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<p>HCI Remixed</p> <p>HCI RemixedEssays on Works That Have Inuenced the HCI Community</p> <p>edited by Thomas Erickson and David W. McDonald</p> <p>The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England</p> <p>2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. For information about special quantity discounts, email special_sales@mitpress.mit.edu. This book was set in Sabon by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong, and was printed and bound in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data HCI remixed : reections on works that have inuenced the HCI community / edited by Thomas Erickson and David W. McDonald. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-262-05088-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Human-computer interaction. I. Erickson, Thomas, 1956. II. McDonald, David W., 1964. QA76.9.H85H4125 2008 004.019dc22 2007005537 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>List of Works Covered xi Acknowledgments xvii Introduction I 1 Big Ideas 1 5</p> <p>My Vision Isnt My Vision: Making a Career Out of Getting Back to Where I Started 7 William Buxton Deeply Intertwingled: The Unexpected Legacy of Ted Nelsons Computer Lib/Dream Machines 13 Daniel M. Russell ManComputer Symbiosis Ronald M. Baecker 19 23</p> <p>2</p> <p>3 4 5 II 6 7</p> <p>Drawing on SketchPad: Reections on Computer Science and HCI Joseph A. Konstan The Mouse, the Demo, and the Big Idea Wendy Ju Inuential Systems 35 37 29</p> <p>A Creative Programming Environment Henry Lieberman</p> <p>Fundamentals in HCI: Learning the Value of Consistency and User Models 43 Sara Bly It Is Still a Star Susanne Bdker 49</p> <p>8</p> <p>vi</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>9 10 III 11 12 13 14 15</p> <p>The Disappearing Computer Norbert A. Streitz It Really Is All About Location! Anind K. Dey Large Groups, Loosely Joined</p> <p>55 61 67 69</p> <p>Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer Sara Kiesler On the Diffusion of Innovations in HCI Danyel Fisher From Smart to Ordinary Barry Brown Knowing the Particulars Thomas Erickson 81 87 75</p> <p>Back to Samba School: Revisiting Seymour Paperts Ideas on Community, Culture, Computers, and Learning 93 Amy Bruckman The Work to Make Software Work Rebecca E. Grinter Groups in the Wild 103 105 111 97</p> <p>16 IV 17 18 19 20 21 22</p> <p>McGrath and the Behaviors of Groups (BOGs) Jonathan Grudin Observing Collaboration: Group-Centered Design Saul Greenberg Infrastructure and Its Effect on the Interface W. Keith Edwards Taking Articulation Work Seriously Geraldine Fitzpatrick 123</p> <p>119</p> <p>Lets Shack Up: Getting Serious about GIM David W. McDonald A CSCW Sampler Leysia Palen 135</p> <p>129</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>vii</p> <p>23 V 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 VI 31 32 33 34</p> <p>Video, Toys, and Beyond Being There Brian K. Smith Reective Practitioners 147</p> <p>141</p> <p>A Simulated Listening Typewriter: John Gould Plays Wizard of Oz Chris Schmandt Seeing the Hole in Space Steve Harrison Edward Tuftes 1 + 1 = 3 Scott Jenson 155 161 167</p> <p>149</p> <p>Typographic Space: A Fusion of Design and Technology Jodi Forlizzi Making Sense of Sense Making Steve Whittaker 173</p> <p>Does Voice Coordination Have to Be Rocket Science? Paul M. Aoki Decomposing a Design Space Paul Resnick Theres More to Design Discovering America Terry Winograd 191 193 199 205 185</p> <p>179</p> <p>Interaction Design Considered as a Craft Jonas Lwgren Designing Up in the Software Industry Lynn Cherny</p> <p>Revisiting an Ethnocritical Approach to HCI: Verbal Privilege and Translation 211 Michael J. Muller Some Experience! Some Evolution! Gilbert Cockton Mumford Revisited Susan M. Dray 221 215</p> <p>35 36</p> <p>viii</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>VII Tacking and Jibbing 37 38 39</p> <p>227 229 235</p> <p>Learning from Learning from Notes Judith S. Olson</p> <p>A Site for SOAR Eyes: (Re)placing Cognition Elizabeth F. Churchill</p> <p>You Can Go Home Again: Revisiting a Study of Domestic Computing 241 Allison Woodruff From Gaia to HCI: On Multidisciplinary Design and Coadaptation 247 Wendy E. Mackay Fun at Work: Managing HCI with the Peopleware Perspective John C. Thomas Learning from Engineering Research William Newman Interaction Is the Future of Computing Michel Beaudouin-Lafon 267 269 275 259 263 253</p> <p>40</p> <p>41 42 43</p> <p>VIII Seeking Common Ground 44 45 46</p> <p>A Source of Stimulation: Gibsons Account of the Environment William Gaver</p> <p>When the External Entered HCI: Designing Effective Representations Yvonne Rogers The Essential Role of Mental Models in HCI: Card, Moran, and Newell 281 Kate Ehrlich A Most Fitting Law Gary M. Olson 285 289</p> <p>47 48 49</p> <p>Reections on Card, English, and Burr I. Scott MacKenzie</p> <p>The Contribution of the Language-Action Perspective to a New Foundation for Design 293 Giorgio De Michelis</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>ix</p> <p>50 51</p> <p>Following Procedures: A Detective Story Austin Henderson</p> <p>299 305</p> <p>Play, Flex, and Slop: Sociality and Intentionality Paul Dourish</p> <p>References 309 Index 331</p> <p>List of Works Covered</p> <p>Work Beach, K. 1993. Becoming a Bartender: The Role of External Memory Cues in a Work-directed Educational Activity. Journal of Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7 (3), 191204. Berlin, L. M., Jeffries, R., ODay, V., Paepcke, A. and Wharton, C. 1993. Where Did You Put It? Issues in the Design and Use of a Group Memory. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2330. ACM Press. Card, S. K., English, W. K., and Burr, B. J. 1978. Evaluation of Mouse, Rate-Controlled Isometric Joystick, Step Keys, and Text Keys for Text Selection on a CRT. Ergonomics, 21, 601613. Card, S. K., Moran, T. and Newell, A. 1983. The Psychology of HumanComputer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum. DeMarco, T., and Lister, T. 1999. Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams. Dorset. Dreyfuss, H. 1955. Designing for People. Simon and Schuster. Englebart, D. 1968. The oNLine System (NLS) demo. The American Federation of Information Processing Societies Fall Joint Computer Conference. Retrieved from http://unrev.stanford.edu/.</p> <p>Essay Author Churchill</p> <p>Chapter 38</p> <p>Page 235</p> <p>McDonald</p> <p>21</p> <p>129</p> <p>MacKenzie</p> <p>48</p> <p>289</p> <p>Ehrlich</p> <p>46</p> <p>281</p> <p>Thomas Winograd Ju</p> <p>41 31 5</p> <p>253 193 29</p> <p>xii</p> <p>Works Covered</p> <p>Work Fitts, P. M. 1954. The Information Capacity of the Human Motor System in Controlling the Amplitude of Movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 381391. Reprinted in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 1992, 262269. Forsythe, D. 1999. Ethics and Politics of Studying Up in Technoscience. Anthropology of Work Review, 20 (1), 611. Francik, E., Rudman, S. E., Cooper, D. and Levine, S. 1991. Putting Innovation to Work: Adoption Strategies for Multimedia Communication Systems. Communications of the ACM, 34 (12), 5263. Furnas, G. W. 1986. Generalized Fisheye Views. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1623. ACM Press. Galloway, K., and Rabinowitz, S. 1980. Hole-In-Space. Mobile Image Videotape. Gibson, J. J. 1966. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. George Allen and Unwin. Gould, J., Conti, J., and Hovanyecz, T. 1983. Composing Letters with a Simulated Listening Typewriter. Communications of the ACM, 26 (4), 295308. Greenberg, S., and Marwood, D. 1994. Real-Time Groupware as a Distributed System: Concurrency Control and Its Effect on the Interface. Proceedings of the 1994 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 207217. ACM Press. Hiltz, S. R., and Turoff, M. 1993. The Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer. MIT Press. Hollan, J., and Stornetta, S. 1992. Beyond Being There. Proceedings of SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 119125. ACM Press. Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House. Kidd, A. 1994. The Marks Are on the Knowledge Worker. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 186191. ACM Press.</p> <p>Essay Author G. Olson</p> <p>Chapter 47</p> <p>Page 285</p> <p>Cherny</p> <p>33</p> <p>205</p> <p>Palen</p> <p>22</p> <p>135</p> <p>Resnick</p> <p>30</p> <p>185</p> <p>Harrison Gaver Schmandt</p> <p>25 44 24</p> <p>155 269 149</p> <p>Edwards</p> <p>19</p> <p>119</p> <p>Kiesler Smith</p> <p>11 23</p> <p>69 141</p> <p>Erickson Whittaker</p> <p>14 28</p> <p>87 173</p> <p>Works Covered</p> <p>xiii</p> <p>Work Krupat, A. 1992. Ethnocriticism: Ethnography, History, Literature. University of California Press. Larkin, J. H., and Simon, H. A. 1987. Why a Diagram Is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words. Cognitive Science, 11, 6599. Licklider, J. C. R. 1960. Man-Computer Symbiosis. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1 (1), 411. Reprinted in In Memoriam: J. C. R. Licklider: 19151990, ed. R. W. Taylor. Digital Systems Research Center Reports 61, 1990. Lovelock, J. 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press. Mateas, M., Salvador, T., Scholtz, J., and Soresen, D. 1996. Engineering Ethnography in the Home. Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 283284. ACM Press. McGrath, J. E. 1991. Time, Interaction, and Performance (TIP): A Theory of Groups. Small Group Research, 22 (2), 147174. Mumford, E. and Weir, M. 1979. Computer Systems in Work DesignThe Ethics Method. John Wiley and Sons. Nelson, T. 1974. Computer Lib/Dream Machines. Self-published. (Republished in 1987 by Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.) Orlikowski, W. J. 1992. Learning from Notes: Organizational Issues in Groupware Implementation. Proceedings of the 1992 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 362369. ACM Press. Papert, S. 1980. Mindstorms. Basic Books. Parnas, D. L. 1972. On the Criteria to Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules. Com-munications of the ACM, 15 (12), 10531058. Pulfer, J. K. 1971. ManMachine Interaction in Creative Applications. International Journal of ManMachine Studies, 3, 111. Rogers, E. 1995. Diffusion of Innovations. Free Press.</p> <p>Essay Author Muller Rogers</p> <p>Chapter 34 45</p> <p>Page 211 275</p> <p>Baecker</p> <p>3</p> <p>19</p> <p>Mackay Woodruff</p> <p>40 39</p> <p>247 241</p> <p>Grudin</p> <p>17</p> <p>105</p> <p>Dray</p> <p>36</p> <p>221</p> <p>Russell</p> <p>2</p> <p>13</p> <p>J. Olson</p> <p>37</p> <p>229</p> <p>Bruckman Grinter</p> <p>15 16</p> <p>93 97</p> <p>Buxton</p> <p>1</p> <p>7</p> <p>Fisher</p> <p>12</p> <p>75</p> <p>xiv</p> <p>Works Covered</p> <p>Work Schmidt, K., and Bannon, L. 1992. Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1 (1), 740. Small, D., Ishizaki, S., and Cooper, M. 1994. Typographic Space. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI94) Conference Companion, 437438. Video can be found at www.ibiblio.org/openvideo/video/chi/chi94_ 03_m4.mp4/. Accessed May 2006. Smith, B. C. 1996. On the Origin of Objects. MIT Press. Smith, D. C. 1977. Pygmalion: A Creative Programming Environment. Birkhauser-Verlag. Smith, D., Irby, C., Kimball, R., Verplank, B., and Harslem, E. 1982. Designing the Star User Interface. Byte, 7 (4), 242282. Suchman, L. 1983. Ofce Procedures as Practical Action: Models of Work and System Design. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 1 (4), 320328. Sutherland, I. 1963. Sketchpad: A ManMachine Graphical Communication System. Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 329345. Tang, J. 1989. Listing, Drawing, and Gesturing in Design: A Study of the Use of Shared Workspaces by Design Teams. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University. Report SSL-89-3, Xerox PARC. Tufte, E. R. 1990. Envisioning Information. Graphics Press. Vincenti, W. G. 1990. What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. Johns Hopkins University Press. Want, R., Hopper, A., Falcao, V., and Gibbons, J. 1992. The Active Badge Location System. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (1), 91102. Watts, J. C., Woods, D. D., Corban, J. M., Patterson, E. S., Kerr, R. L., and Hicks, L. C. 1996. Voice Loops as Cooperative Aids in Space Shuttle Mission Control. Proceedings of the 1996 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 4856. ACM Press.</p> <p>Essay Author Fitzpatrick</p> <p>Chapter 20</p> <p>Page 123</p> <p>Forlizzi</p> <p>27</p> <p>167</p> <p>Dourish Lieberman Bdker</p> <p>51 6 8</p> <p>305 37 49</p> <p>Henderson</p> <p>50</p> <p>299</p> <p>Konstan</p> <p>4</p> <p>23</p> <p>Greenberg</p> <p>18</p> <p>111</p> <p>Jenson Newman</p> <p>26 42</p> <p>161 259</p> <p>Dey</p> <p>10</p> <p>61</p> <p>Aoki</p> <p>29</p> <p>179</p> <p>Works Covered</p> <p>xv</p> <p>Work Wegner, P. 1997. Why Interaction Is More Powerful Than Algorithms. Communications of the ACM, 40 (5), 8091. Weiser, M. 1991. The Computer for the 21st Century. Scientic American, 265 (3), 6675. Whiteside, J., Bennett, J., and Holtzblatt, K. 1988. Usability Engineering: Our Experience and Evolution. In Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, ed. M. Helander, 791817. North Holland. Winograd, T., and Flores, F. 1986. Understanding Computers and Cognition. Ablex Publishing. Wroblewski, D. 1991. The Construction of Human-Computer Interfaces Considered as a Craft. In Taking Software Design Seriously: Practical Techniques for Human-Computer Interaction Design, ed. J. Karat, 119. Academic Press. The Xerox Red Book: Star Functional Specication, Revision 5.3 for Star-1. 1981. Systems Development Division, Xerox Corporation. Zuboff, S. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine. Basic Books.</p> <p>Essay Author BeaudouinLafon Streitz Cockton</p> <p>Chapter 43</p> <p>Page 263</p> <p>9 35</p> <p>55 215</p> <p>De Michelis Lwgren</p> <p>49 32</p> <p>293 199</p> <p>Bly</p> <p>7</p> <p>43</p> <p>Brown</p> <p>13</p> <p>81</p> <p>Acknowledgments</p> <p>The rst editor would like to thank his management at IBMWendy A. Kellogg, in particularfor both encouragement and support in pursuing this project. IBM as an organization was supportive as well: indeed, the ofcial declaration that I was going to do a book (made via creating an entry in an internal database) invoked an archaic part of IBMs organizational DNA that resulted in a letter granting me a certain percentage of time to perform said work along with the clerical support that was once-upon-a-time intrinsic to the production of any book. Although clerks and typing pools have gone the way of the typewriter, its the thought that counts! Both editors would like to recognize their colleagues, both proximal and distal, who make working in the eld of HCI such great fun. Without the members of this community, who we were sure would write reective, passionate and engaging essays, we would never have embarked on this project. Wed also like to thank the folks at MIT Press. Doug Sery, our editor, was unagging in his enthusiastic support for our somewhat unusual project, and guided us through the publishing process with patience and aplomb. Judy Feldmanns careful editorial work on the manuscript improved its clarity and coherence. Thanks to both. And nally, wed like to express our deepest appreciation for the support, encouragement and patience of our partners, Katie Solomonson and Lisa McDonald. Tom and David</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>This has been a wonderful project. Weve watched with delight as essays arrived from friends, colleagues, and complete strangers. Weve rea...</p>