good fences make good neighboring rights ... - college of law digital sampling recording of a sound

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  • Good Fences Make Good Neighboring Rights: The German Supreme Court Rules on Digital Sampling of Sound Recordings

    The 11th Annual Intellectual Property Scholars Conference DePaul University College of Law August 11-12, 2011

    Tracy L. Reilly, Associate Professor University of Dayton School of Law

    Program in Law & Technology

    Copyright © 2011 – Tracy Reilly

  • Digital Sampling

    ►Recording of a sound or portion of a previously existing recording with the aid of a device that can store the recording in binary form in the memory of a computer

    ►Can constitute multiple CR infringement

     Composition

    +

     Sound Recording

  • Sampling: The Issue

    ►Is digital sampling “appropriationist art” that should not be subject to copyright infringement law?

    ►OR is it “theft” of another musician’s prior created art?

  • Sampling: The Technology

    ►Fairlight Series III Synclavier Digital Music System ($70-300,000)

    ►E-mu Systems Emulator

    ($2,600)

    ►Casio SK-1 ($100)

    http://www.isaotomita.net/images/technology/synclavier_ii.jpg http://www.greentreegazette.com/uploads/Remember/caslrg.jpg

  • Sampling: The Technology

    ►Software for the “at home” sampler

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://bp2.blogger.com/_-mHzKv4ippE/SEn5cQZShKI/AAAAAAAAAC0/bApG13fR6fA/s320/Steinberg.Cubase.SX.jpg&imgrefurl=http://guitar-softwares.blogspot.com/2008/06/steinberg-cubase-sx-3.html&usg=__7vbQcOwc_m64cOgzw3JHU4i5xjE=&h=306&w=300&sz=16&hl=en&start=25&tbnid=DOXU5SPgt91NPM:&tbnh=117&tbnw=115&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcubase%2Bsx%26start%3D18%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https://www.scitscat.com/catalog/images/sony_acid6.jpg&imgrefurl=https://www.scitscat.com/catalog/sony-acid-sequencing-sampling-looping-audio-software-p-2212.html&usg=__449ulvaWrSJho9j3hHAli0XU6iI=&h=500&w=476&sz=19&hl=en&start=2&um=1&tbnid=fqUraoe0OmzpFM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dacid%2Bpro%2Bsampling%2Bsoftware%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN

  • Importance of Copyright Law

    ►The “Public Goods” Problem:

     Led Zeppelin – “When the Levee Breaks” – 1971

     Cost of creation is HIGH but cost of reproduction is LOW

    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000002J09/ref=s9subs_c2_15_img1-rfc_p_si2?pf_rd_m=ATVPDKIKX0DER&pf_rd_s=center-2&pf_rd_r=1WJT9FQFTYF5ZWYVQ2T1&pf_rd_t=101&pf_rd_p=463383371&pf_rd_i=507846 http://www.johnowensmith.co.uk/headgnge.jpg

  • Copyright Infringement?

    ►Enigma “Return to Innocence” – 1998

    http://bp3.blogger.com/_iRTj3YHEhNY/R7s3n48z5hI/AAAAAAAACEc/E3oI0fzECuY/s400/%5BAllCDCovers%5D_enigma_return_to_innocence_1994_retail_cd-front.jpg

  • “Return to Innocence” Lyrics

    ► Love - Devotion Feeling - Emotion Love - Devotion Feeling - Emotion Don't be afraid to be weak; Don't be too proud to be strong; Just look into your heart my friend, That will be the return to yourself; the return to innocence.

  • U.S. Copyright Protection

    ►17 U.S.C. §102(a)(7)

     Original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, including sound recordings

    ►Exclusive Rights to Author ( 106)

     Reproduce/Distribute/Make Derivative

    Works

    http://www.oa.org/images/inside/member_support/6d_copyright_sm.jpg

  • Bridgeport Music v. Dimension Films

    Publisher sued film companies for use of George Clinton Jr.’s “Get Off Your Ass and Jam”

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.coolcopyright.com/images/cases/bridgeport.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.coolcopyright.com/cases/chp5/bridgeportdimension.htm&usg=__LXz9TWbeQmuJlRGK_BWpkMlx5Hg=&h=160&w=160&sz=17&hl=en&start=12&um=1&tbnid=rEsn5F6j8qUmqM:&tbnh=98&tbnw=98&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgeorge%2Bclinton%2Bjr%2Bget%2Boff%2Byour%2Bass%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GGLR http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://thedailyrecord.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/450px-george_clinton_in_centreville.jpg&imgrefurl=http://forums.blueridgenow.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/1601091365/m/6601001238/r/2951015338&usg=__FF49UGCO-2DJZC5xTj9ls0zmRqs=&h=600&w=450&sz=75&hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=ZikwsyFK6xydzM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=101&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgeorge%2Bclinton%2Bjr%2Bget%2Boff%2Byour%2Bass%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GGLR

  • Bridgeport Music v. Dimension Films

    ►“Get a license or do not sample.”

    ►“When you sample a sound recording you know you are taking another’s work product.”

    ►“Even when a small part of a sound recording is sampled the part taken is something of value.”

  • German Neighboring Rights Protection

    ►verwandte Schutzrechte

    ►“Related right” protection for sound

    recording to PRODUCER/ENGINEER for

    financial and technical effort

    ► 85 of the UrgH

  • Kraftwerk v. Moses Pelham

    ►German electronica band sues for use of “Metall Auf Metall” sample in defendant’s song “Nur muir”

  • Kraftwerk v. Moses Pelham

    ►“even the partial unauthorized reproduction … of the audio recording… interferes with the rights of the producer of the phonogram.”

     Quality or quantity of plaintiff’s song is irrelevant

     Recognizability of plaintiff’s song in defendant’s song is irrelevant

  • The Devil is in the Defenses

    ►Bridgeport Music – Fair Use available to sampling defendant

     No guidelines given

    ►Kraftwerk – Free Use available to sampling defendant UNLESS defendant:

     Can reproduce the sounds himself; or

     Sampled a recognizable melody

  • The Solution: Recognizability

    ►Refine Fair Use/Free Use tests in sampling cases to require defendant to prove that the sample is NOT recognizable

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