Hamlet Controlled Assessment - Tragic heroes

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  • 1.So, your mother married your uncle who killed your father (his own brother) What are you going to do? a) Kill the b*****d! b) Cry and think deep, philosophical thoughts about your own existence? c) Go on the Jerry Springer show and let the depths of humanity bask in your freaky life

2. GCSE English Literature Unit 3C The significance of Shakespeare and the English Literary Heritage Hamlet and Othello Controlled Assessment 3. What We Will Need for this Topic Hamlet (The Arden Shakespeare, Third Series) Othello (Arden Shakespeare, Third Series) 4. New Knowledge - Your Question Explore how Shakespeare presents weaknesses and tragic flaws in Hamlet and Othello Inscribeth in thy books! 5. The Task This Controlled Assessment is out of 40 marks and is worth 25% of your overall mark (thats a lot!) Your work must be about 2000 words You will have four hours to complete the assessment You will be linking two different texts Hamlet and Othello Please note that this is the only piece of coursework for Literature! 6. Assessment Objectives AO1: Responding to texts critically and sensitively, evaluating textual detail to support interpretations AO2: Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas and themes AO3: Making comparisons and links between texts AO4: Relating text to their social, cultural and historical contexts 7. Learning Objective: To understand how Shakespeare still influences modern culture I know lots of different things about Shakespeare and his plays I can compare Shakespeares themes in Hamlet to modern texts I can use my knowledge to ask whether modern writers are just imitating Shakespeare This is our success criteria 8. SOLO Taxonomy 9. What do we know? What do we know about Shakespeare already? Why was he so popular during the Elizabethan era? Why is he still studied today? 10. Hamlet - The Play 11. Hamlet The Summary Read the summary of the play Answer the following questions: Name the three main characters of the play and their relationship Why does Hamlet not kill his uncle? Why does he pretend to be insane? Who dies throughout the play and how does each character meet their demise? Do you feel sorry for Hamlet? What are Hamlets weaknesses? 12. Hamlet Themes 15 minutes With a partner, start mind mapping some of the themes that you see emerging already. Approaching texts thematically is an effective way of thinking about texts. Use the character list to help you keep track of characters Mind map using specific ideas. 13. Themes in Hamlet Claudius kills Hamlets father so he can be King of Denmark Polonius is killed by Hamlet Revenge 14. Character List (10 mins) Read through the character list on the second page Create a family tree conveying the relationships between each character Add a little bit more information than just their name 15. Compare to Modern Texts Which other texts share these themes? Can we see any elements of Hamlets character in modern texts? Do you think if Hamlet was modernised it would be a popular play/film? 16. Compare to Modern Texts 17. Compare to Modern Texts Now write a paragraph comparing your modern text to Shakespeares Macbeth. What themes are similar? Which character traits are similar? Which events are similar? 18. Compare to Modern Texts The bulk of the story and several key scenes remain intact, with Denmark swapped for the African savanna, and people swapped for animals (mostly lions). It's easy to overlook the relationship between "Hamlet" and The Lion King, since Shakespeare certainly didn't invent the idea of an 'evil uncle.' But any theatre fan would be able to follow the parallels along: the proud king (Mufasa) is killed 'accidentally' by his evil, power-hungry brother (Scar), and after a time away from the kingdom, the prince and rightful heir (Simba) returns to bring the truth to light. The film even includes the ghostly vision of Mufasa, and Simba's pair of fast-talking friends Timon and Pumbaa (Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in the original). A musical treatment and happier ending, of course, but "Hamlet" nonetheless. 19. Are modern writers imitating Shakespeare? Based on our work today, do we agree of disagree with this statement? 20. SOLO Self Assessment Multistructural Stage I know lots of different things about Shakespeares play Hamlet How I achieved this/How I can meet this: During the animated tales I noted the main themes and character traits and thought about how these link to one another. When questioned, I was able to explore where the main themes are presented in the play. Relational I can compare the themes of Hamlet to a modern text and see how they are similar of different. How I achieved this/How I can meet this: I was able to mindmap how the film The Lion King is similar to Hamlet as it focuses on the main protagonist wanting revenge for the death of his father, who was killed by his power-hungry uncle. Extended Abstract I can use my knowledge of the play Hamlet and comparison to a modern text to understand how Shakespeare still influences our society today How I achieved this/How I can meet this: I did not meet this, however next time I know I need to think more critically about what elements of the play can be seen in a variety of different modern texts and how Shakespeares influence can be seen today. I will work on this during our Dedicated Improvement and Reflection Time (DIRT) next lesson. 21. Shakespear eBig Question: Why is Shakespeare so well-known around the world? 22. Learning Objective: To relate texts to the social and historical contexts they were written I can retrieve facts about the Renaissance period I can comment on Shakespeares use of context I can analyse the language Shakespeare uses make subtle inferences about the context This is our success criteria 23. Information Stations You have 15 minutes to collect as much information from around the room as possible. You will need to answer the following essay question at the end: How is the Elizabethan and Jacobean society in which Shakespeare was writing in reflected in the play Hamlet? 24. Shakespeare wrote his plays and poetry during the Elizabethan Renaissance Early 16th century into the early 17th century. Time of rebirth and new ideas writing poetry and drama composing music painting experimenting in monarchs name Exploration became vital in this era. This was the first time people in England had excess wealth to spend. This was one of the factors that created the theatre 25. Queen Elizabeth Not accepted due to birth, gender. First real female ruler. Refuses to marry; leaves no heir. Tolerant. Loved the theatre and the arts. Defeated the Spanish armada, then is accepted and grows to be liked. Survives several assassination attempts. Dies in 1603. 26. King James 1: The New Era King James takes the throne Scottish Hamlet spans this transition (probably written in 1600 or 1601 and first performed in 1602. Not written down until 1603!) Private Still supports the theatre, in particular Shakespeares company Commissions the Bible in English Interested in the occult and unknown Not as much pomp and circumstance (or drama) Shakespeare dies when he is king 27. London: Cultural Epicentre Major trade centre. Population hits 100,000 (current population 8 million!) Rise of a new middle class of tradesmen, or merchants. Zero sanitation. Disease is high, plague closed down theatres. High infant and female mortality rate. Rise of the theatre. 28. Life and Laws Women were treated as property and could own nothing (unless they were widowed). Only options for women: brothel, nunnery, marriage. Husbands could beat wives. No real divorce options for women. Laws were in place that determined what a person could wear, where they could live, what they could eat; all based on social standing and class. Marriages are arranged. The upper class, courtier marriages, had to be approved by the monarch. Esp. under Elizabeth. 29. The Elizabethan Theatre The theatre was for the uneducated masses. Considered a low profession. No women on stage. Young boys only. Puritans hated the theatre and tried to close them. Open to the elements. The Groundlings. No fourth wall audience interacted with actors. Shakespeare would have played some of the parts. Most could not read. The color of the flag that flew above the theatre indicated what type of play was being performed. 30. More Theatre Before a play could appear on the Elizabethan stage, it first had to be approved by the Master of the Revels. Parts were often written for certain actors. Most likely the part of Hamlet was written for lead actor Richard Burbage, for example. Only the property master has complete script. Actors have their lines only and lines before entrances and exits Rhymed Couplets Quartos 31. Shakespeares Globe Shakespeares theatre was not the first, but one of the most famous. It was built in the seedy area just outside London. An almost exact replica was created in London in the mid 1980s. Only additions were safety features and speakers. It is built right next to the original Globe site. Shakespeare's plays are intentionally ambiguous in places. Globe virtual tour 32. A Few Notes on Customs. Marriage and Women Marriages are arranged. Members of the royal family are subject to their birth. Virginity is valued above all else in a woman. A divorced or unmarriable woman is a disgrace to her family and has two options: nunnery or brothel. Not permitted to be in the company of men unaccompanied. The King and His Position One must have permission from the king to leave his palace. Mourning period for a king is 6 months to a year. Speaking against a king is considered treason and can be punished by death. King may hire a traveling acting group to entertain at a party. Kings are often sent away to school (from about age 13). 33. More Customs Children were excepted to avenge a parents murder. Suicide is a mortal sin. Belief in Astrology and the supernatural. Women are considered fragile and weak. Duals or playing are common entertainment in a Renaissance castle. Honour is of the utmost importance. 34. You now have 15 minutes to improve your mind-map Theatre Life and Laws Customs King James Elizabethan England Renaissance London 35. Essay How is the Elizabethan and Jacobean society in which Shakespeare was writing in reflected in the play Hamlet? You must include facts about Elizabeth I, James I and Shakespeares life You must reference the role of women and men in Elizabethan and Jacobean society You must include at least three references from Hamlet that link to the context You could consider how todays context is similar and/or different, and why Hamlet is still a popular play. You must use sophisticated lexis 36. Assessment Objectives AO1: Responding to texts critically and sensitively, evaluating textual detail to support interpretations AO2: Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas and themes AO3: Making comparisons and links between texts AO4: Relating text to their social, cultural and historical contexts 37. Describe your first impressions of these characters. What links them? 38. What do these characters have in common? 39. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To explain how Hamlet is a Tragic Hero I know the key differences between tragedies and comedies I can identify and explain how Hamlet is a tragic hero I can use my knowledge of tragic heroes to analyse who the audience feels empathy for: Hamlet or Ophelia This is our success criteria of the day 40. Tragedy What are the connotations of this word? Can we think of any modern tragedies? Do we also see tragic elements in the play? What are the key differences between tragedies and comedies? You have two minutes to discuss with the people around you. We will then feed back. 41. TRAGEDY COMEDY Simplicity: Tragic heroes tend to approach problems and situations in a fairly straight-forward manner. Life can be understood in simple binaries -- good/bad; just/unjust; beautiful/ugly. Complex: Comic heroes tend to be more flexible. Life tends to be messier, full of diversity and unexpected twists and turns. It is more difficult to classify experience. Low Tolerance for Disorder: Tragic plots tend to stress order and process -- the end follows from the beginning. High Tolerance for Disorder: Comic plots tend to be more random; they seem to be improvised, leaving a number of loose ends. Heroism: Characters tend to be "superhuman, semi divine, larger-than-life" beings. Antiheroism: Characters tend to be normal, down-to-earth individuals. Comedies tend to parody authority. Militarism: Tragedies often arise in warrior cultures. And its values are those of the good soldier--duty, honour, commitment. Pacifism: Comedies tend to call into question warrior values: Better to lose your dignity and save your life. Vengeance: Offending a tragic hero often results in a cycle of vengeance. Forgiveness: In comedies, forgiveness, even friendship among former enemies, happens. Hierarchy: Tragedies tend to stress the upper- class, the noble few, royalty, and leaders. Equality: Comedies tend to include all classes of people. The lower classes are often the butt of the jokes, but they also tend to triumph in unexpected ways. Less Sexual Equality: Tragedies are often male- dominated. More Sexual Equality: Comedies, while often sexist too, are sometimes less so. Women play a larger, more active role. Rule-based Ethics: The tragic vision tends to stress the consequences of disobeying the accepted order of things. Situation-based Ethics: Comic heroes tend to make up the rules as they go along or at least be wary of generalizations. 42. Tragic Hero What do you think is meant by the term Tragic Hero? TRAGEDY HERO 43. Tragic Hero What do you think is meant by the term Tragic Hero? 1. A tragic hero is the main character (or "protagonist") in a tragedy. 2. The tragic hero is a character who makes an error of judgment or has a fatal flaw that, combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedy. 44. Characteristics of the Tragic Hero According to ARISTOTLE (very old, Ancient Greek, dead philosopher bloke), the common characteristics in a Tragic Hero are: Usually of noble birth, or starts off as a ruddy good chap. Hamartia - a.k.a. the tragic flaw that eventually leads to his downfall. Peripeteia - a reversal of fortune brought about by the hero's tragic flaw The audience must feel pity and fear for this character. 45. Tragic Hero Can you think of any modern tragic heroes in film or books? 46. Hamlet as a Tragic Hero 1. How is Hamlet described in the first paragraph? 2. How is Hamlet defined as a tragic hero? 3. Which quotes demonstrate Hamlet as a tragic hero? 47. Do we agree that Hamlet is a tragic hero? Overall, who do we feel most empathy for: Macbeth or the speaker? Hamlet as a Tragic Hero 48. Quizzy Rascal What are the two texts you will be writing your controlled assessment on? A: Hamlet and Othello 49. What is a tragic hero? 1. A tragic hero is the main character (or "protagonist") in a tragedy. 2. The tragic hero is a character who makes an error of judgment or has a fatal flaw that, combined with fate and external forces, brings on a tragedy. 50. What does hamartia mean? Hamartia is the tragic flaw that eventually leads to the tragic heros downfall 51. Which was the ancient Greek philosopher who came up with the idea of the tragic hero? ARISTOTLE 52. What is Hamlets tragic flaw? He is too philosophical and fails to act. He should have avenged his father and become the rightful king. But, he waffles like a big girl and dies because of it! 53. Where are the texts set? Denmark and Venice 54. Who is Mr Morris favourite tragic hero of all time, and like, the coolest things ever, you know, hes just awesome, and fantastic, and he is quintessentially a Leg-End! Batman, of course! Duh! 55. Who Would Make A Better Prime Minister? Or Hamlet Henry Jekyll 56. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To analyse Shakespeares language in detail I know the key quotes of the opening of the play I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to create effect I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 57. Construct Meaning Hamlet in a Minute! In groups of three, you must act out the entire play of Hamlet in a minute. Choose what are the most important elements of the play and get through them as quickly as you can. Try to include one quotation if possible... 58. Possible Quotations This above all: to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man. Doubt thou the stars are fire; Doubt that the sun doth move; Doubt truth to be a liar; But never doubt I love. There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? Lord Polonius: What do you read, my lord? Hamlet: Words, words, words. Lord Polonius: What is the matter, my lord? Hamlet: Between who? Lord Polonius: I mean, the matter that you read, my lord. Madness in great ones must not unwatched go. To die, to sleep - To sleep, perchance to dream - ay, there's the rub, For in this sleep of death what dreams may come... There are more things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Though this be madness, yet there is method in't. Brevity is the soul of wit. Conscience doth make cowards of us all. My words fly up, my thoughts remain below: Words without thoughts never to heaven go. One may smile, and smile, and be a villain. The lady doth protest too much, methinks. When sorrows come, they come not single spies. But in battalions! God hath given you one face, and you make yourself another. 59. New Knowledge Were going to move in a bit closer to the text and read our first few scenes We are going to approach this scene in a similar way that we approach poetry: 60. How to approach the language.... You will be doing the following: Focus on what we learn about the character of Hamlet in the following quotes (focus specifically on Hamlets soliloquies in the early scenes). 1. What poetic devices are used? 2. What kind of language is used? 3. What images are used? 4. Remember that this is a tragedyhow does the language reflect this? 5. How does the language show Hamlets tragic flaws? 61. Something is rotten in the state of Denmark. Key Quotes 1 Act I, Sc IV (67) This line is spoken by Marcellus in Act I, scene iv (67), as he and Horatio debate whether or not to follow Hamlet and the ghost into the dark night. The line refers both to the idea that the ghost is an ominous omen for Denmark and to the larger theme of the connection between the moral legitimacy of a ruler and the health of the state as a whole. The ghost is a visible symptom of the rottenness of Denmark created by Claudiuss crime. 62. Key Quotes 2 Act I, Sc ii (129-158) O that this too too solid flesh would melt, Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew! Or that the Everlasting had not fixd His canon gainst self-slaughter! O God! O God! How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable Seem to me all the uses of this world! Fie ont! O fie! tis an unweeded garden, That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature Possess it merely. That it should come to this! But two months dead!nay, not so much, not two: So excellent a king; that was, to this, Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother, That he might not beteem the winds of heaven Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth! Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him As if increase of appetite had grown By what it fed on: and yet, within a month, Let me not think ont,Frailty, thy name is woman! A little month; or ere those shoes were old With which she followed my poor fathers body Like Niobe, all tears;why she, even she, O God! a beast that wants discourse of reason, Would have mournd longer,married with mine uncle, My fathers brother; but no more like my father Than I to Hercules: within a month; Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears Had left the flushing in her galled eyes, She married: O, most wicked speed, to post With such dexterity to incestuous sheets! It is not, nor it cannot come to good; But break my heart,for I must hold my tongue. This quotation, Hamlets first important soliloquy, occurs in Act I, scene ii (129158). Hamlet speaks these lines after enduring the unpleasant scene at Claudius and Gertrudes court, then being asked by his mother and stepfather not to return to his studies at Wittenberg but to remain in Denmark, presumably against his wishes. Here, Hamlet thinks for the first time about suicide (desiring his flesh to melt, and wishing that God had not made self-slaughter a sin), saying that the world is weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable. In other words, suicide seems like a desirable alternative to life in a painful world, but Hamlet feels that the option of suicide is closed to him because it is forbidden by religion. Hamlet then goes on to describe the causes of his pain, specifically his intense disgust at his mothers marriage to Claudius. He describes the haste of their marriage, noting that the shoes his mother wore to his fathers funeral were not worn out before her marriage to Claudius. He compares Claudius to his father (his father was so excellent a king while Claudius is a bestial satyr). As he runs through his description of their marriage, he touches upon the important motifs of misogyny, crying, Frailty, thy name is woman; incest, commenting that his mother moved [w]ith such dexterity to incestuous sheets; and the ominous omen the marriage represents for Denmark, that [i]t is not nor it cannot come to good. Each of these motifs recurs throughout the play. 63. I have of late,but wherefore I know not,lost all my mirth, forgone all custom of exercises; and indeed, it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly frame, the earth, seems to me a sterile promontory; this most excellent canopy, the air, look you, this brave oerhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire,why, it appears no other thing to me than a foul and pestilent congregation of vapours. What a piece of work is man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculties! in form and moving, how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension, how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals! And yet, to me, what is this quintessence of dust? Key Quotes 3 Act II, Sc ii (287-298) In these lines, Hamlet speaks to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Act II, scene ii (287298), explaining the melancholy that has afflicted him since his fathers death. Perhaps moved by the presence of his former university companions, Hamlet essentially engages in a rhetorical exercise, building up an elaborate and glorified picture of the earth and humanity before declaring it all merely a quintessence of dust. He examines the earth, the air, and the sun, and rejects them as a sterile promontory and a foul and pestilent congregation of vapors. He then describes human beings from several perspectives, each one adding to his glorification of them. Human beings reason is noble, their faculties infinite, their forms and movements fast and admirable, their actions angelic, and their understanding godlike. But, to Hamlet, humankind is merely dust. This motif, an expression of his obsession with the physicality of death, recurs throughout the play, reaching its height in his speech over Yoricks skull. Finally, it is also telling that Hamlet makes humankind more impressive in apprehension (meaning understanding) than in action. Hamlet himself is more prone to apprehension than to action, which is why he delays so long before seeking his revenge on Claudius. 64. Apply to Demonstrate - Your turn! Think about how language has been used in these quotes (by this we mean what features has Shakespeare usedwe can learn a lot about characters and theme from language). This is linked to AO2. Focus on what we learn about the character of Hamlet in one of the quotes. What poetic devices are used? What kind of language is used? What images are used? Remember that this is a tragedyhow does the language reflect this? How does the language show Hamlets tragic flaws? 65. Review Write three sentences about the effect of at least ONE language device or one image that you see in one of the quotes. Relate it to the character and to the essay question. Look at the example on the next slide. 66. Example "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) In the beginning of his fourth, and best known, soliloquy Hamlet muses about the conundrum of suicide. He wonders if one route is "nobler" than the next. At this point in the play, Hamlet has been unable to act upon his motives for personal revenge, and this frustrates him. We anticipate the tragic elements of the play as he decides which opportunity is better: suffering as he has been or ending it all? The tone of Hamlet's soliloquy is more meditative than angry, and he often stalls throughout his delivery; this can be conveyed through the use of comma and colon in quick succession in the opening line, as if he is delaying the inevitable act he will have to commit to avenge his father. Nevertheless, it is this delay and continuous questioning that acts as his tragic flaw, ensuring his own downfall is not far away. 67. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To analyse Hamlets tragic qualities in different monologues I know the key quotes of the opening of the play I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to create effect I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 68. Key Question Hamlet asks, "Am I a coward?" (II.ii.543) What would your answer be to Hamlet's question? 69. New Knowledge Were going to move in a bit closer to the text and analyse the language in detail We are going to approach this in a similar way that we approach any poem: Meaning Techniques Effect What are poetic techniques? 70. How to approach the language.... Focus on what we learn about the character of Hamlet in one of the quotes. What poetic devices are used? What kind of language is used? What images are used? Remember that this is a tragedyhow does the language reflect this? How does the language show Hamlets tragic flaws? 71. Create an Analysis Frame Top Left = explanation of quote The most important quotation from the extract Top Right = poetic techniques used Bottom Right= draw an image of the line Bottom Left = analyse the quote 72. Create an Analysis Frame Hamlet muses about the conundrum of suicide To be, or not to be: that is the question Repetition comma/colon brevity The tone of Hamlet's soliloquy is more meditative than angry, and he often stalls throughout his delivery; this can be conveyed through the use of comma and colon in quick succession in the opening line, as if he is delaying the inevitable act he will have to commit to avenge his father. Nevertheless, it is this delay and continuous questioning that acts as his tragic flaw, ensuring his own downfall is not far away. 73. Key Quotes 2 Act I, Sc ii (129-158) O that this too too solid flesh would melt, Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew! Or that the Everlasting had not fixd His canon gainst self-slaughter! O God! O God! How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable Seem to me all the uses of this world! Fie ont! O fie! tis an unweeded garden, That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature Possess it merely. That it should come to this! But two months dead!nay, not so much, not two: So excellent a king; that was, to this, Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother, That he might not beteem the winds of heaven Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth! Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him As if increase of appetite had grown By what it fed on: and yet, within a month, Let me not think ont,Frailty, thy name is woman! A little month; or ere those shoes were old With which she followed my poor fathers body Like Niobe, all tears;why she, even she, O God! a beast that wants discourse of reason, Would have mournd longer,married with mine uncle, My fathers brother; but no more like my father Than I to Hercules: within a month; Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears Had left the flushing in her galled eyes, She married: O, most wicked speed, to post With such dexterity to incestuous sheets! It is not, nor it cannot come to good; But break my heart,for I must hold my tongue. This quotation, Hamlets first important soliloquy, occurs in Act I, scene ii (129158). Hamlet speaks these lines after enduring the unpleasant scene at Claudius and Gertrudes court, then being asked by his mother and stepfather not to return to his studies at Wittenberg but to remain in Denmark, presumably against his wishes. Here, Hamlet thinks for the first time about suicide (desiring his flesh to melt, and wishing that God had not made self-slaughter a sin), saying that the world is weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable. In other words, suicide seems like a desirable alternative to life in a painful world, but Hamlet feels that the option of suicide is closed to him because it is forbidden by religion. Hamlet then goes on to describe the causes of his pain, specifically his intense disgust at his mothers marriage to Claudius. He describes the haste of their marriage, noting that the shoes his mother wore to his fathers funeral were not worn out before her marriage to Claudius. He compares Claudius to his father (his father was so excellent a king while Claudius is a bestial satyr). As he runs through his description of their marriage, he touches upon the important motifs of misogyny, crying, Frailty, thy name is woman; incest, commenting that his mother moved [w]ith such dexterity to incestuous sheets; and the ominous omen the marriage represents for Denmark, that [i]t is not nor it cannot come to good. Each of these motifs recurs throughout the play. Still havent got the foggiest? Look here: 74. Quote 2 - Detailed Analysis Hamlet's passionate first soliloquy provides a striking contrast to the controlled and artificial dialogue that he must exchange with Claudius and his court. The primary function of the soliloquy is to reveal to the audience Hamlet's profound melancholia and the reasons for his despair. In a disjointed outpouring of disgust, anger, sorrow, and grief, Hamlet explains that, without exception, everything in his world is either futile or contemptible. His speech is saturated with suggestions of rot and corruption, as seen in the basic usage of words like "rank" (138) and "gross" (138), and in the metaphor associating the world with "an unweeded garden" (137). The nature of his grief is soon exposed, as we learn that his mother, Gertrude, has married her own brother-in-law only two months after the death of Hamlet's father. Hamlet is tormented by images of Gertrude's tender affections toward his father, believing that her display of love was a pretense to satisfy her own lust and greed. Hamlet even negates Gertrude's initial grief over the loss of her husband. She cried "unrighteous tears" (156) because the sorrow she expressed was insincere, belied by her reprehensible conduct. Notice Shakespeare's use of juxtaposition and contrast to enhance Hamlet's feelings of contempt, disgust, and inadequacy. "The counterpointing between things divine and things earthly or profane is apparent from the opening sentence of the soliloquy, in which Hamlet expresses his anguished sense of being captive to his flesh. His desire for dissolution into dew, an impermanent substance, is expressive of his desire to escape from the corporality into a process suggestive of spiritual release. Immediately juxtaposed to this notion, and standing in contrast to "flesh", is his reference to the "Everlasting", the spiritual term for the duality. Paradoxically, in his aversion from the flesh, his body must seem to him to possess a state of permanence, closer to something everlasting than to the ephemeral nature of the dew he yearns to become" (Newell 35). Another striking juxtaposition in the soliloquy is Hamlet's use of Hyperion and a satyr to denote his father and his uncle, respectively. Hyperion, the Titan god of light, represents honor, virtue, and regality -- all traits belonging to Hamlet's father, the true King of Denmark. Satyrs, the half-human and half- beast companions of the wine-god Dionysus, represent lasciviousness and overindulgence, much like Hamlet's usurping uncle Claudius. It is no wonder, then, that Hamlet develops a disgust for, not only Claudius the man, but all of the behaviours and excesses associated with Claudius. In other passages from the play we see that Hamlet has begun to find revelry of any kind unacceptable, and, in particular, he loathes drinking and sensual dancing. 75. I have of late,but wherefore I know not,lost all my mirth, forgone all custom of exercises; and indeed, it goes so heavily with my disposition that this goodly frame, the earth, seems to me a sterile promontory; this most excellent canopy, the air, look you, this brave oerhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted with golden fire,why, it appears no other thing to me than a foul and pestilent congregation of vapours. What a piece of work is man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculties! in form and moving, how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension, how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals! And yet, to me, what is this quintessence of dust? Key Quotes 3 Act II, Sc ii (287-298) In these lines, Hamlet speaks to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Act II, scene ii (287298), explaining the melancholy that has afflicted him since his fathers death. Perhaps moved by the presence of his former university companions, Hamlet essentially engages in a rhetorical exercise, building up an elaborate and glorified picture of the earth and humanity before declaring it all merely a quintessence of dust. He examines the earth, the air, and the sun, and rejects them as a sterile promontory and a foul and pestilent congregation of vapors. He then describes human beings from several perspectives, each one adding to his glorification of them. Human beings reason is noble, their faculties infinite, their forms and movements fast and admirable, their actions angelic, and their understanding godlike. But, to Hamlet, humankind is merely dust. This motif, an expression of his obsession with the physicality of death, recurs throughout the play, reaching its height in his speech over Yoricks skull. Finally, it is also telling that Hamlet makes humankind more impressive in apprehension (meaning understanding) than in action. Hamlet himself is more prone to apprehension than to action, which is why he delays so long before seeking his revenge on Claudius. Still havent got the foggiest? Look here: 76. Key Quotes 4 Act II, Sc II (520 - Now I am alone. O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! Is it not monstrous that this player here, But in a fiction, in a dream of passion, Could force his soul so to his own conceit That from her working all his visage wann'd, Tears in his eyes, distraction in's aspect, A broken voice, and his whole function suiting With forms to his conceit? and all for nothing! For Hecuba! What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, That he should weep for her? What would he do, Had he the motive and the cue for passion That I have? He would drown the stage with tears And cleave the general ear with horrid speech, Make mad the guilty and appal the free, Confound the ignorant, and amaze indeed The very faculties of eyes and ears. Yet I, A dull and muddy-mettled rascal, peak, Like John-a-dreams, unpregnant of my cause, And can say nothing; no, not for a king, Upon whose property and most dear life A damn'd defeat was made. Am I a coward? Who calls me villain? breaks my pate across? Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face? Tweaks me by the nose? gives me the lie i' the throat, As deep as to the lungs? who does me this? Ha! 'Swounds, I should take it: for it cannot be Is it not horribly unfair that this actor, pretending to feel great passion, could, based on what he has conceived in his own mind, force his own soul to believe the part that he is playing, so much so that all the powers of his body adapt themselves to suit his acting needs -- so that he grows agitated ("distraction in's aspect"), weeps, and turns pale ("wann'd")? And why does he carry on so? Why does he pretend until he truly makes himself weep? For Hecuba! But why? What are they to each other? Trojan queen who broke down at the death of her husband, Priam unlike Gertrude Dull-spirited Thus, "Like a dreamer, not thinking about my cause." 77. Key Quotes 4 Act II, Sc II (550 580) But I am pigeon-liver'd and lack gall To make oppression bitter, or ere this I should have fatted all the region kites With this slave's offal: bloody, bawdy villain! Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless villain! O, vengeance! Why, what an ass am I! This is most brave, That I, the son of a dear father murder'd, Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell, Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with words, And fall a-cursing, like a very drab, A scullion! Fie upon't! foh! About, my brain! I have heard That guilty creatures sitting at a play Have by the very cunning of the scene Been struck so to the soul that presently They have proclaim'd their malefactions; For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak With most miraculous organ. I'll have these players Play something like the murder of my father Before mine uncle: I'll observe his looks; I'll tent him to the quick: if he but blench, I know my course. The spirit that I have seen May be the devil: and the devil hath power To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps Out of my weakness and my melancholy, As he is very potent with such spirits, Abuses me to damn me: I'll have grounds More relative than this: the play's the thing Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king. What poetic devices are used? What kind of language is used? What images are used? Remember that this is a tragedyhow does the language reflect this? How does the language show Hamlets tragic flaws? Still havent got the foggiest? Look here: 78. Quote 4 Detailed Analysis In addition to revealing Hamlet's plot to catch the king in his guilt, Hamlet's second soliloquy uncovers the very essence of Hamlet's true conflict. For he is undeniably committed to seeking revenge for his father, yet he cannot act on behalf of his father due to his revulsion toward extracting that cold and calculating revenge. "Hamlet's sense of himself as a coward is derived from a crude, simplistic judgment turning on whether or not he has yet taken any action against the man who murdered his father. His self-condemnation takes several bizarre forms, including histrionic imaginings of a series of demeaning insults that he absorbs like a coward because he feels he has done nothing to take revenge on Claudius" (Newell 61). Determined to convince himself to carry out the premeditated murder of his uncle, Hamlet works himself into a frenzy (the culmination of which occurs at lines 357-8). He hopes that his passions will halt his better judgement and he will then be able to charge forth and kill Claudius without hesitation. But Hamlet again fails to quell his apprehensions of committing murder and cannot act immediately. So he next tries to focus his attention on a plan to ensure Claudius admits his own guilt. He returns to an idea that had crossed his mind earlier -- that of staging the play The Mousetrap. Hamlet is convinced that, as Claudius watches a re-enactment of his crime, he will surely reveal his own guilt. Hamlet cannot take the word of his father's ghost, who really might be "the devil" (573), tricking him into damning himself. Thus, he must have more material proof before he takes Claudius's life -- he must "catch the conscience of the king." 79. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To write an analytical paragraph on Hamlets tragic flaws I know Hamlets flaws I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to show these flaws I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 80. Bell Work Complete the Analysis Frame Top Left = explanation of quote To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? Top Right = poetic techniques used Bottom Right= draw an image of the line Bottom Left = analyse the quote Need help? 81. Lets Revive Hammy 1. In groups of four, draw round the head and torso of one student on the paper provided 2. Write as many adjective in the following places that describe Hamlets personality: Head = thoughts about life Heart = feelings and emotions Stomach = his strengths and weaknesses Arms = relationships with others 3. Around the body, find quotes from the extracts we have study to support your adjectives 82. Possible Adjectives So far we have met Hamlet a few times in his soliloquys. Try to use a few of the following adjectives to describe his personality Tired Comical Brave Foolish Prepared Young Stoic Unintelligent Smart Heroic Frightened Naive Sympathetic Caring Cold Wise Happy Sad Bold Superior Childlike Ambitious Excited Calm Sedate Uncaring Insightful Anxious Hateful Loving Philosophical Rational Irrational Stubborn Religious 83. Possible Quotations This above all: to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man. Doubt thou the stars are fire; Doubt that the sun doth move; Doubt truth to be a liar; But never doubt I love. There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? Lord Polonius: What do you read, my lord? Hamlet: Words, words, words. Lord Polonius: What is the matter, my lord? Hamlet: Between who? Lord Polonius: I mean, the matter that you read, my lord. Madness in great ones must not unwatched go. To die, to sleep - To sleep, perchance to dream - ay, there's the rub, For in this sleep of death what dreams may come... There are more things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Though this be madness, yet there is method in't. Brevity is the soul of wit. Conscience doth make cowards of us all. My words fly up, my thoughts remain below: Words without thoughts never to heaven go. One may smile, and smile, and be a villain. The lady doth protest too much, methinks. When sorrows come, they come not single spies. But in battalions! God hath given you one face, and you make yourself another. 84. Key Question How does your Hamlet link to the historical, social and cultural context of the Elizabethan and Jacobean society? 85. Key Question How does he link to todays society? Better beard than Morris effort! 86. Apply to Demonstrate - Your turn! Now choose three short quotes and analyse them in detail in a short paragraph. 1. Describe one of Hamlets tragic flaws 2. Use a quote to support this 3. What kind of language and techniques are used? 4. How does this make the audience feel? 5. Repeat with two more quotes 6. How does this link to the context of the time? Look at the example on the next slide. 87. Model "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) In the beginning of his fourth, and best known, soliloquy Hamlet muses about the conundrum of suicide. This constant questioning acts as his tragic flaw, as he spends the majority of the play procrastinating rather than being proactive in the vengeance of his father. He wonders if one route is "nobler" than the next. At this point in the play, Hamlet has been unable to act upon his motives for personal revenge, and this frustrates him. We anticipate the tragic elements of the play as he decides which opportunity is better: suffering as he has been or ending it all? The tone of Hamlet's soliloquy is more meditative than angry, and he often stalls throughout his delivery; this can be conveyed through the use of comma and colon in quick succession in the opening line, as if he is delaying the inevitable act he will have to commit to avenge his father. Nevertheless, it is this delay and continuous questioning that acts as his tragic flaw, ensuring his own downfall is not far away. It is interesting that Hamlet shows a different personality to the aggressive and masculine Elizabethan hero. Instead, audiences would have witnessed a character always considering his future, which is rather apt for a society going through much political and social change. 88. Detailed Peer Assessment Clarity of writing Analysis of Language Techniques Lexis appropriate for Audience Understanding of Hamlets tragic flaws ZOOMING IN on one aspect of the language used and exploration of connotation Sentence Variety Accurate spelling, punctuation and grammar Read your peers work carefully, thinking about how well this person has done. Push yourself by suggesting improvements They have done well because. They could improve by Try and include.. The organisation is. Look at the example on the next slide. 89. GOOD Feedback Examples of good feedback - ZOOM in on the language devices in more detail here What effect does it create? - You could have chosen better quotations that illustrate how Hamlet is tragically flawed, such as - I like your analysis here but have you thought of this interpretation 90. Our Flaw What aspect of writing the essay are you least confident with? 1. Understanding of the play 2. Writing statements to answer the question 3. Finding quotations to support your statements 4. Identifying the techniques used in the quotation 5. Explaining how your quote supports your statement 6. Analysing the connotations and effect of the language 7. Linking the play/language/characterisation to the historical context 91. Quote Wheel Add as many quotes as possible about a theme on the board. Try to add a variety of different quotes from the monologues we have looked at today Think about how the quotes show Hamlets tragic qualities Nobility Revenge Grief Intelligence Procrastination Self-loathing Failure to act 92. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To analyse and evaluate Act III, Sc III where Hamlet bottles it! I know Hamlets flaws I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to show these flaws I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 93. Analysing and Evaluating What is the key difference between these skills? 94. Act III, Sc III Why doesnt Hamlet kill Claudius? Hamlet slips quietly into the room and steels himself to kill the unseeing Claudius. But suddenly it occurs to him that if he kills Claudius while he is praying, he will end the kings life at the moment when he was seeking forgiveness for his sins, sending Claudiuss soul to heaven. This is hardly an adequate revenge, Hamlet thinks, especially since Claudius, by killing Hamlets father before he had time to make his last confession, ensured that his brother would not go to heaven. Hamlet decides to wait, resolving to kill Claudius when the king is sinningwhen he is either drunk, angry, or lustful. He leaves. Claudius rises and declares that he has been unable to pray sincerely: My words fly up, my thoughts remain below (III.iii.96). 95. Explanation In Act III, scene iii, Hamlet finally seems ready to put his desire for revenge into action. He is satisfied that the play has proven his uncles guilt. When Claudius prays, the audience is given real certainty that Claudius murdered his brother: a full, spontaneous confession, even though nobody else hears it. This only heightens our sense that the climax of the play is due to arrive. But Hamlet waits. On the surface, it seems that he waits because he wants a more radical revenge. Critics such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge have been horrified by Hamlets words herehe completely oversteps the bounds of Christian morality in trying to damn his opponents soul as well as kill him. But apart from this ultraviolent posturing, Hamlet has once again avoided the imperative to act by involving himself in a problem of knowledge. Now that hes satisfied that he knows Claudiuss guilt, he wants to know that his punishment will be sufficient. It may have been difficult to prove the former, but how can Hamlet ever hope to know the fate of Claudiuss immortal soul? 96. Explanation Hamlet poses his desire to damn Claudius as a matter of fairness: his own father was killed without having cleansed his soul by praying or confessing, so why should his murderer be given that chance? But Hamlet is forced to admit that he doesnt really know what happened to his father, remarking how his audit stands, who knows, save heaven? (III.iv.82). The most he can say is that in our circumstance and course of thought / Tis heavy with him (III.iv.8384). The Norton Shakespeare paraphrases in our circumstance and course of thought as in our indirect and limited way of knowing on earth. Having proven his uncles guilt to himself, against all odds, Hamlet suddenly finds something else to be uncertain about. At this point, Hamlet has gone beyond his earlier need to know the facts about the crime, and he now craves metaphysical knowledge, knowledge of the afterlife and of God, before he is willing to act. The audience has had plenty of opportunity to see that Hamlet is fascinated with philosophical questions. In the case of the to be, or not to be soliloquy, we saw that his philosophizing can be a way for him to avoid thinking about or acknowledging something more immediately important (in that case, his urge to kill himself). Is Hamlet using his speculations about Claudiuss soul to avoid thinking about something in this case? Perhaps the task he has set for himselfkilling another human being in cold bloodis too much for him to face. Whatever it is, the audience may once again get the sense that there is something more to Hamlets behavior than meets the eye. That Shakespeare is able to convey this sense is a remarkable achievement in itself, quite apart from how we try to explain what Hamlets unacknowledged motives might be. 97. Key Quotes from this Scene Now might I do it pat, now he is praying; And now I'll do't. And so he goes to heaven, And so am I reveng'd. That would be scann'd. A villain kills my father; and for that, I, his sole son, do this same villain send To heaven. Why, this is hire and salary, not revenge! He took my father grossly, full of bread, With all his crimes broad blown, as flush as May; And how his audit stands, who knows save heaven? But in our circumstance and course of thought, 'Tis heavy with him; and am I then reveng'd, To take him in the purging of his soul, When he is fit and seasoned for his passage? No. Up, sword, and know thou a more horrid hent. When he is drunk asleep; or in his rage; Or in th' incestuous pleasure of his bed; At gaming, swearing, or about some act That has no relish of salvation in't- Then trip him, that his heels may kick at heaven, And that his soul may be as damn'd and black As hell, whereto it goes. My mother stays. This physic but prolongs thy sickly days. How does the language show Hamlets tragic flaws? What poetic devices and images are used? What kind of language is used? How is structure used for effect? How does this speech reflect the historical context? 98. Act 3 Scene 3 Dr Johnson stated about this scene: Hamlets words are too horrible to read or be uttered. 1. Why does Johnson say this? 2. Why does Hamlet choose to spare Claudius at this moment? 3. Does Hamlet give the true reasons or is he simply rationalising a tendency to procrastinate? Is he providing a justification which might satisfy the desire for revenge from the ghost who haunts him? Or does he withdraw as he knows to kill a man in the chapel is cold blooded murder and will lead to damnation? 99. Look at the following readings and rank order them according to which you agree with the most. 1. Hamlets speech upon seeing the King at Prayers, has always given me great offence. There is something so very bloody in it, so inhuman, so unworthy of a Hero, that I wish our poet had omitted it. To desire to destroy a mans soul, to make him eternally miserable, by cutting him off from all hopes of repentance; this surely, in a Christian Prince, is such a piece of revenge, as no tenderness for any parent can justify (Anon. 1619.) 2. Set against this lovely prayer-the fine flower of a human soul in anguish is the entrance of hamlet, the late joy of torturing the Kings conscience still written on his face, his eye a-glitter with the intoxication of the conquest, vengeance in his mind; his purpose altered only by the devilish hope of offending a more damning moment n which to slaughter the king (Wilson Knight.) 3. (Hamlet) comes upon the King, alone, conscience-stricken and attempting to pray. His enemy is delivered into his hands (But) if he killed the villain now he would send his soul to heaven that this again is an unconscious excuse for a delay is now pretty generally agreedbut the feeling of intense hatred which Hamlet expresses is not the cause of his sparing the King the reason.. Is not that his sentiments are horrible, but that elsewhere, and in the op0ening of his speech here, we can see his reluctance to act is due to other causes. (Bradley.) 100. Analysing ZOOM IN on how Shakespeares use of language presents Hamlets personality Focus on one or two words and think about the connotations What can we infer? 101. Model "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) In the beginning of his fourth, and best known, soliloquy Hamlet muses about the conundrum of suicide. This constant questioning acts as his tragic flaw, as he spends the majority of the play procrastinating rather than being proactive in the vengeance of his father. 102. ZOOM IN "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) He wonders if one route is "nobler" than the next. At this point in the play, Hamlet has been unable to act upon his motives for personal revenge, and this frustrates him. We anticipate the tragic elements of the play as he decides which opportunity is better: suffering as he has been or ending it all? The tone of Hamlet's soliloquy is more meditative than angry, and he often stalls throughout his delivery; this can be conveyed through the use of comma and colon in quick succession in the opening line, as if he is delaying the inevitable act he will have to commit to avenge his father. Nevertheless, it is this delay and continuous questioning that acts as his tragic flaw, ensuring his own downfall is not far away. 103. Now ZOOM OUT to show how this links to the authors purpose or what it shows about the historical and social context or the theme of the play Evaluating 104. ZOOM OUT "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) It is interesting that Hamlet shows a different personality to the aggressive and masculine Elizabethan hero. Instead, audiences would have witnessed a character always considering his future, which is rather apt for a society going through much political and social change. 105. Review Highlight the three different parts to your paragraph: Statement that answers the question ZOOMING in and analysing the language ZOOMING out to link it to the context 106. Review Learning Objective: To analyse and evaluate Act III, Sc III where Hamlet bottles it! I know Hamlets flaws I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to show these flaws I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 107. Who Would Make A Better Prime Minister? Or Hamlet Henry Jekyll 108. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To ZOOM IN and ZOOM OUT on Hamlets final soliloquy I know Hamlets flaws I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to show these flaws I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 109. Mindmap! What does your writing need in order to get an A* in your controlled assessment? Fluency (like an embedded quotation) Originality (not just what your teacher told you) Detail (not just generalisations) Sophistication (not using words like stuff) Language Analysis (writers dont choose words by accident!) 110. Beautiful Sentences 1. Reader response The reader is caught between The reader is caught between empathy for Hamlet and frustrated by his inability to act on his vengeance. 2. Peeling away the layers of characterisation On the exterior____________, yet on the interior we can infer__________. On the exterior, Hamlet appears desperate for revenge against the King who has murdered his father, yet on the interior we can infer that he feels a deep sense of anxiety for the consequences of his action. 3. Character motives ________is motivated not only by___________________ but also by _____________________________. Claudius is motivated not only by his ambition to become king, but also by his desire to please Gertrude. 4. Character development By the close of the play/poem/novel the once _____________ has developed into_______________________ . By the close of the play, the once apprehensive and procrastinating Hamlet has developed into a tragic hero ready to murder the King and avenge his father. 5. Reader positioning (The writer) positions the reader/audience in favour of /against _____ by __________________________________________ . Shakespeare positions the audience against Claudius by revealing his arrogant and ambitious nature in the early scenes. 111. Beautiful Sentences 6. First impressions Our first impressions of ___________________________________ . (x3) Our first impressions of Hamlet are that he is emotional, philosophical and cast in nightly colours and inky cloaks. 7. Weighing up the importance Even though/although ________________________________, ________________________________________. Even though Gertrude behaves at times like a cruel temptress, by the end of the novel we realise that she is a victim of a harsh, misogynist world. 8. Deepening analysis At first glance ________________________________; however, on closer inspection ______________________________. At first glance the family appear to be respectable members of society; however, on closer inspection, we can already sense the rift between mother and son. 112. Beautiful Sentences 9. Identifying a common thread Throughout the novel/poem/play ______________________________________________________________. Throughout the play, Shakespeare explores the tragic flaws of indecision, doubt and the demanding quest for knowledge in a variety of ways. 10. Identifying the main thing The most important word/sentence/idea/chapter/moment is _________________ because ________________________. The most important word from this line is might because it emphasises the element of possibility and choice in Hamlets will to kill the King. 11. Close language analysis Here, _________employs the word/phrase __________ to suggest/imply/reinforce ____________________________. Here, Hamlet employs the phrase Ill do it to reinforce the idea that Hamlet still lacks confidence in his ability to avenge his father as he almost seems to be psyching himself up to kill the King. 12. Exemplifying an idea through a character/setting/event __________ reveals her/his belief in _____through her/his description of______________________________________. Stevie Smith reveals her belief in the cyclical nature of war through her description of the ebbing tide of battle. 13. Contrasting alternative viewpoints Some readers might propose that__________________; other readers, however, might argue________________________. Some readers might propose that Shakespeares portrayal of Shylock was cruel and unfair; other readers, however, might argue that Shakespeare was simply reflecting the views of the society he lived in. 113. Beautiful Sentences 14. Noting subtleties Here, the writer cleverly________________________________________________________. Here, Shakespeare cleverly employs the gruesome image of flesh melting into dew to remind the reader once again of Hamlets dark depression. 15. Proposing a tentative idea Perhaps, (writers name) was hinting that ______________________________________________________. Perhaps Shakespeare was hinting that Hamlets bitterness towards Ophelia was because ultimately he know he would have to die to avenge his father, thus sparing the heartbreak of grieving for the dead Prince. 114. Act IV, Sc iv Bloody Hamlet! On a nearby plain in Denmark, young Prince Fortinbras marches at the head of his army, traveling through Denmark on the way to attack Poland. Fortinbras orders his captain to go and ask the King of Denmark for permission to travel through his lands. On his way, the captain encounters Hamlet, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern on their way to the ship bound for England. The captain informs them that the Norwegian army rides to fight the Poles. Hamlet asks about the basis of the conflict, and the man tells him that the armies will fight over a little patch of land / That hath in it no profit but the name (IV.iv.9899). Astonished by the thought that a bloody war could be fought over something so insignificant, Hamlet marvels that human beings are able to act so violently and purposefully for so little gain. By comparison, Hamlet has a great deal to gain from seeking his own bloody revenge on Claudius, and yet he still delays and fails to act toward his purpose. Disgusted with himself for having failed to gain his revenge on Claudius, Hamlet declares that from this moment on, his thoughts will be bloody. 115. Act IV, Sc iv Bloody Hamlet! Act IV, scene iv restores the focus of the play to the theme of human action. Hamlets encounter with the Norwegian captain serves to remind the reader of Fortinbrass presence in the world of the play and gives Hamlet another example of the will to action that he lacks. Earlier, he was amazed by the players evocation of powerful feeling for Hecuba, a legendary character who meant nothing to him (II.ii). Now, he is awestruck by the willingness of Fortinbras to devote the energy of an entire army, probably wasting hundreds of lives and risking his own, to reclaim a worthless scrap of land in Poland. Hamlet considers the moral ambiguity of Fortinbrass action, but more than anything else he is impressed by the forcefulness of it, and that forcefulness becomes a kind of ideal toward which Hamlet decides at last to strive. My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth! he declares (IV.iv.9.56). Of course, he fails to put this exclamation into action, as he has failed at every previous turn to achieve his revenge on Claudius. My thoughts be bloody, Hamlet says. Tellingly, he does not say My deeds be bloody. 116. How all occasions do inform against me, And spur my dull revenge! What is a man, If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed? a beast, no more. Sure, he that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and god-like reason To fust in us unused. Now, whether it be Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple Of thinking too precisely on the event, A thought which, quarter'd, hath but one part wisdom And ever three parts coward, I do not know Why yet I live to say 'This thing's to do;' Sith I have cause and will and strength and means To do't. Examples gross as earth exhort me: Witness this army of such mass and charge Led by a delicate and tender prince, Whose spirit with divine ambition puff'd Makes mouths at the invisible event, Exposing what is mortal and unsure To all that fortune, death and danger dare, Even for an egg-shell. Rightly to be great Is not to stir without great argument, But greatly to find quarrel in a straw When honour's at the stake. How stand I then, That have a father kill'd, a mother stain'd, Excitements of my reason and my blood, And let all sleep? while, to my shame, I see The imminent death of twenty thousand men, That, for a fantasy and trick of fame, Go to their graves like beds, fight for a plot Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause, Which is not tomb enough and continent To hide the slain? O, from this time forth, My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth! How could we describe Hamlet in this passage? Where is he self-loathing and then resolves to act? What images and techniques are used? What is the most important quotation? How does this speech make us feel towards Hamlet? 117. Analysing ZOOM IN on how Shakespeares use of language presents Hamlets personality Focus on one or two words and think about the connotations What can we infer? 118. Model "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) In the beginning of his fourth, and best known, soliloquy Hamlet muses about the conundrum of suicide. This constant questioning acts as his tragic flaw, as he spends the majority of the play procrastinating rather than being proactive in the vengeance of his father. 119. ZOOM IN "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) He wonders if one route is "nobler" than the next. At this point in the play, Hamlet has been unable to act upon his motives for personal revenge, and this frustrates him. We anticipate the tragic elements of the play as he decides which opportunity is better: suffering as he has been or ending it all? The tone of Hamlet's soliloquy is more meditative than angry, and he often stalls throughout his delivery; this can be conveyed through the use of comma and colon in quick succession in the opening line, as if he is delaying the inevitable act he will have to commit to avenge his father. Nevertheless, it is this delay and continuous questioning that acts as his tragic flaw, ensuring his own downfall is not far away. 120. Now ZOOM OUT to show how this links to the authors purpose or what it shows about the historical and social context or the theme of the play Evaluating 121. ZOOM OUT "To be, or not to be: that is the question." (Act III, Scene I) It is interesting that Hamlet shows a different personality to the aggressive and masculine Elizabethan hero. Instead, audiences would have witnessed a character always considering his future, which is rather apt for a society going through much political and social change. 122. Review Highlight the three different parts to your paragraph: Statement that answers the question ZOOMING in and analysing the language ZOOMING out to link it to the context 123. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To understand the essentials of planning I know Hamlets flaws I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to show these flaws I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 124. Starter Look at assessment objectives again. Look at the question again. You will each get a post-it. You will each choose an AO and write one thing you will need to do in your Controlled Assessment to ensure you have met that objective. Lets hear some ideas! Explore how Shakespeare presents weaknesses and tragic flaws in Hamlet and Othello 125. Were going to do a planning preparation exercise. You will apply these concepts to Hamlet next lesson. You are going to think about a film you have seen recently and come up with three themes from that filmyou have two minutes! If you chose Harry Potter, for instance, you might come up with themes such as: Power Heroism Prejudice Love Oppression The Fault in Our Stars in BANNED for reasons of mass hysteria and floods of tears. 126. This lesson will walk you through an effective way of organising your writing. It follows the pattern of a five-part essay: Introduction Part A Part B Part C Conclusion You can use this for any essay, whether it be an exam or Controlled Assessment!!! 127. Introduction You should already know what three things you MUST have in your Introduction: Authors and texts Key words of the question Themes or concepts you will use to answer the question. You will NOT write: In this essay I will... 128. Introduction Example Poetry QUESTION: Explore how Medusa by Carol Ann Duffy and The River God by Stevie Smith explore the notion of jealousy. Both Medusa by Carol Ann Duffy and The River God by Stevie Smith explore the notion of jealousy through the voice of the speakers. We see this jealousy through their relationships, emotions and physical description. 129. Introduction 5 minutes Write your introduction for the film that you have chosen, and ensure that you have included all the appropriate information. Your question is this: How is the protagonist in your film presented and developed throughout? 130. Parts A, B and C Example Harry Potter This does NOT mean paragraphs! It means sections. You will use your themes to organise your essay. I am going to use Harry Potter as my example for this section. Follow along and use the same idea for your film. Listen first, and then you will have time to do your own. 131. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Group ideas in concepts first. Part A: Love Part B: Prejudice Part C: Power With this part of my essay, Im going to show how different characters are presented through different means; in this case, love, prejudice and power 132. Next, expand on those concepts by creating sub-points (or statements) Part A: Love Parental Love: Lily Potters sacrificial love for Harry evokes the old magic Love in friendship: The Order, Dumbledore, Ron and Hermiones friendship with Harry Part B: Prejudice - Voldemorts utlisation of Slytherins ideology of pure-bloods - The Ministrys enforcement of prejudice and intolerance - Prejudice as a tool to create fear Part C: Power - How power corrupts (Umbridge, Voldemort, Fudge) - Voldemorts rise to power (conquering of death) - How love ultimately is shown to be more powerful than conquering death 133. Task 20 minutes Do this for your film as well. Each point would equate to a SQEEL paragraph so you dont want to have too many. Now choose ONE section to develop further (in your planning you will do this with all of them). You will create statements and quotations for these (or details of the film in this case) 134. Ive chosen Power Part C: Power - How power corrupts (Umbridge, Fudge) - Characters such as Umbridge, Fudge and Voldemort become drunk on power and use it as a means to intimidate. For the Ministry, we see a transformation in how it is run as the magic is might motto is corrupted to mean control rather than freedom. - Voldemorts rise to power (conquering of death) - Voldemort is convinced that through conquering death he will hold ultimate power; furthermore, this notion is embodied in the character of Harry who becomes the boy who lived, come to die. - How love ultimately is shown to be more powerful than conquering death - Members of the Order, who ultimately serve Dumbledore, thrive on their relationships with each other and their love of freedom and truth. Harry articulates this when he says what sets them apart from Voldemort is that they have something worth fighting for. Now do this with one of your sections 135. Conclusion This is where you revise what you put in your Introduction and join it together with what was in the body of your essay. It should show that you have answered the question. 136. Conclusion You use the same things in your conclusion that you used in your introduction, but they are revised. So lets look at an example from my Y11 chaps last year. The question was about how a character was developed and presented. Name of text(s)you dont need to mention the author(s) again Key words of the question Themes or concepts you used to answer the question. 137. Conclusion Example - Mockingbird Boo Radley is presented differently throughout To Kill a Mockingbird as he develops. Initially we see him as a character that should be feared, but this changes by the end of the novel. We can see this development through his relationship with the children, the mystery surrounding him being unveiled as well as his heroism in saving Jem. 138. Task Write a conclusion for your filmit shouldnt be any longer than three sentences. 139. Plenary Write down three things you will do next lesson during your planning time to ensure that you achieve the Band you want for your Controlled Assessment. Everyone will share one thing. 140. Homework If you want to take your Hamlet texts and exercise books home to revise in preparation for planning, feel free to do so. HOWEVER, you MUST have it with you next lesson!!! No excuses! 141. OBJECTIVE Learning Objective: To begin the planning process of our Hamlet essay I know Hamlets flaws I can identify and explain how Hamlet is using language to show these flaws I can analyse how the language used by Hamlet conveys his tragic flaw This is our success criteria of the day 142. Three Part Essay What can our three parts be? Part A: Part B: Part C: Explore how Shakespeare presents weaknesses and tragic flaws in Hamlet 143. Three Part Essay What can our three parts be? Part A: Indecisiveness and Procrastination Part B: Anger towards others Part C: Madness Explore how Shakespeare presents weaknesses and tragic flaws in Hamlet 144. AO1 - Beautiful Statements Using the beautiful sentences from last lesson, not create six statements (two for each section) Part A: Indecisiveness and Procrastination Our first impressions of Hamlet are that he is emotional, philosophical and cast in nightly colours and inky cloaks. On the exterior, Hamlet appears desperate for revenge against the King who has murdered his father, yet on the interior we can infer that he feels a deep sense of anxiety for the consequences of his action. 145. AO1 - Key Quotes for Each Part Now find as many quotes as possible which link to your statements Remember to use all the resources available to you: 146. AO2 - Zooming In and Out For each quote write a brief inference and explore two different connotations Example: Conscience doth make cowards of us all His conscience is preventing him from doing the bold, brave thing that must be done (take action against Claudius); it is making him a weakling. He is plagued by doubt The pronoun us shifts the focus away from his solitude as a way of universalising his weakness. Thinking about the act of revenge causes hesitation. Fear of the death/unknown (heaven or hell) prevents him from suicide. 147. AO2 Dramatic Effect on the Audience Now choose two short quotes and analyse the effect the language has on the audience How does this word/phrase/image make the audience feel towards Hamlet? 148. AO4 - Context How does your Hamlet section link to the historical, social and cultural context of the Elizabethan and Jacobean society? 149. Our first impressions of Hamlet are that he is emotional, philosophical and cast in nightly colours and inky cloaks. In the beginning of his fourth, and best known, soliloquy Hamlet muses about the conundrum of suicide. This constant questioning acts as his tragic flaw, as he spends the majority of the play procrastinating rather than being proactive in the vengeance of his father. He wonders if one route is "nobler" than the next. At this point in the play, Hamlet has been unable to act upon his motives for personal revenge, and this frustrates him. We anticipate the tragic elements of the play as he decides which opportunity is better: suffering as he has been or ending it all? The tone of Hamlet's soliloquy is more meditative than angry, and he often stalls throughout his delivery; this can be conveyed through the use of comma and colon in quick succession in the opening line, as if he is delaying the inevitable act he will have to commit to avenge his father. Nevertheless, it is this delay and continuous questioning that acts as his tragic flaw, ensuring his own downfall is not far away. It is interesting that Hamlet shows a different personality to the aggressive and masculine Elizabethan hero. Instead, audiences would have witnessed a character always considering his future, which is rather apt for a society going through much political and social change. 150. Exit Ticket On a post-it note, write which area of the essay you are least confident with: Beautiful statements that answer the question Finding accurate and supportive quotations Zooming in and out on the language Analysing the effect on the reader Relating the play to the historical and social context 151. Introduction Brief answer to the essay question (use the headings of Part A, B and C) Very brief synopsis of the play Name play, play-write and facts about them Historical and social context: dates of play, who was King/Queen, what was life generally like What is a tragedy and tragic hero? How is Hamlet a tragic hero