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Working document QAS/13.552 July 2013 RESTRICTED 1 2 GOOD TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION PRACTICES FOR 3 PHARMACEUTICAL STARTING MATERIALS. REVISION 4 (July 2013) 5 DRAFT FOR COMMENT 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 © World Health Organization 2013 14 All rights reserved. 15 This draft is intended for a restricted audience only, i.e. the individuals and organizations having received this 16 draft. The draft may not be reviewed, abstracted, quoted, reproduced, transmitted, distributed, translated or 17 adapted, in part or in whole, in any form or by any means outside these individuals and organizations (including 18 the organizations' concerned staff and member organizations) without the permission of the World Health 19 Organization. The draft should not be displayed on any web site. 20 Please send any request for permission to: 21 Dr Sabine Kopp, Medicines Quality Assurance Programme, Quality Assurance and Safety: Medicines, 22 Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization, CH-1211 Geneva 27, 23 Switzerland. Fax: (41-22) 791 4730; e-mail: [email protected]. 24 The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this draft do not imply the expression of any 25 opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, 26 territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted 27 lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. 28 The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed 29 or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not 30 mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital 31 letters. 32 All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information 33 contained in this draft. However, the printed material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either 34 expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no 35 event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. 36 This draft does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization. 37 38 Please address any comments on this proposal by 20 September 2013 to Dr S. Kopp, Medicines Quality Assurance Programme, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, fax: (+41 22) 791 4730 or e-mail: [email protected] with a copy to [email protected]. We are sending out our working documents electronically only and they are also placed on the Medicines web site for comment. If you do not already receive our documents please let us have your e-mail address (to [email protected]) and we will add it to our electronic mailing list.

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Page 1: GOOD TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION PRACTICES FOR ......Working document QAS/13.552 page 6 Original text Revised text Comments Good trade and distribution practices for pharmaceutical starting

Working document QAS/13.552

July 2013

RESTRICTED

1 2

GOOD TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION PRACTICES FOR 3

PHARMACEUTICAL STARTING MATERIALS. REVISION 4

(July 2013) 5

DRAFT FOR COMMENT 6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

© World Health Organization 2013 14

All rights reserved. 15

This draft is intended for a restricted audience only, i.e. the individuals and organizations having received this 16 draft. The draft may not be reviewed, abstracted, quoted, reproduced, transmitted, distributed, translated or 17 adapted, in part or in whole, in any form or by any means outside these individuals and organizations (including 18 the organizations' concerned staff and member organizations) without the permission of the World Health 19 Organization. The draft should not be displayed on any web site. 20

Please send any request for permission to: 21

Dr Sabine Kopp, Medicines Quality Assurance Programme, Quality Assurance and Safety: Medicines, 22 Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization, CH-1211 Geneva 27, 23 Switzerland. Fax: (41-22) 791 4730; e-mail: [email protected]. 24

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this draft do not imply the expression of any 25 opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, 26 territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted 27 lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. 28

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed 29 or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not 30 mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital 31 letters. 32

All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information 33 contained in this draft. However, the printed material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either 34 expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no 35 event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. 36

This draft does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization. 37 38

Please address any comments on this proposal by 20 September 2013 to Dr S. Kopp, Medicines Quality

Assurance Programme, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, fax: (+41 22) 791 4730

or e-mail: [email protected] with a copy to [email protected].

We are sending out our working documents electronically only and they are also placed on the

Medicines web site for comment. If you do not already receive our documents please let us have your e-mail address (to [email protected]) and we will add it to our electronic mailing list.

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39

SCHEDULE FOR THE PROPOSED ADOPTION PROCESS OF DOCUMENT QAS/13.552: 40

GOOD TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION PRACTICES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL 41

STARTING MATERIALS. REVISION 42

43

44

45

46

47 Presentation of International Pharmaceutical Excipients

Council (IPEC) Federation to 47th WHO Expert

Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical

Preparations proposing revision of GTDP published in

2003

9–12 October 2012

Proposed draft text received from IPEC July 2013

Draft text mailed out for comment July 2013

Collation of comments received September 2013

Presentation to forty-eighth meeting of the WHO Expert

Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical

Preparations

12–14 October 2013

Any further action as necessary …

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GOOD TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION PRACTICES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL 48

STARTING MATERIALS. REVISION 49

50

51

INTRODUCTION 52

During the 47th meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical 53

Preparations discussion took place regarding the possible revision of the Good trade and 54

distribution practices for pharmaceutical starting materials. 55

56

The 47th report includes the following summary together with the recommendation to 57

circulate the proposal received by IPEC widely for comments: 58

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“WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations

WHO TRS 981 - Forty-seventh report, Extract

8.4 Proposal for revision of good trade and distribution practices

The WHO guide on Good trade and distribution practices for pharmaceutical

starting materials was published in 2003. In 2006, the International Pharmaceutical

Excipients Council (IPEC) – an industry association comprising excipient

manufacturers, excipient distributors and their pharmaceutical customers –

published its GDP Guide for pharmaceutical excipients, which was fully aligned

with the WHO document. Since the publication of these guidelines, a number of

new developments and concepts, including, for example, risk management, have

influenced good distribution practices (GDP) principles and processes. It was

noted that a number of recent incidents have created awareness of the need for

further improvement of the present guidelines.

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[Note from the Secretariat: 93

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Following the recommendation by the WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for 95

Pharmaceutical Preparations we herewith circulate IPEC’s proposal for feedback and 96

comments.] 97

98

The IPEC Federation presented an update on its activities concerning

good trade and distribution practices. The IPEC Federation proposed a revision

and update of the WHO good trade and distribution practices (GTDP) guide and

offered its support in providing a proposal. This could be developed by the IPEC

Federation member groups by the end of 2012. It was noted that any draft of

the WHO GTDP guide would be circulated for review using WHO’s wide global

consultation process and would be submitted to the WHO Expert Committee

for consideration for adoption. Following adoption, the IPEC Federation would

then update its own guide in line with that of WHO.

The Expert Committee discussed the need for revising and updating the

WHO GTDP guide and endorsed the proposal.”

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99

100

Original text Revised text Comments

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

1. Quality management Quality management

1.1 Within an organization quality assurance serves as a

management tool. In contractual situations quality

assurance also serves to generate confidence in the

supplier. There should be a documented quality

policy describing the overall intentions and direction

of the supplier regarding quality, as formally

expressed and authorized by management.

Within an organization quality assurance serves as a

management tool. In contractual situations quality

assurance also serves to generate confidence in the

supplier. There should be a documented quality

policy describing the overall intentions and direction

of the supplier regarding quality, as formally

expressed and authorized by management.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

1.2 Quality management should include:

• an appropriate infrastructure or “quality system”,

encompassing the organizational structure,

procedures, processes, and resources;

• systematic actions necessary to ensure adequate

confidence that a material (or service) and

relevant documentation will satisfy given

requirements for quality. The totality of these

actions is termed (quality assurance); and

• a clear procedure for approving suppliers of

pharmaceutical starting materials and services

(for details see GMP).

Quality management should include:

• an appropriate infrastructure or “quality system”,

encompassing the organizational structure,

procedures, processes, and resources;

• an independent quality unit or designee which is

responsible for all quality-related topics

• an appropriate quality risk management system to

enable a systematic process for the assessment,

control, communication and review of risks to the

quality of the product; the extent of the quality

risk management (QRM) system should reflect

the operations performed;

• a validation/qualification system to ensure that

the resulting product is capable of meeting the

requirements for the specified application;

• systematic actions necessary to ensure adequate

confidence that a material (or service) and

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Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

relevant documentation will satisfy given

requirements for quality. The totality of these

actions is termed (quality assurance);

• a clear documented procedure for selecting,

approving and re-approving suppliers of

pharmaceutical starting materials and services;

• a robust change control programme which is

designed to ensure that quality is assessed and

maintained; this programme should include a

customer notification;

• a system ensuring traceability of products and

associated documentation throughout the entire

supply chain.

1.3 The system should cover quality assurance principles. The system should cover quality assurance

principles.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

1.4 All parties involved in the manufacture and supply

chain must share responsibility for the quality and

safety of the materials and products to ensure that

they are fit for their intended use.

All parties involved in the manufacture and supply

chain must share responsibility for the quality and

safety of the materials and products to ensure that

they are fit for their intended use.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

1.5 The responsibilities placed on any one individual

should not be so extensive as to present any risk to

quality. In the event of a supplier having a limited

number of staff, some duties may be delegated or

contracted out to designated persons who are

appropriately qualified. There should, however, be no

gaps or unexplained overlaps related to the

application of GTDP.

The responsibilities placed on any one individual

should not be so extensive as to present any risk to

quality. In the event of a supplier having a limited

number of staff, some duties may be delegated or

contracted out to designated persons who are

appropriately qualified. There should, however, be no

gaps or unexplained overlaps related to the

application of GTDP.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

1.6 Where electronic commerce (e-commerce) is used Where electronic commerce (e-commerce) is used No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

defined procedures and adequate systems should be

in place to ensure traceability and confidence in the

quality of the material.

defined procedures and adequate systems should be

in place to ensure traceability and confidence in the

quality of the material.

1.7 Authorized release procedures should be in place to

ensure that material of an appropriate quality is

sourced from approved suppliers and released for its

intended purpose.

Authorized release procedures should be in place to

ensure that material of an appropriate quality is

sourced from approved suppliers and released for its

intended purpose.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

1.8 Inspection and certification of compliance with a

quality system (such as applicable International

Standards Organization (ISO) series and hazard

analysis and critical control point (HACCP)) by

external bodies is recommended. However, this

should not be seen as a substitute for the

implementation of these guidelines or for conforming

with pharmaceutical GMP requirements, as

applicable.

Inspection and certification of compliance with a

quality system (such as applicable International

Standards Organization (ISO) series, recognized

national and regional standards and hazard analysis

and critical control point (HACCP)) by external

bodies is recommended. However, this should not be

seen as a substitute for the implementation of these

guidelines or for conforming with pharmaceutical

good manufacturing practices (GMP) requirements,

as applicable.

1.9 A system should be in place for the performance of

regular internal audits with the aim of continuous

improvement. The findings of the audit and any

corrective actions taken should be documented and

brought to the attention of the responsible

management.

A system should be in place for the performance of

regular internal audits with the aim of continuous

improvement. The findings of the audit and any

corrective and preventive actions taken including

verification of their effectiveness should be

documented and brought to the attention of the

responsible management

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Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

2 Organization and Personnel Organization and Personnel

2.1 There should be an adequate organizational structure

and sufficient personnel should be employed to carry

out all the tasks for which the supplier is responsible.

There should be an adequate organizational structure

and sufficient personnel should be employed to carry

out all the tasks for which the supplier is responsible.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

2.2 Individual responsibilities should be clearly defined,

understood by the individuals concerned and

recorded in writing (as job descriptions or in a

contract). Certain activities, such as supervision over

performance of activities in accordance with local

legislation, may require special attention. Personnel

should be suitably qualified and authorized to

undertake their duties and responsibilities.

Individual responsibilities should be clearly defined,

understood by the individuals concerned and

recorded in writing (as job descriptions or in a

contract). Certain activities, such as supervision over

performance of activities in accordance with local

legislation, may require special attention. Personnel

should be suitably qualified and authorized to

undertake their duties and responsibilities.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

2.3 All personnel should be aware of the principles of

GTDP.

All personnel should be aware of the principles of

GTDP.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

2.4 Personnel should receive initial and continuing

training relevant to their tasks. All personnel should

be motivated to support the establishment and

maintenance of quality standards.

Personnel should receive initial and continuing

training relevant to their tasks. The effectiveness of

trainings should be verified. All personnel should be

motivated to support the establishment and

maintenance of quality standards.

2.5 Personnel dealing with hazardous materials (such as

highly active, toxic, infectious or sensitising

materials) should be given specific training and

should be provided with the necessary protective

equipment.

Personnel dealing with hazardous materials (such as

highly active, toxic, infectious or sensitizing

materials) should be given specific training and

should be provided with the necessary protective

equipment.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

2.6 Personnel who may be exposed to materials from

open containers should maintain good hygiene, have

no open wounds and be equipped with an appropriate

Personnel who may be exposed to materials from

open containers should maintain good hygiene, have

no open wounds and be equipped with an appropriate

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

protective outfit, such as gloves, masks and goggles. protective outfit, such as gloves, masks and goggles.

3 Premises Premises

3.1 Premises must be located, designed, constructed,

adapted and maintained to suit the operations to be

carried out. Their layout and design must aim to

minimize the risk of errors and permit effective

cleaning and maintenance in order to avoid cross-

contamination, mix-ups, build-up of dust or dirt and,

in general, any adverse effect on the quality of

materials.

Premises including laboratory facilities must be

located, designed, constructed, adapted and

maintained to suit the operations to be carried out.

Their layout and design must aim to minimize the

risk of errors and permit effective cleaning and

maintenance in order to avoid contamination, cross-

contamination, mix ups, build-up of dust or dirt,

waste and, in general, any adverse effect on the

quality of materials.

3.2 Measures should be in place to prevent unauthorized

persons from entering the premises.

Measures should be in place to prevent unauthorized

persons from entering the premises.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

3.3 Premises should be designed and equipped so as to

afford maximum protection against the entry of

insects, rodents or other animals.

Premises should be designed, equipped and

maintained so as to afford maximum protection

against the entry of insects, rodents or other animals.

A pest control programme should be applied to either

all of the premises or those parts which have been

identified as vulnerable to pests by risk assessment.

Its effectiveness should be measured.

3.4 Suitable supporting facilities and utilities (such as air

control, lighting and ventilation) should be in place

and appropriate to the activities performed.

Suitable supporting facilities and utilities (such as air

control, lighting and ventilation) should be in place

and appropriate to the activities performed, in order

to avoid contamination and degradation of product.

3.5 There should normally be a separate sampling area There should normally be a separate sampling area

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Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

for pharmaceutical starting materials in a controlled

environment. If sampling is performed in the storage

area, it should be conducted in such a way as to

prevent contamination or cross-contamination.

Adequate cleaning procedures should be in place for

the sampling areas.

for pharmaceutical starting materials in a controlled

environment. Sampling should only be performed in

a storage area if it can be conducted in such a way, as

to prevent contamination or cross-contamination.

Adequate cleaning procedures should be in place for

the sampling areas.

4 Warehousing and Storage Procurement, Warehousing and Storage

GSP is applicable in all circumstances in which and

all areas where materials are stored.

Good storage practice (GSP) is applicable in all

circumstances in which and all areas where materials

are stored.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

4.1 There should be authorized procedures describing the

activities relating to the receipt, storage and

distribution of materials.

There should be authorized procedures describing the

activities relating to the receipt, storage and

distribution of materials. It should be ensured and

documented that the arriving consignment is correct,

the products originate from approved suppliers and

that they have not been damaged or altered during

transportation.

4.2 Storage areas should be of sufficient capacity to

allow orderly storage of the various categories of

materials.

Storage areas should be of sufficient capacity to

allow orderly storage of the various categories of

materials.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

4.3 Receipt and dispatch bays should be equipped with

the means to protect materials from the weather.

Reception areas should be designed and equipped to

allow containers of incoming materials to be cleaned

before storage if necessary.

Receipt and dispatch bays should be equipped with

the means to protect materials from the weather.

Reception areas should be designed and equipped to

allow containers of incoming materials to be cleaned

before storage if necessary. Received material should

be segregated.

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Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

4.4 Segregated areas should be provided for the storage

of rejected, recalled and returned material, including

those with damaged packaging.

Segregated areas or segregation in an electronic

control system should be provided for the storage of

received, quarantined, rejected, recalled and returned

material, including those with damaged packaging.

Any system replacing physical segregation such as

electronic segregation based on a computerized

system should provide equivalent security and should

be appropriately qualified.

4.5 Segregated areas and materials should be

appropriately identified.

Segregated areas and materials should be

appropriately identified.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

4.6 The required storage conditions as specified for the

product should be maintained within acceptable

limits. The storage areas should be kept clean and

dry.

The required storage conditions as specified for the

product should be maintained within acceptable

limits at all time during storage. Appropriate checks

to confirm that required shipping conditions have

been met should be conducted immediately upon

receipt.

The product should be transferred to appropriate

storage facilities immediately after checks in goods

receiving have been conducted.

The storage areas should be kept clean and dry.

4.7 Where special storage conditions are required (e.g.

particular requirements for temperature or humidity)

these should be provided, monitored and recorded.

Where special storage conditions are required (e.g.

particular requirements for temperature, humidity or

effect of light) these should be provided, monitored

and recorded.

4.8 Highly active materials, narcotics, other dangerous

drugs and substances presenting special risks of

Highly active materials, narcotics, other dangerous

drugs and substances presenting special risks of

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

abuse, fire or explosion should be stored in safe,

dedicated and secure areas. In addition international

conventions and national legislation may apply.

abuse, fire or explosion should be stored in safe,

dedicated and secure areas. In addition international

conventions and national legislation may apply.

4.9 Special attention should be given to the design, use,

cleaning and maintenance of all equipment for bulk

handling and storage, such as tanks and silos.

Special attention should be given to the design, use,

cleaning and maintenance of all equipment for bulk

handling and storage, such as tanks and silos.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

Products should be packed in a way to avoid

breakage, contamination and theft. The packing

should be adequate to maintain the storage conditions

of the product during transport. The containers in

which products are shipped should be sealed or

otherwise obviously indicate the authenticity of the

product and its supplier.

Inserted by IPEC Federation

4.10 Spillages should be cleaned as soon as possible to

prevent possible cross-contamination and hazard.

Spillages should be cleaned as soon as possible to

prevent possible cross-contamination and hazard.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

4.11 Provision should be made for the proper and safe

storage of waste materials awaiting disposal. Toxic

substances and flammable materials should be stored

in suitably designed, separate, closed containers in

enclosed areas, taking into account the relevant

national legislation.

Provision should be made for the proper and safe

storage of waste materials awaiting disposal. Toxic

substances and flammable materials should be stored

in suitably designed, separate, closed containers in

enclosed areas, taking into account the relevant

national legislation.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

4.12 A system should be in place to ensure that those

materials due to expire first are sold or distributed

first (Earliest Expiry/First Out (EEFO)). Where no

expiry dates are specified for the materials, the First

In/First Out (FIFO) principle should be applied.

As the default a system should be in place to ensure

that those materials due to expire first are sold or

distributed first (Earliest Expiry/First Out (EEFO)).

Where no expiry dates are specified for the materials,

the First In/First Out (FIFO) principle should be

applied.

A process should be in place to ensure that products Inserted by IPEC Federation

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pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

having reached their expiry or retest date should be

withdrawn immediately from saleable stock or

retested.

Stock inventory should be checked on a regular basis

at least for quantity, overall condition and retesting/

expiration dates. Any discrepancies should be

investigated.

Inserted by IPEC Federation

Controls should be in place to ensure the correct

product is picked, packed and shipped. The product

should have an appropriate remaining shelf life. All

batch numbers should be recorded.

Inserted by IPEC Federation

4.13

Storage areas should be clean and free from

accumulated waste and from vermin. A written

sanitation programme should be available, indicating

the frequency of cleaning and the methods to be used

to clean the premises and storage areas. There should

also be a written programme for pest control.

Storage areas should be clean and free from

accumulated waste and from vermin. A written

sanitation programme should be available, indicating

the frequency of cleaning and the methods to be used

to clean the premises and storage areas. There should

also be a written programme for pest control.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

Materials should be purchased from approved

suppliers against mutually agreed formal

specifications.

Inserted by IPEC Federation

Actions should be taken to minimize the risk of

falsified or non-conforming products entering the

supply chain.

Inserted by IPEC Federation

5 Equipment Equipment

5.1 Equipment must be located, designed, constructed,

adapted, used and maintained to suit the operations to

Equipment must be qualified, maintained and cleaned

to suit the operations to be carried out.

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Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

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pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

be carried out. Defective equipment should not be

used, and should either be removed or labelled as

defective. Equipment should be disposed of in such a

way as to prevent any misuse.

A qualification procedure and a cleaning and

maintenance plan should be in place. The subject

activities should be performed and recorded by

trained personnel.

The status of the equipment should be readily

identifiable.

Defective equipment should not be used, and should

either be removed or labelled as defective.

Equipment should be disposed of in such a way as to

prevent any misuse.

5.2 The layout, design and use of equipment must aim to

minimize the risk of errors and to permit effective

cleaning and maintenance to avoid cross-

contamination, build-up of dust or dirt and any

adverse effect on the quality of materials.

The layout, design and use of equipment must aim to

minimize the risk of errors and to permit effective

cleaning and maintenance to avoid cross-

contamination, build-up of dust or dirt and any

adverse effect on the quality of materials.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

5.3 Fixed pipework should be clearly labelled to indicate

the contents and, where applicable, the direction of

flow.

Fixed pipework should be clearly labelled to indicate

the contents and, where applicable, the direction of

flow.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

5.4 All services, piping and devices should be adequately

marked and special attention paid to the provision of

non-interchangeable connections or adaptors for

dangerous gases, liquids and other materials.

All services, piping and devices should be adequately

marked and special attention paid to the provision of

non-interchangeable connections or adaptors for

dangerous gases, liquids and other materials.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

5.5 Balances and other measuring equipment of an

appropriate range and precision should be available

and should be calibrated on a scheduled basis.

Balances and other measuring equipment of an

appropriate range and precision should be available

and should be calibrated on a scheduled basis.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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5.6 Procedures should be in place for the operation and

maintenance of equipment. Lubricants and other

materials used on surfaces that come into direct

contact with the materials should be of the

appropriate grade, e.g. food-grade oil.

Procedures should be in place for the operation and

maintenance of equipment. Lubricants and other

materials used on surfaces that come into direct

contact with the materials should be of the

appropriate grade, e.g. food-grade oil.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

5.7 Washing and cleaning equipment should be chosen

and used such that it cannot be a source of

contamination.

Washing and cleaning equipment should be chosen

and used such that it cannot be a source of

contamination.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

5.8 Dedicated equipment should be used where possible

when handling and/or processing pharmaceutical

starting materials. Where non-dedicated equipment is

used cleaning validation should be performed.

Dedicated equipment should be used where possible

when handling and/or processing pharmaceutical

starting materials. Where non-dedicated equipment is

used cleaning validation should be performed.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

6 Documentation Documentation

6.1 Documents, in particular instructions and procedures

relating to any activity that might have an impact on

the quality of materials, should be designed,

completed, reviewed and distributed with care.

Documents should be completed, approved, signed

and dated by appropriate authorized persons and

should not be changed without authorization.

Documents, in particular instructions and procedures

relating to any activity that might have an impact on

the quality of materials, should be designed,

completed, reviewed and distributed with care.

Documents should be completed, approved, signed

and dated by appropriate authorized persons and

should not be changed without authorization.

Specifications for packaging materials and products

should be available, reviewed and revised on a

regular basis.

6.2 Documents should have unambiguous contents: their

title, nature and purpose should be clearly stated.

They should be laid out in an orderly manner and be

Documents should have unambiguous contents: their

title, nature and purpose should be clearly stated.

They should be laid out in an orderly manner and be

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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easy to check. easy to check.

6.3 Original Certificates of Analysis (COAs) should

accompany materials supplied by manufacturers to

suppliers. COAs issued by the manufacturer should

indicate which results were obtained by testing the

original material and which results came from skip

lot testing. The use of the Model COA as adopted by

the WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for

Pharmaceutical Preparations is recommended [5].

Certificates of analysis (COAs) should be provided

by the supplier.

COAs should document product traceability back to

the manufacturer by naming the original

manufacturer and its manufacturing site.

COAs should indicate which results were obtained by

testing the original material, which results came from

skip lot or other testing and specifying the

responsible organization which issues the COA.

6.4 Before any material is sold or distributed, the supplier

should ensure that the COAs and results are available

and that the results are within the required

specifications. Alternatively the customer should be

informed without delay of the results as soon as these

become available. For each shipment the COA should

be forwarded to the pharmaceutical product

manufacturer.

Before any material is sold or distributed, the

supplier should ensure that the COAs and results are

available and that the results are within the required

specifications. Alternatively the customer should be

informed without delay of the results as soon as these

become available

6.5 The original manufacturer and intermediaries

handling the material should always be traceable and

the information available to authorities and end-users,

downstream and upstream.

The original manufacturer and intermediaries

handling the material should always be traceable and

transparent, so the information is available to

authorities and end-users, downstream and upstream.

Material deriving from nonpharmaceutical grades,

such as food, industrial or technical grades, should

not be designated as pharmaceutical grade when they

were not produced under the required manufacturing

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conditions and quality system.

6.6 Mechanisms should exist to allow for transfer of

information, including the transfer of quality or

regulatory information between a manufacturer and a

customer, and of information to the regulatory

authority upon request.

Depending upon risk assessment and following the

national requirements quality agreements should

form the basis of the relationship for all parties

involved in the supply chain. It should include

mechanisms to allow transfer of information, e.g.

quality or regulatory information and change control.

6.7 Labels applied to containers should be clear,

unambiguous, permanently fixed and in the

company’s agreed format. The information on the

label should be indelible.

Labels applied to containers should be clear,

unambiguous, permanently fixed and in the

company’s agreed format. The information on the

label should be indelible.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

6.8 Each container should be identified by labelling

bearing at least the following information:

− the name of the pharmaceutical starting

material, including grade and reference to

pharmacopoeias, where relevant;

− if applicable, with the International

Nonproprietary Names (INNs);

− the amount (weight or volume);

− the batch number assigned by the original

manufacturer or the batch number

assigned by the repacker, if the material

has been repacked and relabelled;

− the retest date or expiry date (where

applicable);

− any special storage conditions;

− handling precautions, where necessary;

Each container should be identified by labelling

bearing at least the following information:

− the name of the pharmaceutical starting

material, including grade and reference to

pharmacopoeias, where relevant;

− if applicable, with the International

Nonproprietary Names (INNs);

− the amount (weight or volume);

− the batch number assigned by the original

manufacturer or the batch number

assigned by the repacker, if the material

has been repacked and relabelled;

− the retest date or expiry date (where

applicable);

− any special storage conditions;

− handling precautions, where necessary;

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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− identification of the original

manufacturing site; and

name and contact details of the supplier.

− identification of the original

manufacturing site; and

− name and contact details of the supplier.

6.9 Relevant storage, handling and safety data sheets

should be available.

Relevant storage, handling and safety data sheets

should be available.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

6.10 Records must be kept and must be readily available

upon request in accordance with GSP [3].

Records must be kept and must be readily available

upon request in accordance with GSP [3].

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7 Repackaging and relabelling Repackaging and relabelling

7.1 Operations, such as combining into a homogeneous

batch, repackaging and/or relabelling, are

manufacturing processes and their performance

should therefore follow GMP.

Operations, such as combining into a homogeneous

batch, repackaging and/or relabelling, are

manufacturing processes and their performance

should therefore follow GMP.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7.2 Special attention should be given to the following

points:

♦ prevention of contamination, cross-

contamination and mix-ups;

♦ security of stocks of labels, line clearance

checks, on-line inspections, destruction

of excess batch-printed labels;

♦ good sanitation and hygiene practices;

♦ maintaining batch integrity (normally

Special attention should be given to the following

points:

♦ prevention of contamination, cross-

contamination and mix ups;

♦ appropriate environmental conditions for

dispensing packaging and sampling;

♦ security of stocks of labels, line

clearance checks, on-line inspections,

destruction of excess batch-printed

labels, label reconciliation;

♦ good sanitation and hygiene practices;

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mixing of different batches of the same

solid material should not be done);

♦ as part of batch records all labels that

were removed from the original container

during operations, and a sample of the

new label, should be kept;

♦ if more than one batch of label is used in

one operation, samples of each batch

should be kept; and

♦ maintaining product identity and

integrity.

♦ maintaining batch integrity (normally

mixing of different batches of the same

solid material should not be done);

♦ as part of batch records all labels that

were removed from the original

container during operations, and a

sample of the new label, should be kept;

♦ if more than one batch of label is used in

one operation, samples of each batch

should be kept; and

♦ maintaining product identity, integrity

and traceability.

7.3 When different batches of a material from the same

original manufacturing site are received by a

distributor and combined into a homogenous batch,

the conformity of each batch with its specification

should be confirmed before it is added.

When different batches of a material from the same

original manufacturing site are received by a

distributor and combined into a homogenous batch,

the conformity of each batch with its specification

should be confirmed before it is added.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7.4 Only materials from the same manufacturing site

received by a distributor and conforming to the same

specifications can be mixed. If different batches of

the same material are mixed to form a homogeneous

batch it should be defined as a new batch, tested and

supplied with a batch certificate of analysis. In such

cases the customer should be informed that the

material supplied is a mixture of manufacturers’

batches. The supplied material must have a certificate

of conformity to a specification at date of supply.

Only materials from the same manufacturing site

received by a distributor and conforming to the same

specifications can be mixed. If different batches of

the same material are mixed to form a homogeneous

batch it should be defined as a new batch, tested and

supplied with a batch certificate of analysis. In such

cases the customer should be informed that the

material supplied is a mixture of manufacturers’

batches.

7.5 In all cases the original COA of the original In all cases traceability should be documented back

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manufacturer should be provided. If retesting is done,

both the original and the new COA should be

provided. The batch referred to on the new COA

should be traceable to the original COA.

to the manufacturer by identifying the original

manufacturer and its manufacturing site.

If the batch integrity and quality is maintained during

repackaging and relabelling, then the original COA

of the original manufacturer should be provided.

If retesting is done, both, the original and the new

COA should be provided as long as the batch

integrity is maintained. The batch referred to on the

new COA should be traceable to the original COA.

7.6 Repackaging of materials should be carried out with

primary packaging materials for which the quality

and suitability have been established to be equal to or

better than those of the original container. The

approval of the supplier is necessary for the

packaging material used for the repackaging.

Repackaging of materials should be carried out with

approved packaging materials for which the quality

and suitability have been established to be equal to or

better than those of the original container.

Upon receipt, packaging materials should be placed

in quarantine and should not be used prior to

acceptance. There should be procedures for the

inspection, approval and release of the packaging

materials.

7.7 The re-use of containers should be discouraged unless

they have been cleaned using a validated procedure.

Recycled containers should not be used unless there

is evidence that the quality of the material packed

will not be adversely affected.

The reuse of containers should be discouraged unless

they have been cleaned using a validated procedure.

Recycled containers should not be used unless there

is evidence that the quality of the material packed

will not be adversely affected.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7.8 Materials should be repackaged only if efficient Materials should be repackaged only if efficient No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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environmental control exists to ensure that there is no

possibility of contamination, cross-contamination,

degradation, physicochemical changes and/or mix-

ups. The quality of air supplied to the area should be

suitable for the activities performed, e.g. efficient

filtration.

environmental control exists to ensure that there is no

possibility of contamination, cross-contamination,

degradation, physicochemical changes and/or mix

ups. The quality of air supplied to the area should be

suitable for the activities performed, e.g. efficient

filtration.

7.9 Suitable procedures should be followed to ensure

proper label control.

Suitable procedures should be followed to ensure

proper label control.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7.10 Containers of repackaged material and relabelled

containers should bear both the name of the original

manufacturing site and the name of the

distributor/repacker.

Containers of repackaged material and relabelled

containers should bear both the name of the original

manufacturing site and the name of the

distributor/repacker.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7.11 Procedures should be in place to ensure maintenance

of the identity and quality of the material by

appropriate means, both before and after repackaging

operations.

Procedures should be in place to ensure maintenance

of the identity and quality of the material by

appropriate means, both before and after repackaging

operations.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7.12 Batch release procedures should be in place in

accordance with GMP.

Repackaged product testing should be performed on

each batch to ensure that the material conforms to

documented specifications. There should be a

procedure to ensure that appropriate repackaging

documentation, in addition to the test results, is

evaluated prior to release of the repackaged material.

Sampling, analytical testing and batch release

procedures should be in accordance with GMP.

7.13 Only official pharmacopoeial methods or validated

analytical test methods should be used for the

analysis.

Only official pharmacopoeial methods or validated

analytical test methods should be used for the

analysis. Where alternate methods are used to

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provide test results to a monograph, those alternate

methods should be demonstrated to be suitable and

equivalent.

Out-of-specification (OOS) test results should be

investigated and documented.

7.14 Samples of APIs and excipients of appropriate

quantities should be kept for at least 1 year after the

expiry or retest date, or for 1 year after distribution is

complete.

Samples of APIs and excipients of appropriate

quantities should be kept for at least one year after

the expiry or retest date, or for one year after

distribution is complete.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

7.15 The repacker and relabeller should ensure that the

stability of the material is not adversely affected by

the repackaging or relabelling. Stability studies to

justify assigned expiry or retest dates should be

conducted if the pharmaceutical starting material is

repackaged in a container different from that used by

the original manufacturer. It is recognized that some

excipients may not need additional stability studies.

The repacker and relabeller should ensure that the

stability of the material is not adversely affected by

the repackaging or relabelling. Stability studies to

justify assigned expiry or retest dates should be

conducted if the pharmaceutical starting material is

repackaged in a container different from that used by

the original manufacturer. It is recognized that some

excipients may not need additional stability studies.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

8 Complaints Complaints

8.1 All complaints and other information concerning

potentially defective materials must be carefully

reviewed according to written procedures that

describe the action to be taken, and including the

criteria on which a decision to recall a product should

be based.

All complaints and other information concerning

potentially defective materials must be carefully

reviewed according to written procedures that

describe the action to be taken, and including the

criteria on which a decision to recall a product should

be based.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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8.2 Any complaint concerning a material defect should

be recorded and thoroughly investigated to identify

the origin or reason for the complaint (e.g. the

repackaging procedure, the original manufacturing

process, etc.).

Any complaint concerning a material defect should

be recorded and thoroughly investigated to identify

the origin or reason for the complaint (e.g. the

repackaging procedure, the original manufacturing

process). Corrective and preventive actions should be

taken and recorded.

8.3 If a defect in a pharmaceutical starting material is

discovered or suspected, consideration should be

given as to whether other batches should be checked.

If a defect in a pharmaceutical starting material is

discovered or suspected, consideration should be

given as to whether other batches should be checked.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

8.4 Where necessary, appropriate follow-up action,

possibly including a recall, should be taken after

investigation and evaluation of the complaint.

Where necessary, appropriate follow-up action,

possibly including a recall, should be taken after

investigation and evaluation of the complaint.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

8.5 The manufacturer and customers should be informed

if action is needed following possible faulty

manufacturing, packaging, deterioration, or any other

serious quality problems with a pharmaceutical

starting material.

The manufacturer and customers should be informed

if action is needed following possible faulty

manufacturing, packaging, deterioration, or any other

serious quality problems with a pharmaceutical

starting material.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

9 Recalls Recalls

9.1 There should be a system for recalling promptly and

effectively from the market, materials known or

suspected to be defective.

There should be a system for recalling promptly and

effectively from the market, materials known or

suspected to be defective.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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9.2 The original manufacturer should be informed in the

event of a recall.

The original manufacturer should be informed in the

event of a recall.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

9.3 There should be established written procedures for

the organization of any recall activity; these should

be regularly checked and updated.

There should be established written procedures for

the organization of any recall activity; these should

be regularly checked and updated.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

9.4 All recalled materials should be stored in a secure,

segregated area while their fate is decided.

All recalled materials should be stored in a secure,

segregated area while their fate is decided.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

9.5 In the event of serious or potentially life-threatening

situations all customers and competent authorities in

all countries to which a given material may have been

distributed should be promptly informed of any

intention to recall the material.

In the event of serious or potentially life-threatening

situations all customers and competent authorities in

all countries to which a given material may have been

distributed should be promptly informed of any

intention to recall the material.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

9.6 All records should be readily available to the

designated person(s) responsible for recalls. These

records should contain sufficient information on

materials supplied to customers (including exported

materials).

All records should be readily available to the

designated person(s) responsible for recalls. These

records should contain sufficient information on

materials supplied to customers (including exported

materials).

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

9.7 The effectiveness of the arrangements for recalls

should be evaluated at regular intervals.

The effectiveness of the arrangements for recalls

should be evaluated at regular intervals.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

10 Returned goods Returned goods

10.1 Goods returned to the supplier should be

appropriately identified and handled in accordance

with a procedure addressing at least the keeping of

Goods returned to the supplier should be

appropriately identified and quarantined.

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the material in quarantine in a dedicated area, and its

assessment and disposition by a designated person.

Where any doubt arises over the quality of the

materials, they should not be considered suitable for

reissue or reuse.

The quality unit or designee should decide on the

disposition of the returned goods following a formal

and documented investigation process.

As appropriate corrective and preventive actions

should be taken.

11 Handling of non-conforming materials Handling of non-conforming materials

11.1 Non-conforming materials should be handled in

accordance with a procedure that will prevent their

introduction or reintroduction into the market.

Records covering all activities, including destruction,

disposal, return and reclassification, should be

maintained.

Non-conforming materials should be handled in

accordance with a procedure that will prevent their

introduction or reintroduction into the market.

Records covering all activities, including destruction,

disposal, return and reclassification, should be

maintained.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

11.2 An investigation should be performed to establish

whether any other batches are also affected.

Corrective measures should be taken where

necessary.

An investigation should be performed to establish

whether any other batches are also affected.

Corrective and preventive measures should be taken

where necessary.

11.3 The disposition of the material, including

downgrading to other suitable purposes should be

documented.

The disposition of the material, including

downgrading to other suitable purposes should be

documented.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

11.4 Non-conforming materials should never be blended

with materials that do comply with specifications.

Non-conforming materials should never be blended

with materials that do comply with specifications.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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12 Dispatch and Transport Dispatch and Transport

12.1 Materials should be transported in a manner that will

ensure the maintenance of controlled conditions

where applicable (e.g. temperature, protection from

the environment). The transport process should not

adversely affect the materials.

Materials should be loaded, unloaded and transported

in a manner that will ensure the maintenance of

controlled conditions where applicable (e.g.

temperature, protection from the environment). The

transport process should not adversely affect the

materials. Any carrier used for transport should be

approved according to a written procedure unless the

carrier has been selected by the customer.

Comment: Transferred from item 4.6

12.2 Requirements for special transport and/or storage

conditions should be stated on the label. If the

pharmaceutical starting material is intended to be

transferred outside the control of the manufacturer’s

materials management system, the name and address

of the manufacturer, quality of contents, special

transport conditions and any special legal

requirements should also be included on the label.

Requirements for special transport and/or storage

conditions should be stated on the label. If the

pharmaceutical starting material is intended to be

transferred outside the control of the manufacturer’s

materials management system, the name and address

of the manufacturer, quality of contents, special

transport conditions and any special legal

requirements should also be included on the label.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

12.3 The supplier of the materials should ensure that the

contract acceptor for transportation of the materials is

aware of and provides the appropriate storage and

transport conditions.

The supplier of the materials should ensure that the

contract acceptor for transportation of the materials is

aware of and provides the appropriate storage and

transport conditions.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

12.4 Procedures should be in place to ensure proper

cleaning and prevention of cross-contamination when

liquids (tanks) and bulk or packed materials are

transported.

Procedures should be in place to ensure proper

cleaning and prevention of cross-contamination when

liquids (tanks) and bulk or packed materials are

transported.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

12.5 The bulk transport of pharmaceutical starting The bulk transport of pharmaceutical starting No change proposed by IPEC Federation

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materials requires numerous precautions to avoid

contamination and cross-contamination. The best

practice is to use dedicated equipment, tanks or

containers.

materials requires numerous precautions to avoid

contamination and cross-contamination. The best

practice is to use dedicated equipment, tanks or

containers.

12.6 Packaging materials and transportation containers

should be suitable to prevent damage to the

pharmaceutical starting materials during transport.

Packaging materials and transportation containers

should be suitable to prevent damage to the

pharmaceutical starting materials during transport.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

12.7 For bulk transport, validated cleaning procedures

should be used between loadings, and a list of

restricted previous cargoes must be supplied to the

transport companies.

For bulk transport, validated cleaning procedures

should be used between loadings, and a list of

restricted previous cargoes must be supplied to the

transport companies.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

12.8 Steps should be taken to prevent unauthorized access

to the materials being transported.

Steps should be taken to prevent unauthorized access

to the materials being transported.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

12.9 General international requirements regarding safety

aspects (e.g. prevention of explosion and of

contamination of the environment, etc.) should be

observed.

General international requirements regarding safety

aspects (e.g. prevention of explosion and of

contamination of the environment, etc.) should be

observed.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

13 Contract activities Contract activities

13.1 Any activity performed, as referenced in the GMP

and GTDP guidelines, delegated to another party,

should be agreed upon in a written contract.

Any activity performed, as referenced in the GMP

and GTDP guidelines, delegated to another party,

should be agreed upon in a written contract.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

13.2 The contract giver should evaluate the proposed

contract acceptor’s compliance with GTDP before

entering into an agreement.

The contract giver should evaluate the proposed

contract acceptor’s compliance with GTDP before

entering into an agreement.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

Page 28: GOOD TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION PRACTICES FOR ......Working document QAS/13.552 page 6 Original text Revised text Comments Good trade and distribution practices for pharmaceutical starting

Working document QAS/13.552

page 28

Original text Revised text Comments

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

Good trade and distribution practices for

pharmaceutical starting materials (GTDP), WHO

Technical Report Series, No. 917, 2003

13.3 All contract acceptors should comply with the

requirements in these guidelines. Special

consideration should be given to the prevention of

cross-contamination and to maintaining traceability.

All contract acceptors should comply with the

requirements in these guidelines. Special

consideration should be given to the prevention of

cross-contamination and to maintaining traceability.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

13.4 There should be a written and approved contract or

formal agreement between the contract giver and

contract acceptor that addresses and defines in detail

the responsibilities, GTDP and which party is

responsible for which quality measures.

There should be a written and approved contract or

formal agreement between the contract giver and

contract acceptor that addresses and defines in detail

the responsibilities, GTDP and which party is

responsible for which quality measures.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

13.5 Subcontracting may be permissible under certain

conditions, subject to approval by the contract giver,

especially for activities such as sampling, analysis,

repacking and relabelling.

Subcontracting may be permissible under certain

conditions, subject to approval by the contract giver,

especially for activities such as sampling, analysis,

repacking and relabelling.

No change proposed by IPEC Federation

101

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