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  • Printed in Switzerland Geneva, 2016

    Photo credits: Shutt erstock

    Internati onal Telecommunicati on

    Union Place des Nati ons

    1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland

    Handbook on Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasti ng Networks and

    Systems Implementati on Editi on of 2016


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    ISBN 978-92-61-23481-2 SAP id

    9 7 8 9 2 6 1 2 3 4 8 1 2

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  • Handbook on Digital Terrestrial

    Television Broadcasting Networks

    and Systems Implementation

    Edition of 2016


  •  ITU 2016 (Revised version)

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, by any means whatsoever, without the prior written

    permission of ITU.

  • Handbook on Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Networks and Systems Implementation iii

    Editors’ Foreword

    In 2002, ITU published its first Handbook on digital terrestrial television under the title Digital terrestrial

    television broadcasting in the VHF/UHF bands1 as guidance to engineers responsible for the implementation

    of digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB). In this Handbook, new digital broadcasting technologies

    were explained in detail, for example a splendid description of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coding

    that is the basis of all past and present TV compression systems, as well as a very instructive chapter on signal

    power summation.

    Most of that content are not repeated in this new Handbook on Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting

    Networks and Systems Implementation. Therefore, the version 1.01, which was published by ITU in the year

    2002, has not lost value and should still be consulted.

    Since 2002, DTTB has tremendously evolved, not only in technical but also in regulatory aspects. For example,

    at the turn of the century, MPEG had just started to develop the compression scheme MPEG-4, and HEVC

    was not known at all. In two sessions, in 2004 and 2006, the important ITU Regional Radiocommunication

    Conference RRC-06 was held in Geneva and agreed a new frequency plan for digital broadcasting in Region 1

    (except Mongolia) and in Iran. For all UHF stations, the Conference decided that the transition period from

    analogue to digital broadcasting would take place by 15 June 2015. Today, majority of developed countries

    have already introduced digital TV broadcasting and have closed their analogue TV services. However, many

    developing countries have just started

    Successive WRCs have identified new spectrum for the mobile service in the traditional UHF broadcasting

    bands. Consequently, spectrum for terrestrial TV broadcasting as well as for services ancillary to programme

    making or broadcasting (SAP/SAB) became scarcer within the existing UHF broadcasting bands. More

    spectrum efficient transmission and compression schemes can only partly compensate for that loss as new

    requirements for improved resolution, such as HDTV and UHDTV, demand significantly higher data rates.

    Also, new formats for multi-channel sound can need substantial amounts of transmitted data. So do the ever-

    increasing amount of metadata and access services.

    Today, with the advent of broadband IP networks (wired and wireless), interactivity has become commonplace.

    Most modern TV sets are equipped with an interface for DSL or Wi-Fi in addition to the traditional antenna

    input for digital terrestrial, satellite and/or cable TV.

    This new ITU Handbook, entitled Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Networks and Systems

    Implementation, concentrates on these new developments during the last 15 years. In this context, it

    complements ITU-D Guidelines for the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting2 which made use of

    technical, operational and procedural information from the ITU Radiocommunication Sector and directed itself

    primarily to the analogue-to-digital switchover in developing countries.

    Numerous experts of ITU-R Working Party 6A (Terrestrial broadcasting delivery) and of the parent ITU-R

    Study Group 6 (Broadcasting service) have been involved in the development of this new Handbook. The

    names of these contributors are listed in the Acknowledgements section.


    1 ITU-R DTTB Handbook – Digital terrestrial television broadcasting in the VHF/UHF bands V 1.01,

    ref. https://www.itu.int/pub/R-HDB-39

    2 ITU-D Guidelines for the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting, ref.


    https://www.itu.int/pub/R-HDB-39 https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Regional-Presence/AsiaPacific/Documents/AtoDguidelinesV3.pdf

  • iv Handbook on Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Networks and Systems Implementation

    However, one person must be mentioned here because of his outstanding dedication: most thanks go to the

    principal author, Professor Oleg Gofaizen (Ukraine), who led the process of writing this Handbook and who

    tirelessly acted towards its completion.

    The Study Group 6 approved this new Handbook at its meeting on 28 October 2016.

    The Core Editing Team Christoph Dosch, David Hemingway and Walid Sami

    Geneva, October 2016

  • Handbook on Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Networks and Systems Implementation v


    For the compilation of this Handbook, Working Party 6A established a special Rapporteur Group, which was

    chaired by Professor Oleg Gofaizen (Ukraine), who diligently worked over the years assembling numerous

    contributions into a draft Handbook. This draft was considered by WP6A in its meeting in January-February

    2016. A Correspondence Group was formed with the task of finalizing the Handbook in time for the WP6A

    meeting in October 2016. The Correspondence Group was co-chaired by Christoph Dosch (former Chairman

    of Study Group 6 and currently Vice-Chairman of Study Group 6) and David Hemingway (BBC,

    Vice-Chairman of Working Party 6A), assisted by Walid Sami (EBU, Vice Chairman of Study Group 6 and

    Working Party 6A). Additional contributors joined this work.

    A list of the experts who contributed to this Handbook is given below, to whom special thanks are due.

    Name Organization / Administration

    Dr. Abdullah Saleh ALARAIMI Oman

    Dr. Pablo ANGUEIRA BUCETA Spain

    Dr. Vladimir BALYAR Ukraine

    Mr. Vittorio BARONCINI Italy

    Mr. Istvan BOZSOKI ITU-D

    Mr. Roger BUNCH Australia

    Mr. José Ramón CAMBLOR Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo, Spain

    Mr. Perez DE LEMA Spain

    Mr. Christoph DOSCH IRT

    Dr. Charles EINOLF CBS

    Dr. Joseph FLAHERTY USA

    Prof. Oleg GOFAIZEN Ukraine

    Dr. David GUERRA PEREDA University of the Basque Country

    Mr. Jean-Jacques GUITOT France

    Mr. Pham HAI ITU-R


    Dr. Shuji HIRAKAWA Japan

    Mr. Klaus HUBER LS Telcom

    Mr. Mark JORDAN Arqiva


    Dr. Alexandre KHOLOD Switzerland

    Ms. Kyung-Mee KIM Korea

    Ms. Lucia Luisa LA FRANCESCHINA Rai Way SpA

    Mr. Stephane MEBALEY EKOME France

    Dr. Alberto MORELLO RAI

    Mr. Amir Hassan NAFEZ Iran

    Mr. Akira NEGISHI NHK

    Mr. Yukihiro NISHIDA Japan

    Mr. Kyoungseok OH Korea (TTA)

    Mr. Larry OLSON USA

    Prof. PAN Changyong Tsinghua University, China

    Mr. Rolly PURNOMO Indonesia

  • vi Handbook on Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Networks and Systems Implementation

    Name Organization / Administration

    Mr. Ari REFIK TDF

    Dr. Walid SAMI EBU

    Mr. Eli SOFER Israel

    Mr. Supatrasit SUANSOOK NBTC, Thailand

    Ms. Sato TELEMI IRT

    Ms. Anne-Lise THIEBLEMONT Qualcomm

    Mr. Kengo TSUDA NHK

    Mr. Aljo VAN DIJKEN Netherlands

    Dr. Manuel María VELEZ ELORD Spain

    Mr. Tobias VIERACKER IRT

    Dr. David WOOD EBU

    Ms. Norafidah YUSOF Malaysia

    Mr. Juan ZAPATA Colombia

    Additionally, great thanks are due to all the other members of Study Group 6, past and present, who have

    contributed – directly and indirectly – to this Handbook.

    Special thanks must go to Prof. Marc Krivocheev (Russian Federation), Honorary Chairman of SG6, for his

    continued guidance throughout the drafting process.


    The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the editors and authors and do not necessarily represent

    the views of the ITU. This publication is only intended for informational purposes only. Whilst every effort

    had been undertaken to provide clear and correct information, neithe


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