halloween secondary worksheet

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  • 1. HalloweenTeachers Notes and WorksheetsFor Secondary Educationby David Reeson

2. TO THE TEACHERWelcome to the email teachers notes for Halloween 2006. ruled the Celtic lands, two festivals of Roman origin were Here you will find activities and worksheets to scare your combined with the traditional Celtic celebration of students for a day. These are worksheets and activities forSamhain. all different levels of secondary education. They areThe first was Feralia, a day in late October when the designed to provide vocabulary and cultural knowledgeRomans traditionally commemorated the passing of the related to Halloween.dead. The second was a day to honour Pomona, theRoman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona Each worksheet is marked with the level, time, languageis the apple and the incorporation of this celebration into used and class management. There are also notes on how Samhain probably explains the tradition of "bobbing" for to use the worksheets and in some cases extra activities toapples that is practiced today on Halloween. accompany the worksheets. Also included are cultural information about Halloween so that you and your By the 800s, the influence of Christianity had spread into students are well informed.Celtic lands. In the seventh century, Pope Boniface IVdesignated November 1 All Saints' Day, a time to honour Happy Halloweening.saints and martyrs. It is widely believed today that thepope was attempting to replace the Celtic festival of thedead with a related, but church-sanctioned holiday. The Background information celebration was also called All-hallows or All-hallowmas(from Middle English Alholowmesse meaning All Saints' Ancient OriginsDay) and the night before it, the night of Samhain, began Halloween's origins date back to the ancient Celticto be called All-hallows Eve and, eventually, Halloween. festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-in). Even later, in A.D. 1000, the church would make The Celts, who lived 2,000 years ago in the area that is November 2 All Souls' Day, a day to honour the dead. It now Ireland, the United Kingdom, and northern France,was celebrated similarly to Samhain, with big bonfires, celebrated their new year on November 1. This dayparades, and dressing up in costumes as saints, angels, marked the end of summer and the harvest and the and devils. Together, the three celebrations, the eve of All beginning of the dark, cold winter, a time of year that wasSaints', All Saints', and All Souls', were called Hallowmas. often associated with human death. Celts believed that on the night before the New Year, the boundary between theHistory of the Jack O'Lantern worlds of the living and the dead became blurred. On the night of October 31, they celebrated Samhain, when itThe Irish brought the tradition of the Jack O'Lantern to was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth.America. But, the original Jack O'Lantern was not a In addition to causing trouble and damaging crops, Celts pumpkin. The Jack O'Lantern legend goes back hundreds thought that the presence of the otherworldly spirits made of years in Irish History. As the story goes, Stingy Jack it easier for the Druids, or Celtic priests, to make was a miserable, old drunk who liked to play tricks on predictions about the future. For a people entirelyeveryone: family, friends, his mother and even the Devil dependent on the volatile natural world, these prophecieshimself. One day, he tricked the Devil into climbing up an were an important source of comfort and direction during apple tree. Once the Devil climbed up the apple tree, the long, dark winter. Stingy Jack hurriedly placed crosses around the trunk ofthe tree. The Devil was then unable to get down the tree. To commemorate the event, Druids built huge sacred Stingy Jack made the Devil promise him not to take his bonfires, where the people gathered to burn crops andsoul when he died. Once the devil promised not to take animals as sacrifices to the Celtic deities. his soul, Stingy Jack removed the crosses and let the During the celebration, the Celts wore costumes, typically Devil down. consisting of animal heads and skins, and attempted to tellMany years later, when Jack finally died, he went to the each other's fortunes. When the celebration was over, they pearly gates of Heaven and was told by Saint Peter that he re-lit their hearth fires, which they had extinguished was too mean and too cruel and had led a miserable and earlier that evening, from the sacred bonfire to helpworthless life on earth. He was not allowed to enter protect them during the coming winter. heaven. He then went down to Hell and the Devil. TheDevil kept his promise and would not allow him to enter By A.D. 43, Romans had conquered the majority of CelticHell. Now Jack was scared and had nowhere to go but to territory. In the course of the four hundred years that they wander about forever in the darkness between heaven and 3. hell. He asked the Devil how he could leave as there wasHalloween was a time for making mischief - many parts no light. The Devil tossed him an ember from the flames of England still recognise Halloween as Mischief Night - of Hell to help him light his way. Jack placed the ember in when children would knock on doors demanding a treat a hollowed out Turnip, one of his favourite foods which (Trick or Treat) and people would disguise themselves as he always carried around with him whenever he could witches and ghosts, in order to obtain food and money steal one. For that day onward, Stingy Jack roamed thefrom nervous householders. earth without a resting place, lighting his way as he went with his "Jack O'Lantern". On all Hallow's eve, the Irish hollowed out Turnips, rutabagas, gourds, potatoes and beets. They placed a light in them to ward off evil spirits and keep Stingy Jack away. These were the original Jack O'Lanterns. In the 1800's a couple of waves of Irish immigrants came to America. The Irish immigrants quickly discovered that Pumpkins were bigger and easier to carve out. So they used pumpkins for Jack O'Lanterns.FireFire was very important to the Celts as it was to all early people. In the old days people lit bonfires, to scare away evil spirits. They believed that light had power over darkness. In some places they used to jump over the fire to bring good luck. Today, we light candles in pumpkin lanterns and then put them outside our homes to frighten away witches and ghosts.Apple Bobbing (Duck-apple)The Roman festival for remembering the dead was also in October. During this time, the Romans remembered their goddess, Pomona. She was the goddess of the trees and fruits, and when the Romans came to Britain, they began to hold these two festivals on the same day as Samhain. Apple games probably became associated with Halloween because of this. We play the game bobbing for apples, in which apples are placed in a tub or a large basin of water. The contestants, sometimes blindfolded, must take one bite from one of the apples without using their hands. It is not permitted to edge the apple to the side of the bowl to get hold of it.Dressing up -The tradition of dressing in costume for Halloween has both European and Celtic roots. On Halloween, when it was believed that ghosts came back to the earthly world, people thought that they would encounter ghosts if they left their homes. To avoid being recognized by these ghosts, people would wear masks when they left their homes after dark so that the ghosts would mistake them for fellow spirits. To keep ghosts away from their houses on Halloween, people would place bowls of food outside their homes to appease the ghosts and prevent them from attempting to enter.Trick or Treat 4. ActivitiesAnswers Witching WorksheetsT R I C K O R T R E A T V T A S D F C N I K P M U P A S Witching Worksheet 1G H J P A G A N K L T Y M L Z C G V U S B N M Q E W P I Level: 3rd of ESO 2nd BatxilleratD Y C H L W C N E T Z O I V Time: 20 minsZ O E A D S I A L C O V R E Group: pairs, whole class, individualS D L F R E E T R U M K E D Language: Halloween language, Celts, A S T F O N T E C Y B M C Q Gaelic, celebrate, emigrateA J S L N U N A M H I O O S B R O O M S T I C K E N S R To begin with, ask the students what they know aboutT N O T E L E K S W Y S T S Halloween, including the celebrations. Get them to makeI N I G H O S T R P E T U B a list of all the different celebrations that people do on Halloween.Then compare their answers with theH A U N T E D H O U S E M Efollowing celebrations: trick or treat, wearing costumes,S E R A L W T O Z E R R E T apple bobbing, Jack OLantern. Ask students why we D A V R W S T I R I P S S A celebrate these things and why we celebrate Halloween. J A C K O L A N T E R N O B After they discussed this with their partner and later the class, give them witching worksheet 1 to check their answers. Witching Worksheet 3 AnswersLevel: 2nd of ESO 2nd Batxillerat 1 F (Halloween is more than 2000 years old)Time: 15 mins 2F Group: pairs, whole class 3 F (they worshipped Samhain lord of the dead) Language: Halloween language, question 4F 5Fformation 6F 7F Students play this game in pairs to practice vocabulary 8T and question formations. This game is better played as afollow up to witching worksheet 2 where students get agood understanding of the vocabulary. The game is play Witching Worksheet 2 with coins and not dice; if the coin lands on heads thestudents move one space, if it lands on tails they move Level: 1st of ESO 2nd Batxillerattwo spaces. Time: 15 mins Group: pairs, whole class, individualAnswers1 Jack Olantern Language: Halloween language,2 Celts3 31st October In pairs ask students to make a list of vocabulary they4 Pumpkin know related to Halloween. Check meanings with the 5 Witch whole class. Give them Witching Worksheet 2 and let6 Broomstick them find the words. Check meaning with the whole class7 Gravestone once everyone has finished the worksheet.8 Bat / Owl9 Black cat10

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