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Hazardous Waste Management. Chapter 15. Silent Spring Love Canal Times Beach and Seveso, Italy Bhopal, India. Methyl isocyanate Toxins Dioxin Pesticides. Why is it managed?. Federal HWM Laws (Sections 15.1 and 15.2). RCRA/HSWA. CERCLA/SARA. TSCA/FIFRA. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Hazardous Waste ManagementChapter 15*

  • Why is it managed?Silent SpringLove CanalTimes Beach and Seveso, ItalyBhopal, IndiaMethyl isocyanateToxinsDioxinPesticides*

  • Federal HWM Laws(Sections 15.1 and 15.2)*

  • Household and Other Special Haz Wastes*

    RCRA HazardIgnitableCorrosiveToxicReactiveNone

    MaterialBleachDrain cleanerLighter fluidAntifreezeAspirin

  • Whos involved?(Not to scale)*

  • What can we do with this nasty, nasty stuff?(Sections 15.2, 15.4, and 15.5)*

  • In-Class ActivityAn industrial plant produces approximately 1000 kg/month of waste pentachlorophenol (C6Cl5OH). The plant decides to install an incinerator to dispose of the waste. Assume complete combustion. Note that this reaction requires water.

    How much oxygen is theoretically required to combust the material? How much acid is theoretically produced? What theoretical quantity of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is required to neutralize the acid? In operation, why would you expect the quantities of air, acid, and caustic to be different from the theoretical amounts?*

  • Which activities are the riskiest?*

    Action

    4 tbs peanut butter daily

    Alcohol, cancer

    All cancers

    Background radiation

    Car accident, death

    Flesh-eating bacteria

    Home accident, death

    Homicide

    Radon in home, death

    Ski, death

    Smoking 1 pack/d, cancer

    Struck by lightening

  • Risk AssessmentHazard IdentificationExposure AssessmentDose-Response AssessmentRisk Characterization*

  • Site Remediation(Section 15.2.1)Levels of responseEmergency responseLong-term remediation*

  • Where is the contamination?*

  • Pollutant Transport*

  • Pollutant Transport*

  • What can we do?Remediation strategies*

  • Containment: Pumping and/or Injection

    *

  • Containment: Trenching/Slurry Wall Injection

    *

  • Pump-and-Treat*

  • AS and/or SVE*

  • Excavation and . . .*

  • In-situ Bioremediation

    Nutrient injection*

  • Phytoremediation*

  • Natural Attenuation*

  • In-Class ActivityExplain why the proposed process would be inappropriate for a site with the given contaminant. Offer a plausible alternative.

    Volatile soluble organic excavation & landfillingSoil in vadose zone contaminated with metals pump & treatSoil in unsaturated zone contaminated with radioactive waste in-situ bioremediation

    *

  • In-Class ActivityLake Jasmine is a 20-acre lake with an average depth of 30 ft. Yesterday afternoon four 55-gallon drums of Fuel Oil A and six 55-gallon drums of Solvent C fell off a truck during an accident, rolled into Lake Jasmine, and burst open on the rocky shore. The entire contents of all the drums spilled into the lake. Should local public health officials take measures to keep vacationers near Lake Jasmine out of the water? The allowable quantity in recreational waters of Fuel Oil A is 2.2 ppm, and the allowable quantity of Solvent C is 1.3 ppm.*

  • Radioactive Materials and WasteSections 5.4 and 15.3*

  • Choose the best answer.Radiation is scary. Radioactivity is even scarier.Radiation is a method of surveying in which points are located by knowledge of their distances and directions from a central point. Radioactivity is the intensity of a radioactive source.Radiation is emitted energy without the absorption of any energy. Radioactivity is a characteristic natural, spontaneous process in which unstable atoms emit mass or energy.*

  • IsotopesElement with same atomic number but different mass number, e.g., H-1, H-2, H-3*

  • Uses of RadiationHistorical/Discontinued

    X-rays: Hair removal, Shoe sizing226Ra: Hair tonic, Skin cream, Clock dials, Toothpaste, Chocolate bars210Po: Spark plugs232Th: Toothpaste, DenturesUranium: Pigments, Photographic toner, Adhesive tape dispenserCurrent

    235U, 239Pu: Reactor fuel241Am: Smoke detectors60Co, x-rays: Food sterilizationx-rays, -rays: Medical instrument sterilization60Co, 131I, etc.: Radiation treatment Neutrons: Bomb detection, Illegal drug shipment detection*

  • There are lots of unitsCurie (Ci): decay rateBecquerel (Bq): decay rate, 1 per secondRoentgen (R): rate of ionizations producedRad (radiation absorbed dose): energy absorbed from radiationRem (roentgen equivalent man): energy absorbed by tissueGray (Gy): absorption of 1 J of energy per kg of absorbing materialSievert (Sv)): dose equivalent to tissue damage from 1 Gy of gamma radiation or X-ray = 100 rem*

  • Annual Radiation Dose*

    Location or Situation

    Dose (mrem)

    Ramsari, Iran

    48,000

    Guarapari, Brazil

    17,500

    Radiation worker

    5,000

    St. Peters Square

    800

    NYC Grand Central Station

    525

    Background

    300 400

    Decommissioning

    15

  • Ionizing Radiation*

  • Effects of Level of Ionizing Radiation*

    Dose (rem)

    Effects

    0 - 25

    May reduce white blood cell count

    25 - 100

    Nausea, fatigue, blood changes

    100 - 200

    Nausea, fatigue, low white blood cell count, death possible

    200 - 400

    LD50, bone marrow & spleen damage

    > 600

    Fatal

  • Storage*

  • Yucca Mountain*

  • Vitrification*

  • Radon*

  • Half LifeTime required for half of original material to decayCharacteristic of an isotope

    A = Aoe-t t1/2 = ln 2 *

  • In-Class ActivityWhat would be the activity after 5 days of 1.0 Ci of radon-220?On April 1, 2001 a waste containing Po-210 was found at an abandoned site. Its activity was 3.2 Ci. From site records, you estimated that the waste dated from 1952. What was the original activity? *

    **************************************

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