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  • 1. Grammar Book! By: Alessandra Bove

2. Table of Contents

  • Present tense
  • Stem changers
  • Irregular yo
  • Saber vs. conocer
  • Reflexives
  • Se impersonal
  • Verbs like gustar
  • -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir
  • Imperfect
    • Irregular
    • Trigger words
  • Preterite
    • Irregular car/gar/zar; spock; cucaracha; snake/snakey
    • Trigger
  • Comparatives/superlatives
  • Future
    • Irregular
    • Trigger words

3. Present Tense AR Yoo Tuas El, ella, ud.a Nosotrosamos Vosotrosas Ellos, ellas, uds.an ER/IR Yoo Tues El, ella, ud.e Nosotrosemos/imos Vosotrosis/s Ellos, ellas, uds.en 4. Stem Changers Stem changers are verbs that change in every formEXCEPTthe nosotros and vosotros forms. E > I Repetir Repito Repites Repite Repetimos Repets Repiten O > UE Contar Cuento Cuentas Cuenta Contamos Contis Cuentan E > IE Cerrar Cierro Cierras Cierra Cerramos Cerris Cierran O > UE Dormir Duermo Duermes Duerme Dormimos Dorms Duermen 5. Irregular yo -go verbs Poner to put Pongo Decir (eJ in the yo form. In the other forms, use G. Coger to catchExigir to demand CojoExijo CogesExiges CogeExige CogemosExigemos CogisExigis CogenExigen -cer/-cir coercer convencer ejercer esparcir mecer remecer vencer zurcir 11. Imperfect AR aba abas aba bamos abais abanImperfect tense is used to represent things that happened in the past that occurred repeatedly or occurred over a period of time, has both an definite ending and beginning. HABLAR hablaba hablabas hablaba hablbamos hablabais hablaban ER/IR a as a amos ais an VIVIR viva vivas viva vivamos vivais vivan TRIGGER WORDS a menudo, a veces, cada da, cada ao, con frecuencia, de vez cuando, en aquella poca, frecuentemente, generalmente, nunca, por un rato, siempre, tantas veces, todas las semanas, todos los dias, and todo el tiempo,IR iba ibas iba bamos ibais ibanVER veaveamosveasveaisveavean SER eraramoseraseraiseraeran Irregulars! 12. Preterite Examples: Ella trabaj por dos horas. She worked for two hours. Ellos vendieron el coche. They sold the car. Conjugations: The preterite tense allows you to refer to specific past actions performed (1) at a fixed point in time, (2) a specific number of times, (3) during an enclosed amount of time. Trigger Word Translation Ayer Yesterday Anteayer The day before yesterday Anoche Last night La Semana Pasada Last week El Mes Pasado Last month El Ao Pasado Last year El Fin De Semana Pasado Last weekend FormEnding for ar verbs FormEnding for er and ir verbs Yo - Yo - T -aste T -iste Ella/l/Ud. - Ella/El/Ud. -i Nosotros -amos Nosotros -imos Vosotros -asteis Vosotros -isteis Ellos/Ellas/ Uds. -aron Ellos/Ellas/ Uds. -ieron 13. -car, -gar, -zar There are three spelling changes in Spanish which affect verbs in the preterite as well as in other tenses. In the preterite , these changes occur only in the first person singularyoform. Verbs ending in car: thecchanges toqubefore the lettere Ex: Yo practiqu. (I practiced.) Verbs ending in gar: Insert aubefore thee Ex: Yo llegu. (I arrived.) Verbs ending in zar: thezchanges tocbefore the lettere Ex: Yo empec. (I began.) Verb Translation Preterite Yo Form Pagar To pay (for) Yo pagu Regar To water (a plant) Yo regu Jugar To play (a game) Yo jugu Buscar To look for; search Yo busqu Aparcar To park Yo aparqu Tocar To touch; play (an instrument) Yo toqu Organizar To organize Yo organic Simbolizar To symbolize Yo simbolic Autorizar To authorize Yo autoric 14. Spock Ir To go Ser To be Dar To give Ver To see Hacer To do; make Ex: Fui al cine. I went to the movies. Ella dio un regalo a su abuela. She gave a gift to her grandmother. Ir Ser Dar Ver Hacer Ir Ser Dar Ver Hacer Yo Fui Fui Di Vi Hice T Fuiste Fuiste Diste Viste Hiciste Ella/ l/Ud. Fue Fue Dio Vio Hizo Nosotros Fuimos Fuimos Dimos Vimos Hicimos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Fueron Fueron Dieron Vieron Hicieron 15. Cucaracha Conjugation of 'j' verbs Verbs Stem Change Andar Anduv- Estar Estuv- Poder Pud- Poner Pus- Querer Quis- Saber Sup- Tener Tuv- Venir Vin- Form Ending Yo -e T -iste Ella/ l/Ud. -o Nosotros -imos Vosotros -isteis Ellos/Ellas/Uds. -ieron Verbs Stem Change Decir Dij- Traer Traj- Conducir Conduj- Producir Produj- Traducir Traduj- 16. Snake/snakey Snakey verbs are verbs that are irregular in the preterite tense that change yendo and yeron. Form Ending Yo O T Oste Ella/l/Ud. Oy Nosotros Omos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Oyeron Form Ending Yo Le T Leste Ella/l/Ud. Ley Nosotros Lemos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Leyeron Form Ending Yo Cay T Caste Ella/l/Ud. Cay Nosotros Camos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Cayeron 17. Comparatives/Superlatives Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use sentences with than , or you can use a conjunction like but .Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative sentences usually use the , because there is only one superlative.Ex: Julio is thetallestin the class. Julio esel ms altoen la clase. Today is thehottestday of summer. Hoy es el dams calurosodel verano. Ex: Julio istallerthan Juan. Julio esms altoque Juan. I amhappierthan you. Soyms felizque t. longest longer long oldest older old tallest taller tall Superlative Form Comparative Form One-Syllable Adjective 18. El futuro The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.However, the future tense isNOTused to express a willingness to do something. Irregular Ex: Using the verb hablar,to speak . Yo Habl Tu Habls EllaHabl NosotrosHablemos EllosHabln Triggers:esta noche, el ao que viene,maana, prximo fin de semana, mes prximo, en pocas horas, en dos das, and la prxima Navidad Verb Stem Change Verb Stem Change Decir Dir- Venir Vendr- Hacer Har- Poder Podr- Poner Pondr- Querer Querr- Salir Saldr- Saber Sabr- Tener Tendr- Valer Valdr- Form Ending Yo - T - s Ella/ l/Ud. - Nosotros -emos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. - n

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