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Harmonic Distortion Problems in Current Distribution Systems

1APIC Power & Energy Innovation Forum

ATCO experiences by Case Muskens

Epcor experiences by Isabella Ciocoiu

FortisAlberta experiences by Gordon McKinlay

Telus experiences by Dwayne Schultz

U of A research findings by Wilsun Xu

APIC 2011 Power & Energy Innovation Forum

APIC 2011

Harmonic Load Growth in ATCO Electric POD Substations

by Case Muskens

APIC 2011

Overview:

PurposeMeasurement IEEE 1459Result SummariesConclusions

APIC 2011

Purpose:

Establish trending of harmonic load growth in the AE system

Evaluate different measurement methods discussed in IEEE 1459

Future implications

APIC 2011

Project Description:

6 substations monitored in 2004 Repeat measurements in 2011 at same substations Review changes

APIC 2011

Measurement Methodology

The ION meter captures hourly RMS values of load, %THDV, %THDI at the main substation transformer

One second waveform snapshots were recorded during the measurement time and processed per IEEE 1459 power definitions

APIC 2011

IEEE Std 1459 2000 : IEEE Standard Definitions for the Measurement of Electric Power Quantities Under Sinusoidal, Non Sinusoidal, Balanced or Unbalanced Conditions

A brief overview of this standard is now provided

APIC 2011

VIS =

vip =

+

=kT

pdtkT

P

1

Power Definitions Single Phase IEEE 1459

Apparent Power

Instantaneous Power

Active Power

Power FactorS

PPF =

APIC 2011

21

22 VVVH =

21

22 IIIH =

1V

VTHD HV =

Harmonic Voltage

Harmonic Current

THDV

THDI1I

ITHD HI =

APIC 2011

The apparent power :

Fundamental effective power:

Non fundamental effective power:

eee IVS = 3

111 3 eee IVS =21

22eeeN SSS =

18

)(3 222222 cabcabcbae

VVVVVVV

+++++=3

2222ncba

e

IIIII

+++=

where

Power definition for 3 phase systems

APIC 2011

Substations Land Location Load type

Flyingshot 702T Grande Prairie MixedHangingstone 701T Ft. McMurray MixedMichichi 703T Drumheller MixedHigh Level 701T High Level MixedNorcen 701T Red Earth OilfieldBrintnell 901T Wabasca Oilfield

Mixed refers to residential + commercial with some light industrial

APIC 2011

High Level Brintnell Flyingshot 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011

THDi% 7.136 5.462 2.56 4.446 5.43 4.856 THDei% 11.96 9.24 2.76 5.04 8.58 8.32 SeN KVA 466 411 590 679 1484 2004 SeN/Se1 % 11.96 9.7 3.05 5.317 8.67 8.4 THDv% 1.61 0.896 1.226 1.703 1.4 1.4 THDev% 0.88 1.698 1.18

APIC 2011

Norcen Hangingstone Michichi 2004 2011 2004 2011 2004 2011

THDi% 2.3 1.37 4.73 6.31 3.32 3.758 THDei% 2.38 1.92 8.32 10.95 4.59 5.174 SeN KVA 267 185 1046 1796 711 1113 SeN/Se1 % 2.91 2.136 9 11 4.65 5.5 THDv% 1.673 0.945 3.436 1.763 0.81 1.911 THDev% 0.95 1.38 1.877

APIC 2011

0 2 4 6 8 10 120

2

4

6

8

10

12Substation Distortion Summary: THDI vs. Harmonic Pollution Ratio

THDI%

SeN

/Se1

%

20042011

Norcen

Brintnell

Michichi

Flyingshot

Hangingstone

Highlevel

APIC 2011

0 2 4 6 8 10 120

2

4

6

8

10

12Substation Distortion Level: Measured vs. IEEE 1459 Effective Value

THDI%

TH

DIe

%

2004

2011

Norcen

Brintnell

Michichi

FlyingshotHangingstone

Highlevel

APIC 2011

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

500

1000

1500

2000

2500Substation Distortion Summary: THDI vs. Pod Nonlinear load

THDI%

SeN

KV

A

2004

2011

Norcen

Brintnell

Highlevel

HangingstoneMichichi

Flyingshot

APIC 2011

Hangingstone has had a 5 Mvar 5th harmonic filter added after 2004 which reduced VTHD but with increased ITHD due to harmonic in feed from 144 kV system.

High Level has had an SVC installed on the 144 kV bus along with an extra line to Sulphur Point substation after 2004, SCR has improved.

Brintnell had a pseudo 12 pulse cancellation scheme (mixed Dy and Yy transformers) with the original pad site loads, but the 5th harmonic has been increasing suggesting reduced effectiveness with new loads

APIC 2011

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 50

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10High Level Substation 701T History Start date Sept 8, 2004/2011 4:00 PM

days

%TH

D o

r M

VA

%THDI phs 2 2004

%THDV phs 2 2004

MVA Loading 2004%THDI phs 2 2011

%THDV phs 2 2011MVA Loading 2011

APIC 2011

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 110

5

10

15

20

25Hangingstone Substation 701T History Start date Sept 1, 2004/2011 6:00 PM

days

%T

HD

or M

VA

%THDI phs 2 2004%THDV phs 2 2004

MVA Loading 2004

%THDI phs 2 2011

%THDV phs 2 2011MVA Loading 2011

APIC 2011

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 40

5

10

15

20

25

30

Brintnell Substation 901T(2004) and 902T(2011)History Start date Sept 10, 2004/2011 6:00 AM

days

%T

HD

or

MV

A

%THDI phs 2 2004

%THDV phs 2 2004

MVA Loading 2004%THDI phs 2 2011

%THDV phs 2 2011

MVA Loading 2011

APIC 2011

Conclusions: Despite a load increase at Flyingshot, the harmonic

pollution ratio (%SeN/Se1) has remained nearly constant Hangingstone, Brintnell, and Michichi have seen

increases in the harmonic pollution ratio High Level and Norcen have seen reductions in the

harmonic pollution ratio Harmonic pollution ratio is nearly equivalent to THDIe% The THDIe% is a better indicator than THDI% of actual

harmonic load penetration

Telephone Interference Epcors cases

by Isabella Ciocoiu

Contributing Factors:

9th (main contributor) and 15th harmonics produced by small, single phase, electronic, residential loads;

Position of the telephone cable to the power lines (they run in parallel);

Length of the parallel path (3 or more miles);

Strength of the magnetic field.

2005-2006Telephone Interference on

Ellerslie Road

12EEast Industrial

17 St34 St

50 St66 St101 St

23 E25P

Ellerslie Road

17 St34 St

Telus telephone line

-2005 April: I*T=5300-2005 November: I*T=3000-2006 March: I*T=2600-2006 April: I*T=1800-2006 December: I*T=1000

Noise complaints

Telus cabinet

75 St

91 St

53003000

What Epcor did on its circuits:

1. Balanced loads on 3 phase circuits. 2. Fixed several broken neutral connections. 3. Installed more grounds. 4. Conducted a trial at the substation

transformers, adjusting the taps to increase the bus voltage (25kV to 25.8 kV): eliminated the suspicion that saturated transformers are the cause of harmonic currents.

5. Reduced the load on 23E by transferring about half of the load to another circuit.

2006-2010Telephone Interference on

41Ave

12E (20MVA)East Industrial

17 St34 St

50 St66 St101 St

23 E (17.5 MVA)25P

Ellerslie Road

Telus telephone line

-2006 Dec: I*T=1000-2007 March: I*T=1800-2009 Sept: I*T=2300-2010 July: VAC=105V

Noise complaints

Telus cabinet

75 St

91 St

Dec 2006 -7 Sept 2010

Measured induced voltage

41 AveI*T levels

12E (1.1 MVA)

East Industrial

Summerside

103 GI

17 St34 St101 St

91 St 66 St 50 St

21SU (3.46 MVA)

11SU (11.67 MVA)

12SU (2.16 MVA)

7 September 2010 - 5 November 2010

104 GI

23E (2.4 MVA)

Telus telephone line

Telus cabinet

Noise complaints

75 St

Ellerslie Road

41 Avenue

-2010 Sept 17: I*T=3600

I*T levels

12E

East Industrial

Summerside 103 GI

17 St34 St101 St

91 St 66 St 50 St

21SU

11SU

12SU

5 November 2010 - 24 November 2010

104 GI

23E

Telus telephone line

Telus cabinet

Noise complaints

75 St

Ellerslie Road

41 Avenue

4546S

-2010 Nov 19: I*T=3500

I*T levels

12E

East Industrial

Summerside

17 St34 St101 St

91 St 66 St 50 St

21SU

11SU

12SU

After 24 November 2010

104 GI

23E

Telus telephone line

Telus cabinet

Noise complaints

75 St

Ellerslie Road

41 Avenue

4546S

-2010 Nov 29: I*T=5000

93 GII*T levels

What Epcor did: Approached APIC for technical support in

investigating the telephone interference problem;

Provided distribution system models and facilitated field measurements.

Harmonic Issues in FortisAlberta Service Area

by Gordon McKinlay

1. Trends in Harmonic Distortion in FortisAlb

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