Glycosides by ghumz(falcon)

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<ul><li> 1. Keep silence! </li> <li> 2. In the name of Allah the most beneficent and merciful. </li> <li> 3. Presented to: Muhammad Tanveer KhanGroup members: Syed Usman Farooq Gilani Bpd01093202 Muhammad Hassaan Bpd01093087 Usman Rasheed Bpd01093100 Syed Mugheera Hashmi Bpd01093201 Zubair Aziz Bpd01093119 Hesham Al-noor Bpd02113220Semester: 5th C DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY The University Of Lahore </li> <li> 4. GLYCOSIDESGlycosides </li> <li> 5. GLYCOSIDEA glycoside is an organic compound, usually of plant origin maybe of animal origin, that is composed of a sugar portion linked to a non-sugar moiety. Glycone: The sugar residue of a gglycoside. Aglycone / Genin: An aglycone is the non-sugar compound remaining after replacement of the glycosyl group from a glycoside by a hydrogen atom. </li> <li> 6. Types Based on atoms involved in glycosidic linkage: O- glycosidesIn these glycosides the sugar is combined with alcohlic or phenolichydroxyl function of aglycone, e.g. digitoxin. N- glycosidesIn these glycosides nitrogen of amino group is condensed with asugar, e.g. nucleosides. S- glycosidesThese glycosides contains a sugar moiety attached to the sulphur ofthe aglycone, e.g.isothiocynate glycosides. C- glycosidesCondensation of sugar directly to a carbon atom gives rise to C-glycosides, e.g. aloin &amp; cascarosides. </li> <li> 7. Classification(a) Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, Strophanthus and white squill(b) Anthraquinone glycosides: Cascara, Aloe, Rhubarb, Cochineal and Senna(c) Saponin glycosides: Glycyrrhiza, Sarsaparilla(d) Cyanophore glycosides: Wild cherry(e) Isothiocyanate glycosides: Black Mustard(f) Lactone glycosides: Cantharide(g) Aldehyde glycosides: Vanilla(h) Miscellaneous glycosides: Gentian, Quassia, Dioscorea </li> <li> 8. DIGITALISBotanical Origin:Digitalis purpureaFamily:PlantaginaceaePart used:Dried leaves </li> <li> 9. Common Name:Foxglove, purple foxglove, finger flower, fairy glove.Vernacular Names:English: Fairy fingers, Witchs bells. </li> <li> 10. Distribution:Digitalis is native to Western Europe. It can also belocated in Asia, North Africa, Canada and much of theUS.Introduction:Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species, that wastraditionally palced in the figwort familyScrophulariaceae.Due to new genetic research, it has now been placed inthe much enlarged family Plantaginaceae. </li> <li> 11. Constituents:Cardiac glycosides are composed of two structuralfeatures: the sugars (glycone) the non-sugar (aglycone) moietiesThe R group at the 17-position defines the class ofcardiac glycosides. Two classes have been observed inNature The cardenolides The bufadienolides </li> <li> 12. Uses: Traditionally it has been used in heart diseases. It increases the activity of all forms of muscle tissues, but more especially that of the heart and arterioles. The most important action of the drug being its action on the circulation. Digitalis medication works directly on the heart muscle to strengthen and regulate the heartbeat. It is used to treat certain heart conditions. It is used in CHF (congestive heart failure). It is an agent that increases the force of contraction of cardiac muscle. </li> <li> 13. Toxicity:Digitalis toxicity causes; Anorexia Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Jaundice or yellow vision Bradycardia </li> <li> 14. Side effects: Abdominal pain Cardiovascular shock bradycardia Upset stomach Problems with eyesight </li> <li> 15. ALOEBotanical Origin:Aloe veraFamily:AloeaceaeLiliaceaePart used:Dried exudation of leaves </li> <li> 16. Common Name:Ghrita kumariVernacular Names:Hindi: Guarpatha, ghikanvarDistribution:Aloe vera is native to North Africa, the mediterraneanregion of Southern Europe and to the Canary Islands. </li> <li> 17. Constituents:There are about 500 species of aloe.All species contain anthraquinone glycosides.Following components are present generally in most of the species; Barbaloin (is the major active constituent) Aloin Aloeresins Aloetic acid Homonataloin aloe-sone Chrysophanic acid Chrysamminic acid Galactouronic acid Choline salicylate Saponins Mucopolysacchrides glucosamines Glucosamines Vitamins Sreroids etc. </li> <li> 18. USES:In cosmetic &amp; toiletry products: Mascara &amp; eyelash Facial moisturizer Hand &amp; body lotion Shaving preparations (to promote razor glide, reduce nicks &amp; razor burns) Sun care products Makeup remover Anti-acne gel etc. </li> <li> 19. In hair care products: Moisturing conditioneradd shine &amp; softness to hair. Detangler-allows comb through the hair with its lubricating properities.Medical products: Phyto Derma Skin Barrier 40Z (isan emollient cream.Body care: Body Heat Vanilla Rub 40Z, 80Z. </li> <li> 20. Different shampoos: Aloe vera Jaswant shampoo Aloe vera Hibiscus shampoo, Aloe vera Herbal Henna shampoo Aloe vera Lime Phudina shampooDifferent gels: Aloe vera Plain gel Aloe vera Jaswant gel Aloe vera Cucumber gel </li> <li> 21. Contraindication:Dietary supplement should not be used In pregnant women If breast feeding If allergic to aloeSide effects:Because of laxative effects, overuse may causeelectrolyte imbalance. </li> <li> 22. SennaBotanical Origin:Cassia angustifoliaFamily:LeguminosaePart used:Dried leaflets &amp; pods </li> <li> 23. Common Name: American senne Locust plant Maryland CassiaVernacular Names:Hindi: SanayaUrdu: amalts, Sonamukhi </li> <li> 24. Distribution: Cassia angustifolia is native to India, Somalia and Arabia. It is mainly cultivated in India and Pakistan.Introduction:Senna is an Arabian name, and the drug was firstbrought into use by the Arabian physicians Serapionand Mesue. </li> <li> 25. Constituents: Water and diluted alcohol extract the active principles of Senna Pure alcohol only extracts the imperfectly The activity of drug is largely due to anthraquinone glycosides In leaf sennoside A and B sennoside C and D Some free anthraquinones are present. </li> <li> 26. Medicinal action &amp; Use: Purgative It increases the peristaltic movement of the colon by its action upon the intestinal wall As expectorant Useful in loss of appetite Carminative and laxative Hepatomegaly &amp; spleenomegaly Wound dresser Leaves are made into a paste, and applied to various skin diseases. </li> <li> 27. Side effects: Senna can cause the colon to become dependent on it to move properly. Therefor, senna should not be used for more than ten consecutive days. </li> <li> 28. GLYCYRRHIZABotanical Origin:Glycyrrhiza glabraFamily:FabaceaePart used:Dried roots and rhizomes </li> <li> 29. Common Name: Sweet licorice Licorice rootVernacular Names:English: LiquoriceUrdu: Mulethi, Jethi-madh </li> <li> 30. Distribution:It is grown in India, Spain, Russia, China &amp; Italy.Introduction: Hippocrates named the herb glukos riza, or sweet root. The British adopted the spelling liquorice from Latin liquiritia. Sanskrit name yashti. meaning stem, stalk; and madhu meaning sweet. The Latin specie name glabra meaning hairless refers to the leaves. </li> <li> 31. Types:There are two types of liquorice, standard liquorice De-glycyrrhizinated liquorice (DGL) When glycyrrhizin is removed from liquorice, the product is called de-glycyrrhizinated liquorice (DGL). </li> <li> 32. Constituents: The root contains; 4% glycyyrrhizin The potassium or calcium salt of glycyrrhizinic acid. It is a saponin glycoside also called Glycyrrhizin which is the Calcium and potassium salt of glycyrrhizinic acid. Glycyrrhizin is about 50 times sweeter than sucrose (cane sugar). </li> <li> 33. Glycyrrhizin HYDROLYSISGlucoronic acid Glycyrrhetinic acid (2 molecules) </li> <li> 34. General Uses: Liquorice is used as; Flavour in a wide variety of liquorice candies in some soft drinks (root beer) Herbal teas </li> <li> 35. Medicinal Uses: Flavouring agent in pharmaceuticals Expectorant (helping to liquefy mucus &amp; facilitate its discharge) Sweetner Mild laxative In tooth powders Remedy for hyperacidity Peptic ulcer Cough syrups </li> <li> 36. Contraindication: Liquorice is contraindicated in pregnant women as well as in people with liver and kidney disorders. De-glycyrrhizinated liquorice do not cause these side effects because there is no glycyrrhizin in them. </li> <li> 37. Thats all.! BY: Gilani </li> </ul>