global warming local and global issues
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GLOBAL WARMINGPROF. PRITI THAKKARSIES COLLEGE OF COMM & ECO
The Green House Gases Carbon DioxideMethaneNitrous OxideChlorofluorocarbons
CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING(ABIOTIC)
1.Polar Ice Caps Melting.
3.Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves and economic loss.
4. Impact on health.The 5 deadliest effects of global warming:
POLAR ICE CAP
Impacts in Alaska1. MeltingGlacial Retreat
Accelerated melting of glaciers and ice caps could add an additional 4 to 9.5 inches of sea level rise. (Science 7/07)
Alaskas Columbia Glacier has decreased by approximately 9 miles since 1980 and thinned by as much as 1,300 feet.. (Science 7/07)
Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves
What Climate change is the concern?
Global surface temperature has increased by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees Celsius since late 19th century
Climate change predicted to increase global temperatures by 0.8 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by the year 2100
Evidence:1. More warm dayssteady rise since 19821995-2006 rank as warmest since 18502. Melting of snow and ice3. Record number of icebergs4. Sea level rise5. Changes in Gulf Stream6. Changes in precipitation patterns7. Coral reef damage from algae
Effect on Biotic WorldPlantsAnimalsHumans
HUMAN HEALTHPeople with heart problems are vulnerable, and some respiratory problems increase.The 2003 European heat wave killed 22,00035,000 people, based on normal mortality rates
Ways to Reduce CarbonConstrain use (efficiency)Carbon offsettingUse of renewable energy sources as substitutes in operations
Carbon Trading- How it worksA country caps emissions at a certain levelIssues permits to firms and industries to emit a stated amount of carbon dioxide over a time period Firms trade these credits in a free market. Firms whose emissions exceed the amount of credits they possess are heavily penalized.
GLOBAL COMBAT MEASURES
CARBON BANK - Milestones
1972 Stockholm Declaration1988 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change1997 Byrd-Hagel Resolution1997 Kyoto Protocol2005 Kyoto Rulebook
Kyoto Protocolto the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
negotiated in 1997open for signature in 1998came into force February 16, 2005
Kyoto Rule BookDecember 2, 2005Defines how each countrys emissions and sinks (e.g. reforestation) are accounted.Developed countries can invest in other developed countries and earn carbon allowances.Establishes the Clean Development Mechanism which allows developed countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries.
JOHANNESBERG Earth Summit (26 Aug- 4 Sept 2002).
BALI SUMMIT ON CLIMATE (3 - 15 December 2007)The summit was to find an alternative after expiry of Kyoto Protocol.Aimed at reduction of CO2 emissions Targeted developing nations to cut emissionsDid not provide a just mechanism.Not enough funds and new technologies in the developing nations.Did not reach any firm agreements or targets.
:CHALLENGES ADDRESSED BY THE COPENHAGEN SUMMITTThrash out a successor to Kyoto Protocol.Targets and actions for nations.Financing for low carbon development.Building global carbon market.
PROPOSED CHANGES IN ABSOLUTE EMISSIONS Norway30% to 40%Japan25%EU20 to 30%Russia20 to 25%South Africa18%Iceland15%New Zealand10 to 20%Australia4 to 24%United States4%Brazil+5 to 1.8%China40 to 45% (per GDP)India20 to 25% (per GDP)
BACKGROUND192 countries have signed the climatic change agreement.US had rejected Kyoto Protocols requirement to cut emissions by 5%China has emerged to be highest emitter of CO2Developing nations believe it is responsibility of developed nations to set a role model.
RESULTS1. China, India, etc. have rejected caps.2. They emit over half of GHGs. Their half is growing 7 times faster.3. With quantity commitment ruled out Carbon Pricing remains.
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATIC CHANGE- IPCCInternational body which comprehensively assess GHGs and gives envtal reports.2007 Nobel Peace Prize2007 report errotically states that the Himalayan Glaciers will be completely wiped out by 203523/2/2010 IPCC chairman R K Pachauri apologised for it.But there was no ambiguity that the glaciers were melting.
INDIAS POSITION TO MULTILATERAL NEGOTIATIONSNegotiations should proceed acc to UNFCCs principles and objectives.Shared vision for long term co-operative action.Avoid deflecting the main purpose of negotiations by trade factors.Long term and equitable approach to climate change.Achieve specializations in technological innovations.
COMBAT MEASURES HAVE TO BE
COMBINED EFFORTS OF ALL SECTORS
INDUSTRIAL SECTORRESIDENTIAL SECTORTRANSPORTATION SECTORENERGY CONSERVATION(reduce 22m tons of CO2)Technological development of high performance lasers, burners, furnacesIntroduction of energy management systemsAccelerated development and diffusion of low emission vehiclesNEW ENERGY(reduce 34m tons of CO2)Introducing use of bio-massIntroduction of solar energy generation, solar thermal utilization, wind power generation, waste power generation and biomass energyStrengthening of technological development for energy generationFUEL CONVERSION(reduce 18m tons of CO2)Conversion of aging coal-fired power generation to natural gas power generation Development of safety standards for natural gas pipelines
YOUR ROLE AS A TEACHERSpread awarenessTrain them to walk on the right pathMotivate the youth through interactive talksOrganize street plays with their help for the common manBe a role model
What the teacher is, is more important than what he teaches.Karl Menninger