science</p><p>As a parent, you are preparing your child for a world vastly different fromthe one in which you grew up. Our increasingly technological society willneed citizens who have received far more advanced instruction in scienceand technology than most of us received when we were in school. Evenchildren who dont want to become physicists, chemists, engineers orcomputer technicians will need some knowledge of science and technologyjust to conduct their everyday lives. Every citizen needs to be scientificallyliterate in order to make informed decisions about health, safety andcitizenship. Our children need our help and guidance to prepare for theworld that awaits them. </p><p>Scientific knowledge is cumulative: To learn new things, you must buildon what you already know. So, its important that your child start learningearlyand at home. A good way for you to begin the learning process isby sharing your own interest in science. How you view and talk aboutscience can influence your childs attitudes toward scienceand how she1</p><p>approaches learning science. Its easy to undermine a childs interest andattitudes by saying things such as, I was lousy in science, and Ive doneOK, or I always hated science when I was in school. Its boring. Althoughyou cant make your child like science, you can encourage her to do so,and you can help her to appreciate its value both in her everyday life andin preparing for her future. </p><p>In everyday interactions with your child, you can do many thingsand dothem without lecturing or applying pressureto help her learn science.Here are a few ideas: </p><p> See how long it takes for a dandelion or a rose to burst into full bloom.</p><p> Watch the moon as it appears to change shape over the course of amonth and record the changes.</p><p> Look for constellations in the night sky.</p><p> Bake a cake.</p><p>1</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Helping Your Child Learn Scienceiv</p><p>Quality education is a cornerstone of Americas </p><p>future and my administration, and the knowledge-based</p><p>workplace of the 21st century requires that our students</p><p>excel at the highest levels in math and science.</p><p>President George W. Bush</p><p>1. Please note: In this booklet, we refer to a child as she in some places and he in others. We do this to make the booklet easier to read.Please understand, however, that every point that we make is the same for boys and girls.</p></li><li><p> Solve the problem of a drooping plant. </p><p> Figure out how the spin cycle of the washingmachine gets the water out of the clothes. </p><p> Take apart an old clock or mechanical toyyoudont need to put it back together!</p><p> Watch icicles melt.</p><p> Observe pigeons, squirrels, butterflies, ants orspider webs. </p><p> Go for a walk and talk about how the dogs (or birds or cats) that yousee are alike and different.</p><p> Discover what materials the buildings in your community are madeof. Wood? Concrete? Adobe? Brick? Granite? Sandstone? Steel?Glass? Talk about the reasons for using these materials.</p><p>Learning to observe carefully is an important step leading to scientificexplanations. Experiencing the world with your child and exchanginginformation with him about what you see are important, too. </p><p>Finally, encourage your child to ask questions. If you cant answer all of herquestions, thats all right no one has all the answers, not even scientists.For example, point out that theres no known cure for a cold, but that wedo know how diseases are passed from person to personthrough germs.Some of the best answers you can give are, What do you think? and Letsfind out together. Together, you and your child can propose possibleanswers, test them out and check them by using reference books, theInternet, or by asking someone who is likely to know the correct answers.</p><p>Helping Your Child Learn Science2 Helping Your Child Learn Science</p><p>How to Use This BookletThis booklet makes available to you information that you can use to helpyour child to learn science. It includes: </p><p> Some basic information about science; </p><p> Activities for you and your child t...</p></li></ul>