gunter, the bronze age
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THE GORDION EXCAVATIONS FINAL REPORTS VOLUME III THE BRONZE AGE
,Aliar Huyuk Beykoy ,Akpiriar Sardisj 'Karabel Beycesultan, Firaktin Meander >#Konya
Vanarlar Kultepe .Kayseri Kusura lAcemhuyuk Arslantep&VL Malatya Korucutepe Norguntepe
University M u s e u m M o n o g r a p h 71
GORDION EXCAVATIONS FINAL R E P O R T S III E.L. Kohler, Editor
THE BRONZE AGEAnn C. Gunter
T H E U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM of Archaeology and Anthropology University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia1991
Design, editing, production
Publications Department The University Museum Science Press Ephrata, Pennsylvania
Publication of this volume was made possible in part by a generous grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and The Gordion Publications Fund in Memory of Rodney S. Young.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data (Revised for vol. 3) The Gordion excavations. (University Museum monograph / University Museum, University of Pennsylvania ; 43,71) Includes Index. Bibliography: v. 1, p. xxxvi-xxxvii. Contents: v. 1. Three great early tumuli / Rodney S. Young -- v. 3. The Bronze Age / Ann Gunter. 1. Gordion (Turkey) 2. Excavations (Archaeology) -Turkey--Gordion. I. Series. II. University museum monograph ; 43, etc. DS156.G6G67 1981 939'.26 81-13373 ISBN 0-934718-39-3 (set) ISBN 0-934718-95-4 (v. 3)
Copyright 1991 T h e University Museum University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America
Printed on acid free paper.
Ann C. Gunter is curator of ancient Near Eastern art at the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, and holds a faculty appointment in the Department of Near Eastern Studies, T h e Johns Hopkins University. She received an A.B. degree from Bryn Mawr College in 1973 and a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1980. Prior to her arrival at the Smithsonian Institution in 1987, she held teaching appointments at the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Minnesota, and Emory University. Since 1974 she has participated in excavations and studied archaeological collections in Turkey at the sites of Gordion, Sardis, Bogazkoy, Labraunda, Erbaba, and Gritille Huyiik. From 1976 to 1979 she held a Fulbright-Hays Grant for dissertation research in Turkey, and from 1978 to 1979 served as Director of the American Research Institute in Turkey office in Ankara. She is currently completing a study of the marble sculpture from the site of Labraunda, in southwestern Turkey, for publication by the Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul.
PLANS FIGURES PLATES MINOR ABBREVIATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS EDITOR'S FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I. T H E EXCAVATIONS T h e Site Bronze Age Levels and Building Remains Deep Sounding under Megaron 12 Trenches P N - 3 / 3 A Deep Sounding under Megaron 10 Burials Cist Grave under T u m u l u s F Hittite Cemetery: T h e Museum Site Miscellaneous Contexts Summary II. EARLY BRONZE AGE P O T T E R Y Analysis of the Material Description of the Pottery Early Bronze Age Soundings Internal Correlations and Chronology External Correlations and Chronology Catalogue of Early Bronze Age Finds T u m u l u s F Cist Grave City Mound Sounding Beneath Megaron 12 Sounding Beneath Megaron 10 Early Bronze Age Finds from Miscellaneous Contexts
ix x xi xiii xiv xvii xviii xix 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 11 12 13 14 15 15 24 25 25
GORDION FINAL REPORTS III
M I D D L E AND L A T E B R O N Z E AGE P O T T E R Y Analysis of the Material Description of the Pottery Description of Sequences Internal Correlations and Chronology External Correlations and Chronology Hittite Cemetery: Internal and External Correlations Catalogue of the Middle and Late Bronze Age Finds City Mound Megaron 10 Megaron 12 Hittite Cemetery Miscellaneous Contexts Supplementary Items
27 27 27 38 46 47 49 50 50 50 74 81 82 85
B R O N Z E AGE P O T T E R Y F R O M E A R L Y I R O N AGE L E V E L S Analysis of the Material Description of Sequences Summary Catalogue of the Bronze Age Pottery from Early Iron Age Levels City Mound 96 96 102 102 103 106 92 92 92 95
CONCLUSIONS Gordion and Anatolian Chronology Gordion and Anatolian History T h e Transition to the Iron Age TABLES T a b l e 1. Early Bronze Age Anatolia Table 2. Middle and Late Bronze Age Anatolia APPENDIX Comments on Sections of the Bronze Age Mound CONCORDANCE T U R K I S H SUMMARY PLANS FIGURES PLATES
107 108 109 109 HI 113
PlansPlan Plan Plan Plan Plan Plan Plan Plan Plan Plan Plan Plan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. T h e site of Gordion Plan of the City at the Kimmerian Destruction Level T r e n c h PN-3/3A. Early Bronze Levels I and II Megaron 10, Floor 9 Megaron 10, Floor 15 and below T u m u l u s F. Outline of trenches with location of Early Bronze Age cist burial Early Bronze Age cist burial under T u m u l u s F Northeast Ridge. Trenches and Museum Site Museum Site. Hittite Burials H 49 to H 56 Hittite Burial H 49 Section through Trenches P N - 3 / 3 A , and deep soundings in Megaron 12 and Megaron 10 Schematic section showing Early Bronze citadel and lower mound, Hittite terraces, and Phrygian leveling
FiguresFigure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Early Bronze Age (1-18) Early Bronze Age (19-35) Early Bronze Age (38-52) Early Bronze Age (53-72) Early Bronze Age (74-96) Early and Middle Bronze Age (97-117) Middle and Late Bronze Age (118-137) Middle and Late Bronze Age (138-161) Middle and Late Bronze Age (162-180) Middle and Late Bronze Age (181-190) Middle and Late Bronze Age (193-215) Middle and Late Bronze Age (216-237) Middle and Late Bronze Age (238-251) Middle and Late Bronze Age (255-282) Middle and Late Bronze Age (283-308) Middle and Late Bronze Age (309-333) Middle and Late Bronze Age (339-359) Middle and Late Bronze Age (360-380) Middle and Late Bronze Age (384-405) Middle and Late Bronze Age (406-430) Middle and Late Bronze Age (431-447) Middle and Late Bronze Age (448-469) Middle and Late Bronze Age (472-491) Middle and Late Bronze Age (493-530) Early Iron Age Levels (534-552) Early Iron Age Levels (553-576) Early Iron Age Levels (577-596) Supplementary Items (S2-S16) Supplementary Items (S17-S35) Supplementary Items (S36-S54) Supplementary Items (S55-S68)
Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. Figure 27. Figure 28. Figure 29. Figure 30. Figure 31.
PlatesPlate 1. A. Air view of Gordion site B. Megaron 12 Deep Cut Plate 2. Plate Plate Plate Plate 3. 4. 5. 6. A. T r e n c h P N - 3 / 3 A B. T r e n c h P N - 3 / 3 A Trench PN-3/3A A. Megaron 10 Deep Cut B. Megaron 10 Deep Cut A. Northeast Ridge, T u m u l u s F B. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut A. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut B. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut C. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut Plate Plate 7. 8. A. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut B. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut A. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut B. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut Plate 9. Plate 10. Plate 11. Plate 12. Plate 13. Plate 14. Plate 15. Plate 16. Plate 17. Plate 18. Plate 19. Plate 20. Plate 21. Plate 22. Plate 23. Plate 24. A. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut B. Northeast Ridge, Museum Site cemetery cut Early Bronze Age (1-9) Early Bronze Age (10-28) Early Bronze Age (29-44) Early Bronze Age (45-54) Early Bronze Age (53-57) Early Bronze Age (58-66) Early Bronze Age (67-79) Early Bronze Age (80-90) Early Bronze Age (91-98) Early and Middle Bronze Age (99-175) Middle and Late Bronze Age (177-211) Middle and Late Bronze Age (231-278) Middle and Late Bronze Age (279-320) Middle and Late Bronze Age (321-336) Middle and Late Bronze Age (337-381)
GORDION FINAL R E P O R T S III
Plate 25. Plate 26. Plate 27. Plate 28. Plate 29. Plate 30. Plate 31. Plate 32.
Middle and Late Bronze Age (382-492) Middle and Late Bronze Age (493-507) Middle and Late Bronze Age (508-512) Middle and Late Bronze Age (513-522) Middle and Late Bronze Age (523-533) Supplementary Items (S1-S31) Supplementary Items (S32-S62) Handmade Pottery
Minor AbbreviationsD. Est. GPH. GPL. GPW. GTh. H. Diameter Estimated Greatest Preserved Height Greatest Preserved Length Greatest Preserved Width Greatest Thickness Height inv. L. Max. PL. Th. TB W. inventoried Length Maximum Preserved Length Thickness Terrace Building Width
Bibliographical AbbreviationsAJA Alaca Alaca AnatSt AthMitt Belleten Beycesultan I 1936 1937-1939 American Journal of Archaeology. von Alaca Hoyiik, Vorbericht...l936. preliminaire TTKY V 1937-1939.
Kojay, H.Z., Ausgrabungen 2a. Ankara: T T K , 1944.
Koay, H.Z., Les fouilles d'A laca Hoyiik. T T K Y V 5. Ankara: T T K , 1951. Anatolian Mitteilungen teilung. Belleten Turk Studies. des Deutschen Tarih
Mellaart, J . and S. Lloyd, Beycesultan I, The Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Levels. Occasional Publications6. London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1962. Mellaart, J . and S. Lloyd, Beycesultan II, Middle Bronze Age Architecture and Pottery. Occ