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    G.T.C Merged Presentation

    --By Ankit Agarwal

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    ANILINE POINT

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    The aniline point is the lowest

    temperature at which equal volume ofaniline and oil are completely miscible

    The value gives an indicationof the aromatic content of

    diesel oil, since aniline is

    an aromatic compound which

    is dissolved on heating by the

    aromatics in diesel oil.

    Cetane number (define)

    Q. Describe briefly about Aniline Point

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    Importance

    Aniline is an aromatic compound

    It becomes miscible with an oil by

    dissolving aromatic compounds

    present in it.

    So its give an idea

    about the aromatic

    contents of any fuel

    or oil.

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    Aniline

    point aromaticcontents

    Aromatic

    contentsAniline

    point

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    Diesel Index

    It is derivative of aniline point

    It is defined as-

    [0.018A.PoC+0.32]API

    It is measure of ignition quality of fuel

    All the diesel fuel are processed to have a dieselindex in the range of 45 to 55

    High diesel index is not desirable(as a fuel rich inaromatics gives rise to better calorific value thanparaffin rich fuel for equal weights)

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    Cetane number

    It is defined as percentage volume of n-cetane

    in a mixture of n-cetane and alfa methyl

    napthalene which gives the same ignition

    delay as the fuel under consideration, when

    tested in a CFR engine.

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    Significance of aniline point

    High aniline point indicates that the fuel is highly paraffinicand hence has a high Diesel index and very good ignitionquality. In case of aromatics the aniline point is low and theignition quality is poor.

    This test is useful for calculating Diesel Index. Diesel index is defined as:-

    [0.018A.PoC+0.32]AP

    It can also predict the amount of carbon present inmolecules and is given by the formula

    %C=1039.4nD20 -470.4 d20-0.567 AP(oC)-1104.42where n

    D20=refractive index at 20oC

    d20

    =density at 20oC

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    ANTI-BIOTICS AND VITAMINES

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    What is an Antibiotic?

    Antibiotics are products of microorganisms thatreact with and inhibit the growth of other

    microorganisms.

    An antibiotic is a selective poison.

    It has been chosen so that it will kill the desired

    bacteria, but not the cells in your body. Each

    different type of antibiotic affects different bacteria

    in different ways.

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    classification

    Antibiotics can be classified in severalways. The most common methodclassifies them according to their actionagainst the infecting organism. Some

    antibiotics attack the cellwall; somedisrupt the cell membrane; and themajority inhibit the synthesis ofnucleicacids andproteins, the polymers that

    make up the bacterial cell.

    http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761568585http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761568032http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761568032http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761565946http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761565946http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761568032http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761568032http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch_2/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761568585
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    classification

    Antibiotics are also classified on the basisof chemical structure, as penicillins,cephalosporins, aminoglycosides,tetracyclines, macrolides, or

    sulfonamides, among others.

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    Vitamin Characteristics

    Each vitamin has one or more specificpurposes.

    Vitamins are essential to life processes.

    Vitamins are generally used by the body withvery minimal changes

    Vitamins are usually required in only smallamounts

    Most vitamins cannot be synthesized by thebody directly

    13

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    Catalytic reforming

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    Define Catalytic reforming

    1.{Catalytic reforming is a chemical process

    used to convert petroleum refinerynaphthas, typically having low octane

    ratings, into high-octane liquid products

    called reformates which are componentsof high-octane gasoline (also known as

    petrol). }

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    Question she might ask1) Describe briefly about zeolites (2marks)answer is not in

    the presentation **

    2) Advantage & Disadvantage of Catalytic cracking

    3) Describe FCC briefly4) Definition of Catalytatic reforming

    **for any queries on the answers ask kali or prachee

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    1. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC):most important conversion process used in

    petroleum refineries.

    2. USE: converting the high-boiling, high-M.W.hydrocarbon fractions of

    petroleum crude oils to more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases and other

    products.

    3. FEEDSTOCK: portion of the crude oil that has an initial boiling point of 340 C

    or higher at atmospheric pressure and an avg. M.W. ranging about 200 to

    600 or higher(heavy gas oil).

    4. PROCESS: vaporizes and breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boilinghydrocarbon liquids into much shorter molecules by contacting the

    feedstock, at high temperature and moderate pressure, with a fluidized

    powdered catalyst.

    Describe briefly about FCC (3marks)

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    Drugs

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    Type of drug ? Antipyretics lower down temperature of body.

    example aspirin , paracetamol etc.

    Analgesics relieve or decrease pain of body.

    these are of two types narcoticnon narcotic.

    example morphine , codeine , heroin ,aspirin etc.

    Antiseptics prevent the growth of bacteria.They do not harm to the living tissues .

    example Dettol , Savlon , boric acid etc

    19

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    20

    Disinfectants prevents the growth of bacteria

    these are harmful to living tissues and can not be used on

    the skin.used for sterilization of utensils , cloath , floors.

    Example phenol , chlorine , hydrogen peroxide .

    Antibiotics chemical substance produced by livingcells which is capable of inhibiting the life processes ofmicro-organism.

    example penicillin

    Sulpha drugs - contain -SO2NH2 group.

    this was the first widely used chemotherapy for thecure of bacterial infection in human.

    Example- sulphapyridine , sulphadiazine .

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    21

    Anesthetics drugs which produces insensibility to vital

    functions to all type of cell especially of nervous

    system.Example xylocaine , ethyl chloride , nitrous oxide etc.

    Tranquillizer chemicals which reduces mental tension, without grossly altering the level of consciousness .

    example luminal , seconal , librium etc.

    Anti-malarials- drugs that are used to cure malaria.

    example primaquine , chloroquine , etc.

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    Importance of drugs

    chemotherapy-chemotherapy is the use

    chemicals(drugs) to selectively destroy

    infectious micro-organisms without

    simultaneously destroying the host.

    A derivative of folic acid known as

    methotrexate has proved effective in the

    treatment of cancer.

    22

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    CELLULOSE

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    Cellulose is an organic compound with

    the formula (C6H10O5)n,

    a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of

    several hundred to over ten thousand (14)

    linked D-glucose units.

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    Derivatives of cellulose are compounds in

    which the cellulose has reacted as an

    alcohol, giving rise to ether and ester

    linkage.There are two major derivatives of

    cellulose, namely, cellulose ether and

    cellulose ester.

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    GLASS

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    INTRODUCTION

    GLASS IS ANY SUBSTANCE OR MIXTURE OF

    SUBSTANCES THAT HAS SOLIDIFIED FROM THE

    LIQUID STATE WITHOUT CRYSTALLIZATION.

    IT IS REFERRED AS MATERIAL WHICH IS MADE BY THEFUSION OF MIXTURE OF SILICA, BASIC OXIDES AND

    FEW OTHER COMPONENTS REACTIVE TOWARDS

    THEM

    IT IS HARD (TENSILE STRENGTH: 35 TO 70 N/mm2),

    BRITTLE, TRANSPARENT, OR TRANSLUCENT

    MATERIAL

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    CLASSIFICATION

    As per composition and properties

    Soda lime or crown glass

    Flint glass

    Pyrex or heat resistance glass

    Special types of Glasses

    Lead glasses

    Borosilicate glasses

    High silica glasses

    Colored glasses

    Fibre glasses

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    CONSTITUENTS

    aX2O, bYO, 6SiO2X = atom of alkali metal.

    Y= bivalent metal.eg: Ca,Pb.

    Principle constituent is silica.

    Sodium and potassium carbonate

    Lime

    Manganese dioxide

    Cullet

    Coloring substance

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    MANUFACTURING (important acc. To mam)

    The procedure adopted in manufacture of glass

    may broadly be divided into following 5

    stages:

    Collection of raw materials

    Preparation of batch

    Melting in furnace

    Fabrication

    Annealing

    http://www.glassforever.co.uk/images/glassmakingmaterials.gif
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    COLLECTION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Various raw materials used are chalk, soda ash,clean sand, potassium carbonate, litharge, andcoke.

    Raw materials generally contain traces of iron

    compounds which imparts green color to glass.To avoid such effects, decolorizers are added(Arsenic oxide, cobalt oxide and Manganesedioxide)

    Cullet: It indicates waste glasses. It increasesfusibility and prevents loss of alkali duringreaction and also reduces cost.

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    PREPARATION OF BATCH AND

    MELTING IN FURNACE

    Raw materials, cullet and decolorizers are finely

    powdered in grinding machine. Such a uniform

    mixture is known as batch and it is taken for

    further process of melting in furnace Batch is melted either in pot furnace or tank

    furnace.

    Batch is heated in large compartment and itcontains somewhat impure glass.

    The furnace is heated by allowing producer gas .

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    FABRICATION

    Molten glass is given a suitable shape or form inthis stage.

    It can either be done manually or by machines.

    Different ways of Fabrication Blowing

    Casting

    Drawing

    Pressing

    Rolling

    Spinning

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    Schematic View Of Glass Manufacturing (flow diag. not imp)

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    ANNEALING

    The Glass after being manufactured is to be

    cooled down slowly and gradually. This

    process of slow and homogeneous cooling of

    glass articles is known as annealing of glass.

    It is very important process

    Two methods of annealing

    Flue treatment

    Oven treatment

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    TREATMENT OF GLASSES

    Bending: The glass may bent in desired shape by placing inoven by suitable heating.

    Cutting: The glass is cut in required sizes with help of

    diamond or rough glasses.

    Opaque making: The glass can be made impervious to light!It is done by grinding glass surface with emery

    Silvering: This process consists in applying a very thin coat oftin on surface. The silver is then deposited on this layer oftin.

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    POLYMER AND DETERGNETS

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    POLYMER

    MONOMER

    She didnt ticked the other slides in classification so I

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    CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS

    BASED ON ORIGIN

    NATURAL SEMI-SYNTHETIC SYNTHETIC(obtainedfrom

    nature )(derived from naturally

    occurring polymers by

    chemical modifications.)

    (prepared in the

    laboratories )

    VULCANISED RUBBER , CELLULOSE

    DIACETATE

    POLYTHENE , PVC

    ,TEFLON , NYLON

    She didn t ticked the other slides in classification so I

    guess she would like to know the name of others hence

    other slides. so, you can refer the next slide in which all

    classification is combined

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    Acrylic fibers are high performance synthetic fibersthat are made from longchain synthetic polymer composed ofacrylonitrileunits.

    Often used as a substitute forwool. Can be used all the year round due to theircomfort factor.

    Acrylic Fabrics are mostly used to make such garments, that need to makethe wearer more and more comfortable through moisture management.

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    Not only, the acrylic fabrics are high in performance butalso they have a luxurious feel.

    They are lightweight.

    They are comfortable to wear due to high moisturemanagement.

    Dyes can be easily applied to them and they are colorfast.

    In cold weather acrylics provide excellent insulation andwarmth without any extra weight.

    Wh h i d ?

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    What are synthetic detergents ?

    Chemicals used to break up and remove grease and grime

    essential constituents :

    (surface active agents ie surfactants)

    subsidiary constituents (builders and additives).

    source is mineral oils (hydrocarbon compounds of petroleum or coal).

    Molecules generally consist of two parts :

    hydrophobic, non polar, long hydrocarbon chain tail attracted to particles of

    oil or grease by dispersion forces (Van der Waals or London or Weak Intermolecular

    Forces)

    hydrophilic, charged or polar head attracted to water molecules.

    less sensitive to the effects ofcalcium and magnesium ions in hard water.

    Branched-chain are far less biodegradable than continuous-chain synthetic detergents.

    How detergents work?

    http://www.ausetute.com.au/intermof.htmlhttp://www.ausetute.com.au/molpolar.htmlhttp://www.ausetute.com.au/molpolar.htmlhttp://www.ausetute.com.au/intermof.html
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    How detergents work?Detergent shaken with water ,colloidal solutionformed

    Solution agitated, gets concentrated and causesfoaming.

    unimolecular film on the surface of water, penetratesthe fabric

    hydrophobic (water-hating )ends surround the dirt

    Hydrophilic (water-loving) ends face the water

    mechanical action of rubbing or tumbling dislodges

    dirt and grease from fabric.

    These get detached and are washed away withexcess of water leaving the fabric clean.

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    Disadvantages of detergents

    resistant to the action of

    biological agents and thus arenon biodegradable.Microorganisms in septic tanksand sewage-treatment plantscannot degrade branched chains.

    tendency to produce stablefoams in rivers, causes waterpollution

    tend to inhibit oxidation oforganic substances present inwastewaters

    Modern-day detergents are designed to be

    biodegradable. In some cases they are

    manufactured from renewable plant-

    derived resources such as carbohydrates

    (sucrose, glucose) or plant oils (coconut or

    palm oil).

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    Advantages of detergents

    clean effectively and lather well even in hard water and saltwater (sea water) ie. no scum formation

    do not decompose in acidic medium

    more soluble in water than soaps have a stronger cleansing action than soaps

    As derived from petroleum, they save on natural vegetable

    oils, which are important cooking medium.

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    OCTANE NUMBER

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    KnockingIt is defined as sharp sounds

    caused by premature combustion of part of

    the compressed air fuel mixture in an internal

    combustion engine.

    It may sometimes also cause damage to

    engine parts.

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    Definition: The octane number of a petrolsample is defined as the percentage of

    isooctane(2,2,4-trimethyl pentane) in a mixture

    of isooctane and n-heptane which matches thefuel under test in knocking characteristics.

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    The knocking characteristics of petrol sample are described by the

    octane number or antiknock value. Higher the octane number,

    lower is the tendency to knock and better is the quality of petrol.Isooctane (2,2,4-trimethyl pentane) has the leat knocking

    tendency and its octane number is arbitrarily fixed as 100.

    n-Heptane, a straight chain hydrocarbon, has highest tendency to

    knock and is assigned an octane number zero.

    Octane rating does not relate to the energy content of the fuel(heating value). It is only a measure of the fuel's tendency to

    burn in a controlled manner, rather than exploding in an

    uncontrolled manner (knocking).

    Measures the ability of a fuel to resist knocking when ignited in amixture with air in an engine.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heating_valuehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heating_value
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    Effects of Octane Rating

    Octane rating reflects the quality,

    purity, refinement, efficiency and

    heat bearing capacity of petrol.Hence we have different grades of

    Petrol for different uses ranging for

    your bikes to spacecrafts.

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    POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    Polyvinyl chloride

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    Polyvinyl chloride

    # Polyvinyl chloride commonlyabbreviated PVC, is

    a thermoplastic polymer. It is a vinyl

    polymer constructed of repeating vinyl

    groups (ethenyls) having one of

    their hydrogen replaced with a chloridegroup.

    Pipes

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    Pipes

    PVC pipes in use

    with intumescent firestops at NortownCasitas, North York, Ontario.

    Roughly half of the world's polyvinyl

    chloride resin manufactured annually is

    used for producing pipes for various

    municipal and industrial applications.

    Classification of polyethene

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    Classification of polyethene Based on sales worldwide the most important polyethylene

    grades are

    # High density polyethylene (HDPE) 0.941 g/cm3

    with low branching stronger intermolecular forces & high tensilestrength it find uses in products such as milk jugs, detergentbottles, margarine tubs, garbage containers and water pipes,one third of all toys are made of HDPE

    # Low density polyethylene (LDPE) 0.9100.940 g/cm3

    With high degree of short and long chain branching it has lessstrong intermolecular forces & therefore lower tensile strengthbut greater ductility, used for both rigid containers and plasticfilm applications

    # Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) 0.9150.925 g/cm3with significant numbers of short branches ,compared to LDPE ithas higher tensile strength higher impact and punctureresistance it is used in making thin film packaging bags usedpredominantly in film applications for its toughness

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    Applications

    Grocery bags

    Bottles

    Children's toy

    Bullet proof vests

    Packaging

    Piping

    Containers

    Industrial Applications Laminates

    Wire & CableApplications

    Blending

    Plastic welding Adhesives

    Appliances

    AutomotiveApplications

    Cosmetics

    Fabrics

    Flooring

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    What is synthtetic rubber..??

    Synthetic rubber is obtained by improving properties ofnatural rubber by treating chemically.

    Synthetic rubber is any type of artificial elastomer,invariably a polymer.

    An elastomer is a material with the mechanical (ormaterial) property that it can undergo much more elasticdeformation

    under stress than most materials and still return to itsprevious size without permanent deformation.

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    Application of synthetic rubber Polyurethane rubber are one of the best rubbers for

    abrasion resistance and are therefore used inreciprocating seals.

    Some synthetic rubber is used for vibration absorption.

    Due to good ozone resistance. Polychloroprene rubber

    is used with mineral oils and greases and dilute acidsand alkalis, but is unsuitable in contact with fuels

    Chloroinated polyethylene rubber is used for hoselinings.

    Polyolefin Elastomers are compatible with mostolefinic materials, are an excellent impact modifier forplastics, and offer unique performance capabilities forcompounded products.

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    Currently synthetic polyisoprene is being usedin a wide variety of industries in applicationsrequiring low water swell, high gum tensile

    strength, good resilience, high hot tensile, andgood tack.

    Butyl rubber is widely used in manymanufacturing process.

    POLYBUTADIENE also has a major applicationas an impact modifier for polystyrene

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    Urea Formaldehyde Resin

    Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-

    methanal. urea-formaldehyde resin, any of a class of

    synthetic resins obtained by chemical

    combination of urea (a solid crystal obtained

    from ammonia) and formaldehyde (a highly

    reactive gas obtained from methane).

    Uses and its application

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    Uses and its application Urea-formaldehyde resins are mostly used as

    adhesives for the bonding of plywood,particleboard, and other structured woodproducts.

    It is used in decorative laminates, textiles,

    paper, foundry sand molds, wrinkle resistantfabrics, cotton blends, rayon, corduroy, etc.

    Urea formaldehyde is used in agriculture as acontrolled release source of nitrogenfertilizer.

    Urea-formaldehyde polymers are also used totreat textile fibres in order to improve wrinkle

    and shrink resistance

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    UNIT OPERATIONS

    Chemical engineering unit

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    Chemical engineering unit

    operations

    Consist of five classes: Fluid flow processes:

    1. Fluidized Bed

    Heat transfer processes:

    1. Convection2. Condensation

    3. Radiation

    Mass transfer processes:

    1. Principle

    2. Applications: astrophysics Thermodynamic processes:

    1. Gas liquefaction

    Mechanical processes:

    1. Crushing and pulverization

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    Fluid Flow Processes

    A fluidized bed is formed when a quantity of

    a solid particulate substance is placed under appropriate

    conditions to cause the solid/fluid mixture to behave as

    a fluid.

    Pressurized fluid through the particulate medium.

    Results in the medium then having many properties and

    characteristics of normal fluids.

    The resulting phenomenon is called fluidization.

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    Fluid Flow Processes

    Consists of fluid-solid mixture that exhibits fluid-like

    properties.

    Inhomogeneous mixture of fluid and solid

    Objects with different densities compared to the bed can, by

    altering either the fluid or solid fraction, be caused to sink or

    float.

    Enables good thermal transport inside the system and good

    heat transfer between the bed and its container.

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    Mechanical Processes

    Cornish stamps A portable rock crusher

    mine rock crusher Mobile crusher

    Types Of Crushers

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steinm%C3%BChle.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rock_crusher_jaws.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rock_crusher.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Geevor_waterwheel_stamps.jpg
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    Heat Transfer

    Exchange of thermal energy from one physical systemto another.

    Classified into various mechanisms

    1. Heat conduction2. Convection

    3. Thermal radiation

    4. Phase-change transfer.

    Because of a temperature-difference.

    Path Function

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    Mass Transfer

    Net movement of mass from one location to another.

    Mass remains conserved.

    Difference in concentration between two points.

    Area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

    Thermodynamics : extent of separation .

    Mass transfer : rate at which the separation will occur.

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    What are Pharmaceuticals ???

    A pharmaceuticals are also referred to

    as medicine, medication or medicament.

    They are loosely defined as any chemicalsubstance intended for use in the medical

    diagnosis, cure, treatment

    or prevention of disease

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    Antibiotics/ Antibacterial :C d th t kill l d th th f b t i b t th

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    Compound that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria but they

    now denote many antimicrobial compounds.

    Most of these are chemically semisynthetic modifications of various

    natural compounds. Antibacterial are classified

    on the basis of origin as :

    biosynthetic

    semisynthetic synthetic

    according to biological activity,

    bactericides

    bacteriostatic

    Beta-lactams - Penicillin

    Aminoglycosides

    Sulphonamides

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    IMPORTANCE OF GCT

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    INTRODUCTION

    Gen. chem. Technology is a subject which give us insightto the various chemical industries adding value to life.

    It can be treated as a tool helping in efficient use ofresources while increasing productivity of industries.

    As the importance of industries to human life is enormousso the role of GCT in Industries.

    The sound knowledge of it is must for chemical engineersto perform better and efficiently in industries.

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    STRENGTH & WEAKNESSES

    Strength Weakness

    Large and very fast growing

    petroleum market.

    A huge pool of trainedtalent .

    Competitive labour cost.

    Fifth biggest in context of

    distillation capacity

    Insufficient baseinfrastructure.

    High feedstock cost

    compared to middle eastcountries.

    Prevalence and use of oldtechnology.

    Less oil reserves ascompared to Middle eastand American continent.

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    MEPS

    The extraction becomes difficult at some oil reservesduring bad climatic conditions in certain regions

    during some part of year.

    It heavily reduces the productivity and concur

    losses.(Tomsk in Russia).

    Pipeline passes through the caprice climatic

    condition resulting disruptions in oil transport.

    .

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    MEPS

    Refineries usually at small scale are built usually tohandle certain crude types.

    Venezuelan crude cant be handled by refinerieshandling Middle east crude.

    To enhance productivity and profit refineries need to

    be located near to reserves which is not possible in

    most cases.

    hl lk l d

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    MEPS in chlor-alkali industry

    Caustic soda- Chlorine Production

    Corrosion

    Choice of Cell Design

    Purification of Brine

    Environmental concern

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    MEPS

    Solvay Process-Production of Na2Co3

    Ammonia Recovery

    Development of suitable Calcining Equipment

    Waste Disposal

    Economic Balance on tower Design

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    CEMENT

    Q i h i h k

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    Questions she might ask

    What is cement and types of cement

    Describe briefly about portland cement

    Use of cement

    WHAT IS CEMENT????

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    WHAT IS CEMENT????

    Material with adhesive and cohesive

    properties

    Any material that binds or unites -

    essentially like glue

    Definition: Cement is a crystalline

    compound of calcium silicates and other

    calcium compounds having hydraulicproperties (Macfadyen, 2006).

    FUNCTION OF CEMENT

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    FUNCTION OF CEMENT

    to bind the sand and coarse aggregate

    together

    to fill voids in between sand and coarse

    aggregate particle

    to form a compact mass

    T f C t

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    Types of Cement

    2 types of cement normally used in buildingindustry are as follows:

    a) Hydraulic Cement

    b) Nonhydraulic Cement

    H d li C t

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    Hydraulic Cement

    Hydraulic Cement sets and hardens by

    action of water. Such as Portland Cement

    In other words it means that hydrauliccement are:

    Any cements that turns into a solid product

    in the presence of water (as well as air)resulting in a material that does not

    disintegrate in water.

    N h d li C t

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    Nonhydraulic Cement

    Any cement that does not require water totransform it into a solid product.

    2 common Nonhydraulic Cement are

    a) Lime

    - derived from limestone / chalk

    b) Gypsum

    PORTLAND CEMENT

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    PORTLAND CEMENT

    Chemical composition of Portland Cement:

    a) Tricalcium Silicate (50%)

    b) Dicalcium Silicate (25%)

    c) Tricalcium Aluminate (10%)

    d) Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite (10%)

    e) Gypsum (5%)

    FUNCTION :TRICALCIUM SILICATE

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    FUNCTION :TRICALCIUM SILICATE

    Hardens rapidly and largely responsible forinitial set & early strength

    The increase in percentage of this compound

    will cause the early strength of Portland

    Cement to be higher.

    A bigger percentage of this compound will

    produces higher heat of hydration and

    accounts for faster gain in strength.

    FUNCTION :DICALCIUM SILICATE

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    FUNCTION :DICALCIUM SILICATE

    Hardens slowly It effects on strength increases occurs at ages

    beyond one week .

    Responsible for long term strength

    FUNCTION :TRICALCIUM ALUMINATE

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    Contributes to strength development in the

    first few days because it is the first compound

    to hydrate .

    It turns out higher heat of hydration andcontributes to faster gain in strength.

    But it results in poor sulfate resitance and

    increases the volumetric shrinkage upon drying.

    Cements with low Tricalcium Aluminate

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    Cements with low Tricalcium Aluminate

    contents usually generate less heat,

    develop

    higher strengths and show greater

    resistance to sulfate attacks.

    It has high heat generation and reactive

    with soils and water containing moderate

    to high sulfate concentrations so its least

    desirable.

    FUNCTION : TETRACALCIUM

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    ALUMINOFERRITE

    Assist in the manufacture of Portland Cementby allowing lower clinkering temperature.

    Also act as a filler

    Contributes very little strength of concrete

    eventhough it hydrates very rapidly.

    Also responsible for grey colour of Ordinary

    Portland Cement

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    MANUFACTURING OF PORTLAND

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    CEMENT

    The 3 primary constituents of the raw

    materials used in the manufacture of

    Portland Cement are:a) Lime

    b) Silica

    c) Alumina Lime is derived from limestone or chalk

    Silica & Alumina from clay, shale or bauxite

    There are 2 chief aspects of the

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    manufacturing process:

    FirstTo produce a finely divided mixture of raw

    materials chalk / limestone and clay / shale

    Second

    To heat this mixture to produce chemical

    composition

    There 2 main process that can be used in

    manufacturing of Portland Cement that is

    i) wet process ii) dry process

    WET PROCESS

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    WET PROCESS

    Raw materials are homogenized by crushing,grinding and blending so that approximately

    80% of the raw material pass a No.200 sieve.

    The mix will be turned into form of slurry by

    adding 30 - 40% of water.

    It is then heated to about 2750F (1510C) in

    horizontal revolving kilns (76-153m length

    and 3.6-4.8m in diameter.

    Natural gas petroluem or coal are used for

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    Natural gas, petroluem or coal are used for

    burning. High fuel requirement may make it

    uneconomical compared to dry process.

    DRY PROCESS

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    DRY PROCESS

    Raw materials are homogenized by crushing,grinding and blending so that approximately

    80% of the raw material pass a No.200 sieve.

    Mixture is fed into kiln & burned in a dry state

    This process provides considerable savings in

    fuel consumption and water usage but the

    process is dustier compared to wet process

    that is more efficient than grinding.

    DRY PROCES & WET PROCESS

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    In the kiln, water from the raw material isdriven off and limestone is decomposed into

    lime and Carbon Dioxide.

    limestone lime + Carbon Dioxide In the burning zone, portion of the kiln, silica

    and alumina from the clay undergo a solid

    state chemical reaction with lime to producecalcium aluminate.

    silica & alumina + lime calcium aluminate

    DRY PROCES & WET PROCESS

    The rotation and shape of kiln allow the

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    The rotation and shape of kiln allow the

    blend to flow down the kiln, submitting it to

    gradually increasing temperature.

    As the material moves through hotter

    regions

    in the kiln, calcium silicates are formed

    These products, that are black or greenish

    black in color are in the form of small

    pellets, called cement clinkers

    Cement clinkers are hard, irregular and ball

    shaped particles about 18mm in diameter.

    The cement clinkers are cooled to about

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    The cement clinkers are cooled to about

    150F (51C) and stored in clinker silos.

    When needed, clinker are mixed with 2-5%

    gypsum to retard the setting time of

    cement

    when it is mixed with water.

    Then, it is grounded to a fine powder and

    then the cement is stored in storage bins or

    cement silos or bagged.

    Cement bags should be stored on pallets in

    a dry place.

    Uses

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    Uses

    Cement mixed with water is virtually a plastic stone, and it canbe used for many purposes in place of stone with economy in

    shaping to the form required.

    It may be used for shop floors, buildings, foundations for

    heavy machinery, bridge piers, walks, waterworks dams,reservoirs, walls, dry-docks, culverts, etc.

    A concrete casing will protect iron or timber structures from

    corrosion in air or in water, and will protect exposed iron work

    of structures from effects of conflagration.

    The most common use for Portland cement is in the

    d f l

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    production of Concrete. Concrete is a composite material

    consisting of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and

    water. Portland cement is also used in mortars (with sand and

    water only) for plasters and screed, and in grouts

    (cement/water mixes squeezed into gaps to consolidate

    foundations, road-beds, etc.).

    Cement has advantage in securing a hard, fire-proof

    material

    In marine use, concrete is limited because of its weight. It

    may be used as permanent ballast in the bilges of steel

    ships, and is an effective protection from corrosion.

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    FERTILIZERS- SCANNED PICTURES

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