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  • Greece!

  • TimelineMinoan Crete (2800 BCE) -earliest civilization in the Aegean region emerged on CreteMycenaean civilization (1600-1100 BCE) -part of Indo-European family of people):Dark Age (1100-750 BCE)The Greek City States (polis in Greek) (750-500 BCE)Classical Greece: (500-338 BCE)

  • Geography Greece was very mountainous peninsula and had a small land area.Most of Greece was made up of small planes and river valleys surrounded by mountains which helped the societies in Greece stay away from each other and time to develop their own way of life.

  • Over time the societies were so attached to independence they fought each other to gain advantage. Their rivalry among them led to warfare that devastated Greek society.

    Greece had a long seacoast with bays which made numerous harbors.

    Greeks inhabited many islands to the west south and mainly east of central Greece.

  • Political StructureMinoan Crete:Crete was ruled by a monarch from the central palace of Knossos. The monarchy, however, was far from a totalitarian regime. Numerous administrative decisions were shared a priesthood and an immense network of bureaucrats and scribes.

  • The Greek City States (polis in Greek):As a community, the polis consisted of citizens with political rights without political rights, and noncitizens. All citizens of a polis possessed fundamental rights, but these rights were coupled with responsibilitiesThe citizens not only belonged to themselves, they also belonged to the states. This loyalty towards their city-states made each city-state distrusted one another.

  • Tyrants (7th to 6th centuries BCE):Rulers who came to power in an unconstitutional way; tyrant was not subject to the law. Tyrants built new marketplaces, temples, and walls to enhanced their own popularity and glorified the city, they favours merchants and tradersLargely extinguished by the end of the 6th century BCE, Greek believed in the rule of law, and tyranny made a mockery of that ideal

  • Classical Greece:Confrontation between the Greek states and the mammoth Persian EmpireGreek states formed a defensive league under Spartan leadership, while the Athenians pursued a new military policy by the navy.Athenians produced a fleet of about two hundred vessels.Athens formed a defensive alliance against the Persians called the Delian League.

  • Age of Pericles:Policy of expanding democracy.The sovereignty of the people was embodied in the assembly.Lower class citizens were eligible for public offices formerly closed to them.Board of ten officials known as generals, were elected by public vote.The general could be re-elected, enabling individual leaders to play an important rolePericles, was elected to the generalship thirty times between 461-429 BCE

  • Class system It was broken up between free people and slaves. Some slaves were prisoners of war or bought from slave traders. Few were skilled in crafts and even fewer were paid. Gender issues, the social system only applied to the men. Women's social and legal status was taken from their husband. Women were not permitted to take part in social life.

  • Greek TradeIn ancient Greece they traded refined goods such as olive oil, wine, jewelry, pottery, bronze, silver, gold and art work to Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Asia minor all the way to the Indus valley . They traded this for luxury items and exotic raw material that was worked by craftsmen.Later craftsmen developed more techniques in stone work and ivory work. Also with emeralds and rubies.

  • Art and ArchitectureArt:Concerned with expressing eternally true idealsBased on the ideals of reason, moderation, symmetry, balance, and harmony in all things, was meant to civilize the emotions.

  • Architecture:The most important form of architecture was the temple dedicated to a god or goddess.walled rooms that housed the statues of deities and treasures open structures rather than closed onesThe column were originally made of wood but were changed to marble in the 5th century BCEshape and size of the columns in combination with the features above and below the column.

  • Science and TechnologyHighly developed compared to other places. Contributed a lot in the field of mathematics. Geometry was used to measure land as described by Herodotus. The strange property of amber was discovered by the Greeks. Greek experiments revealed the fact that lodestone attracted small bits of iron.

  • ReligionThe gods controlled their destiny and they were obsessed with knowing what the gods wanted. Religion was connected to every part of daily life it was social and practical. Public festivals were originated from religious practices like boys into warriors and girls in to mothers. Temples dedicated to the god or goddess were major Greek buildings in the cities. There were twelve chief gods.

  • In the myth of creation there was Chaos who created the mass of earth and the heavens. Father heaven and mother earth. Gaea who is mother earth and Uranus father Heaven gave birth to the Titans, Cyclopes and Giants the first creatures. The Cyclopes helped Zeus defeat his brother to become the father god, they did this my forging his lighting bolt.The Greeks believed in an oracle they went to her for advice on everything and the oracle could see into the future. The Greeks gave offering to the oracle to see into the future. Like going to war, asking to get higher in the social ranks.

  • GodsThe gods said to live on top of mount Olympus, highest mountain in Greece. Zeus the father of the gods, Athena Goddess of wisdom and craft, Apollo the god of sun and poetry, Aphrodite goddess of love, and Poseidon brother of Zeus god of the sea and earthquakes.

  • IntellectualsPhilosophy is a Greek word that originally meant love of wisdomEarly Greek philosophers were concerned with the development of critical or rational thought about the nature of the universe and the place of divine forces and soul in it

  • Sophists (5th century BCE):argued that understanding the universe was beyond the reach of the human mindstressed the importance of rhetoric (the art of persuasive oratory) in winning debates and swaying an audiencethere was no absolute right or wrong, true wisdom consisted of being able to perceive and pursue one own good.

  • Plato (429-347 BCE):Unlike his master Socrates, Plato wrote a great dealPlatos ideas of government were set out in his dialogue titled The RepublicHe was fascinated with the question of reality. A higher world of eternal, unchanging Ideas or Forms has always existed. To know these Form is to know truth. These Forms can only be apprehended by a trained mind which is the goal of philosophy

  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE):studied at the Academy at Athens for 20 yearsbecame a tutor to Alexander the Greatwished for an effective form of government that would rationally direct human affairsdid not seek and ideal state based on the embodiment of an ideal Form of justice but tried to find the best form of government by a rational examination of existing government.

  • Bibliographyhttp://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Main_Page/http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/willow/ancient-greece4.gifhttp://www.mapsofworld.com/greece/science-technology/ancient-greek-science-technologies.htmlhttp://www.associatedcontent.com/article/306454/history_of_the_minoan_civilization.html?cat=37World History Textbook

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