groundwater quality mapping

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  • Ground Water Quality

    Mapping

  • Background of GWQ mapping

    Under Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission

    (RGNDWM)-Operational project sponsored by Ministry of

    Drinking Water & Sanitation, Govt. of India

    Maps are expected to serve as a database for identifying

    potable GW sources & locations for site-specific RS for

    supplying drinking water to rural habitations

    National Remote Sensing Centre / ISRO in collaboration

    with various Central & State Govt. Departments

    as Partner Institutes

    Executed

    by

    Mode of

    execution

    Scope of

    the data

    Creation of spatial data base on ground water quality

    in the form of ground water quality maps for entire country

    Objective

  • Pre - monsoon

    Post - monsoon

    Origin of contamination - Geogenic

    and anthropogenic origin

    Source of contamination - Point and

    Nonpoint sources

    Governing factors

    of contamination Chemical &Physical

    properties of Geological material

    Concentration of

    contaminants - changes

    with recharge

    Contaminants

    concentration high at min

    WL & low at max WL

    GWQ in terms of space GWQ in terms of time

    Unit of factors governing

    contamination - Aquifer

    Background Concept

    Aquifers (Shallow and deep aquifers)

    Ground water zones (Dynamic and Static zones)

    Depth - wise analysis Season - wise analysis

    Unit of factors governing

    change in concentration -

    Aquifer

  • Ground water quality mapping methodology flow chart

    Organized Legacy data

    excel table Analysis,

    Interpretation &

    Organization

    Interpolation

    using statistical

    method

    Parameter-wise ground

    water quality layers

    Ground water quality

    point data layer

    Legacy GWQ data

    Fresh GWQ data

    Lat-Long data

    Satellite Data

    Habitation data

    Integrated ground

    water quality layers

    Inte

    rme

    dia

    te

    ou

    tpu

    ts

    Ground water

    quality point

    data layer

    Inte

    rme

    dia

    te

    ou

    tpu

    ts

    Parameter-wise

    ground water

    quality layers

    Grouping &

    Union of layers

    Ground water quality

    map (corresponding to 1:50,000 scale toposheet)

    Inte

    rme

    dia

    te

    ou

    tpu

    ts

    Integrated GWQ

    layers, Base map

    layers

    Fin

    al

    ou

    tpu

    t

    Validation, Map

    composition &

    Clipping

    Input data Process Output data

  • Outputs generated

    Organized input Legacy ground water quality data

    Excel format

    E00 file & shape file format

    Ground water quality data point layer

    Parameter-wise

    Ground water quality layers

    (Depth & Season-wise)

    Integrated Ground water quality layers

    (Depth-wise)

    Ground water quality

    map of entire study area

    Ground water quality

    map corresponding to

    1:50,000 scale toposheet

    Mxd file format

    Tabular Data-

    Intermediate

    output

    Layers-

    Intermediate

    output Maps-

    Final output

  • Legacy ground water quality data

  • Legacy ground water quality data Formatting

    Data collection ensured collection of all the available data

    Excel table structure Followed classification system & standards

    Redundant data points elimination Apply criteria for identifying duplicate points

    Location Description Depth of well Date of sample

    collection Ground water quality data

    Dri

    nk

    ing

    wa

    ter

    so

    urc

    es

  • Legacy ground water quality data

    Elimination of redundant data points

    Example of Allagi-B habitation

    Elimination of redundant data points Based on identification of duplicate points

  • Ground water quality data point layer

    Dummy point features Criteria followed;

    RGNDWM habitations geospatial position as a reference

    Point

    data

    Datum & Projection of layer WGS 84 Datum & LCC / TM Projection

    as applicable to given state

  • Field name Field type Key(Y/N) Remarks

    GWQWL-Code 2,2,C Y Feature code

    D-Name 25, 35 , C N District Name

    B-Name 25, 35 , C N Block Name

    P-Name 25, 35 , C N Panchayat Name

    V-Name 25, 35 , C N Village Name

    H-Name 25, 35 , C N Habitation Name

    L-Name 25, 35 , C N Location Name within habaitation

    GWQWL-Depth 25, 35 , C N Depth of well / Type of the well

    GWS-Date 10, 10 , C N Date of ground water sample collection

    CaCo3 4,4,C N Concentration of CaCo3 in water sample

    Fe 4,4,C N Concentration of Fe in water sample

    SYM-CODE 2,2,I N Symbol code for representing the wells

    Ground water quality data point layer

    GWQWL-Code GWQWL-Depth

    01 Open dug / ring well

    02 Dug-cum-bore / tube well

    03 Bore / tube well with power pump

    04 Bore / tube well with hand pump

    Numeric codes to be used for representing type of well

    Data base structure

    Attribute

    data

  • Depth-wise segregation

    of legacy ground water quality data points Criteria for Depth-wise segregation

    i) Vertical variations in hydrogeomorphic units

    ii) Ground water zones

    Hydrogeomorphic unit-3

    Hydrogeomorphic

    unit-1

    Hydrogeomorphic unit-2

    Ground water zone 2

    Ground water zone 1 Ground water zone 1 Ground water zone 1 Shallow depth zone

    Deeper depth zone

  • Depth-wise segregation

    Season-wise segregation

    of legacy ground water quality data points

    Criteria for season-wise segregation

    Date of ground water sample collection

    Criteria for identification of periods of seasons in the given region / state

    Minimum & Maximum water level data;

    minimum stands for pre monsoon & maximum stands for post monsoon season

  • Density of ground water quality data points

    Representative 20 to 25 points in an area of 700 sq km

    (1:50, 000 scale toposheet area)

    Geospatial position of ground water quality data points

    Latitude Longitude data collected using good accuracy (+/- 10m) GPS

    Distribution of ground water quality data points

    Uniform through out the mapping unit

    Authenticity of ground water quality data points

    Validation with FTK ground water quality data

    Mapping unit-wise

    ground water quality data point layer

    Point

    data

    Area where there are no ground water quality data points

    Carve out as separate polygons not to take in to account

    Datum & Projection of layer

    WGS 84 Datum & LCC / TM Projection

    as applicable to given state

  • Mapping unit-wise

    Ground water quality point data layer

  • Quality parameter-wise Ground water quality layer

    (of APO-12 aquifer)

    (with automatic classes)

  • Sl. No

    Element

    Potable

    Non-

    Potable Desirable limit Permissibl

    e limit

    1 pH 6.5 to 8.5 -- 8.5

    2 Total Hardness (as CaCo3) mg/l 0-300 300-600 > 600

    3 Iron (as Fe) mg/l 0.0 0.3 0.3-1.0 > 1.0

    4 Chlorides (as Cl) mg/l 0-250 250-1000 > 1000

    5 Total Dissolved solids mg/l 0-500 500-2000 > 2000

    6 Bicarbonate (as MG) mg/l 0-500 -- > 500

    7 Calcium (as Ca) mg/l 0-75 75-200 > 200

    8 Magnesium (as Mg) mg/l 0-30 30-100 > 100

    9 Nitrate (as NO3) mg/l 0-45 45-100 > 100

    10 Sulphate (as SO4) mg/l 0-200 200-400 > 400

    11 Fluoride (as F) mg/l 0.0 1.0 1.0-1.5 > 1.5

    12 Manganese (as Mn) mg/l 0.00-0.10 0.10-0.3 > 0.3

    13 Sodium (as Na) mg/l -- -- --

    14 Potassium (as K) mg/l -- -- --

    15 Arsenic (as As) mg/l 0.00-0.05 -- > 0.05

    16 Phenolic Compounds (as C 6H5OH)

    mg/l 0.000-0.001 0.001-0.002

    > 0.002

    17 Mercury (as Hg) mg/l 0.000-0.001 -- > 0.001

    18 Cadmium (as Cd) mg/l 0.00-0.01 -- > 0.01

    19 Selenium (as Se) mg/l 0.00-0.01 -- > 0.01

    20 Copper (as Cu) mg/l 0.00-0.05 0.05-1.5 > 1.5

    21 Cyanide (as CN) mg/l 0.00-0.05 -- > 0.05

    22 Lead (as Pb) mg/l 0.00-0.05 -- > 0.05

    23 Zinc (as Zn) mg/l 0-5 5-15 > 15

    24 Anionic detergents (as MBAS) mg/l 0.0-0.2 0.2-1.0 > 1.0

    25 Chromium (as Cr6+) mg/l 0.00-0.05 -- > 0.05

    26 Polynuclear aromatic hydro

    carbons (as PAH) mg/l 0.0-0.2 --

    > 0.2

    27 Mineral Oil mg/l 0.00-0.01 0.01-0.03 > 0.03

    28 Pesticides mg/l 0 0-0.001 > 0.001

    29 Radioactive Materials emitters pci/l 0 0-0.1 > 0.1

    30 Radioactive Materials emitters pci/l 0 0-1.0 > 1.0

    31 Alkalinity mg/l 0-200 200-600 > 600

    32 Aluminium (as Al) mg/l 0.00-0.03 0.03-0.2 > 0.2

    33 Boron mg/l 0-1 1-5 > 5

    Criteria used

    for classification

    of ground water

    quality -

    Bureau of

    Indian Standards

    (BIS)

  • Quality parameter-wise Ground water quality layer

    (of APO-12 aquifer)

    (with classes as per BIS Standards)

  • Element-wise

    ground water qu

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