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  • HARLEM RENAISSANCEHARLEM RENAISSANCE Mr. Goddard | PLUSH | March 2009Mr. Goddard | PLUSH | March 2009
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  • WHAT YOU ARE LEARNINGWHAT YOU ARE LEARNING California Content Standard 11.5.2 &.5 11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological, and cultural developments of the 1920s. 2. Analyze the international and domestic events, interests, and philosophies that prompted attacks on civil liberties, including the Palmer Raids, Marcus Garvey's "back-to-Africa" movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and immigration quotas and the responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks. 5. Describe the Harlem Renaissance and new trends in literature, music, and art, with special attention to the work of writers (e.g., Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes).
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  • WHAT IS THE HARLEM RENAISSANCEWHAT IS THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African American social thought which was expressed through: Paintings Music Dance Theater Literature
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  • The island of Manhattan New York City is on Manhattan island Neighborhoods WHERE IS THE HARLEMWHERE IS THE HARLEM
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  • WHERE WAS THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE CENTERED? Centered in the Harlem district of New York City, the New Negro Movement (as it was called at the time) had a major influence across the Unites States and even the world.
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  • CAUSES GREAT MIGRATIONCAUSES GREAT MIGRATION The economic opportunities of the era triggered a widespread migration of black Americans from the rural south to the industrial centers of the north - and especially to New York City. In New York and other cities, black Americans explored new opportunities for intellectual and social freedom.
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  • An African American Middle Class developed as a result of improved educational and employment opportunities for African Americans. BUT. Increased contact between African Americans and white Americans in the workplace and on city streets forced a new awareness of the disparity between the promise of the American dream and reality. CAUSES AFRICAN-AMERICAN MIDDLE CLASS 1930 1911 1920
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  • CAUSES TECHNOLOGY/MAINSTREAM PUBLISHING Corresponding with the Harlem Renaissance was the beginning of mainstream publishing. Many authors began to publish novels, magazines and newspapers during this time. Publishers began to attract a great amount of attention from the nation at large.
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  • In response to the gains by African Americans, many whites fought back during the summer of 1919. There were 25 major race riots and at least 83 African Americans were lynched. The Ku Klux Klan held over 200 meeting to increase enrollment. CAUSES RED SUMMER OF 1919CAUSES RED SUMMER OF 1919
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  • The 369 th Hell Fighters were rewarded the Croix de Guerre for gallantry in battle and returned to the U.S. as heroes to African Americans. Although the French recognized the courage and skill of the regiment, the U.S. government downplayed their role and even tried to convince the French to do the same. We must not eat with themshake hands or seek to talk or meet with them outside of the requirements of military dutyWe must not commend too highly the [black] troops excerpts from a memorandum entitled Secret Information Concerning the Black American Troops. CAUSES RETURNING TROOPSCAUSES RETURNING TROOPS
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  • Leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey and the NAACP helped to inspire racial pride in the middle and working class. Marcus Garvey pushed for the Back to Africa movement Du Bois was instrumental in the foundation of the NAACP. LEAD TO CIVIL RIGHTS POLITICAL AGENDA
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  • CIVIL RIGHTS AGENDA - NAACPCIVIL RIGHTS AGENDA - NAACP The first of these schools of thought was represented by W.E.B. DuBois and James Weldon Johnson. They saw the arts as an area where talented and culturally privileged African Americans could lead their races fight for equality. Art functioned as propaganda: works of art inspired by the artists racial heritage & experiences would prove the beauty of the race and its contributions to American culture. These artistic successes could foster pride among all African-Americans and prove their educated class to be the equal of the white educated class. Lift every voice and Sing till the earth and heaven ring. Ring with the harmonies of Liberty; James Weldon Johnson
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  • DU BOIS TALENTED TENTHDU BOIS TALENTED TENTH Du Bois also believed in the talented tenth. This was the idea that a small percentage of the African American population who were exceptionally skilled should be designated and educated as artistic and cultural leaders. He proposed absolute equality for the "talented tenth" and technical training for the black masses.
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  • CIVIL RIGHTS AGENDA - GARVEYCIVIL RIGHTS AGENDA - GARVEY Black politics shifted as Marcus Garvey mobilized tens of thousands of supporters and confronted the newly formed NAACP and the African-American establishment with a mass political movement championing black nationalism and Pan- Africanism. formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) began the back to Africa movement
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  • ARTS ROLE IN PERVADING RACISMARTS ROLE IN PERVADING RACISM The Harlem Renaissance would help lay the foundation of the Civil Rights Movement The Harlem writers and artists were, like their Modernist white counterparts, in quest of new forms, images, and techniques. They, too, were skeptical and disillusioned. What chiefly differentiated them, however, was their view of artistic endeavor as an extension of the struggle against oppression. The Harlem Renaissance created an environment where art flourished in a rediscovery of the past, a celebration of the present, and a determination to change the future. Harlem was not so much a place as a state of mind, the cultural metaphor for black America itself.
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  • URBAN EXPERIENCE AND RACISMURBAN EXPERIENCE AND RACISM African-American Urban Experience and Racism: - represented by Langston Hughes and Claude McKay - some writers were accused of over-emphasizing crime, sexuality, and other less savory aspects of ghetto life to feed voyeuristic desires of white readers and publishers. Use of Black Music & Folklore as an Inspiration for Poetry, Short Stories, and Novels: - Langston Hughes used rhythms and styles of jazz - black religion as a literary source: James Weldon Johnsons Gods Trombones - Sterling Brown used blues and southern work songs in his book of poetry Southern Road ART FOR ARTS Sake or for EQUALITY?
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  • Through all these themes Harlem Renaissance writers were determined to express the African- American experience in all its variety and complexity as realistically as possible. DESPITE THE DIFFERENCES.DESPITE THE DIFFERENCES.
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  • LANGSTON HUGHESLANGSTON HUGHES Hughes is known for his insightful, colorful, realistic portrayals of black life in America. He wrote poetry, short stories, novels, and plays, and is known for his involvement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing. His life and work were enormously important in shaping the artistic contributions of the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s. He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture, including both their suffering and their love of music, laughter, and language itself.
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  • I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen, Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America. LANGSTONS - I, TOO, SING AMERICALANGSTONS - I, TOO, SING AMERICA 'I, Too' written just before Hughes return to the States from Europe and after he'd been denied passage on a ship because of his color The calm clear statements of the 'I' have an unstoppable force like the progress the poem envisages. Hughes's dignified introductions to these poems and his beautiful speaking voice render them all the more moving.
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  • African American Poet, Claude McKay memorialized the bloody summer of 1919 with the poem, If We Must Die, which was published in the magazine Liberator. If We Must Die If we must die--let it not be like hogs Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot, While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs, Making their mock at our accursed lot. If we must die--oh, let us nobly die, So that our precious blood may not be shed In vain; then even the monsters we defy Shall be constrained to honor us though dead! Oh, Kinsmen! We must meet the common foe; Though far outnumbered, let us show us brave, And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow! What though before us lies the open grave? Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack, Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back! CLAUDE MCKAYCLAUDE MCKAY
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  • ZORA NEALE HURSTONZORA NEALE HURSTON Novelist Playwright Collected African-American folklore and tales Some characters in her novels were women searching for identity and community.
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