gl3 2ed answer . simple present 6. simple past CHAPTER 1: SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Introductory Task: True or False? (p. 4)

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  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    GRAMMAR LINKS 3, 2ed ANSWER KEY UNIT ONE Present and Past: Simple and Progressive

    Think About Grammar (p. 3) A.

    Did time have a beginning? If it did, how did it begin? When did it begin?

    Scientists think that our universe began from a very small point of space-time. About 14

    billion years ago, this point suddenly exploded outward. We call this gigantic explosion the

    big bang. Did time exist before the big bang? No one knows. But the Big Bang was the

    beginning of time as humans are able to understand it now.

    At the moment of the big bang, the universe began to expand and change. It is still

    expanding and is still changing. Nowadays scientists are observing distant parts of the

    universe, and they are learning more about its early history. About 10 billion years ago,

    galaxies were forming from clouds of stars, dust, and gas. While our galaxy, the Milky Way,

    was moving through space, our solar system formed within it. Our solar system includes the

    sun and the planets that revolve around it. The motions of our planet, Earth, give us natural

    time cyclesdays, nights, and seasons of the year. These cycles repeat themselves regularly,

    over and over again.

    Natural time cycles had an important influence in the development of life on Earth. From

    the beginning, the activities of living things followed Earths patterns of daylight and

    darkness and the seasons of the year. As a result, all living things, including human bodies,

    follow these natural time cycles. Our daily pattern of sleeping and waking is one of our

    natural cycles.

    Long ago, people everywhere lived in a way that was closely connected to the cycles of

    nature. They depended on natural time, measured by changes in the sun, moon, and stars.

    But now we have a mechanical measure of time, clock time, and people often schedule their

    lives according to it.

    Are you feeling sleepy or hungry now, even though the clock says its not time to sleep

    or eat? What is your body telling you? Perhaps its trying to follow nature instead of the

    clock.

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    B. 1. present progressive 5. past progressive 2. present progressive 6. past progressive 3. present progressive 7. present progressive 4. present progressive 8. present progressive

    C. 1. -ing 2. be

    D. 1. simple present 4. simple past 7. simple past 2. simple past 5. simple past 8. simple present 3. simple present 6. simple past

    CHAPTER 1: SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

    Introductory Task: True or False? (p. 4)

    A. 1. c, e, simple present 2. b, d, f present progressive

    B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Simple Present and Present Progressive I 1 Simple PresentForm: A Conversation About Time (p. 7)

    5. think 13. follow 6. is the connection 14. have 7. get 15. controls 8. give 16. dont eat 9. do we use 17. eat 10. doesnt give 18. watches 11. Do I live 19. is 12. you do

    2 Simple PresentYes/No and Wh- Questions: Where Does Natural Time Come From? (p. 8)

    A. I. Yes/No Questions: 2. Does it take the earth about 365 days to orbit the sun? Wh- Questions:

    2. How long is an earth year? 3. How long does it take the earth to orbit the sun?

    II. Yes/No Questions:

    1. Are years on Venus as long as earth years?

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    2. Are years on Mars longer than years on Venus? Wh- Questions: 1. What does the length of a planets year depend on? 2. How long does it take Venus to orbit the sun? 3. How long does it take Mars to orbit the sun?

    III. Yes/No Questions: 1. Do the planets rotate as they orbit the sun? 2. Does the earth rotate on its axis once every year? Wh- Questions: 1. How often does the earth rotate on its axis? 2. What makes day and night on earth? 3. When is it daytime on one side of the earth?

    B. I. Yes/No Questions: 2. Yes, it does. Wh- Questions:

    2. Its 365 days. 3. It takes the earth about 365 days to orbit the sun.

    II.Yes/No Questions: 1. No they arent/ No, theyre not. 2. Yes, they are. Wh- Questions: 1. It depends on the planets distance from the sun. 2. It takes Venus 224 earth days to orbit the sun. 3. It takes Mars 687 earth days to orbit the sun.

    III. Yes/No Questions: 1. Yes, they do. 2. No, it doesnt. Wh- Questions: 1. It rotates once every 24 hours. 2. The rotation of the earth makes day and night. 3. When its night on the other side.

    .

    3 Present ProgressiveForm: Time Talk (p. 9) A. I. 3. m sitting 7. m watching

    4. (am) thinking 8. s helping 5. re not thinking/arent thinking 9. s not helping/isnt helping

    6. re watching 10. re wasting

    II. 1. are you sitting 3. isnt moving 5. are listening 2. re waiting 4. re trying 6. (are) playing 7. re killing III. 1. are your children getting along 5. are growing 2. re getting along 6. Am I interrupting 3. is working 7. youre not / you arent

    4. is studying 8. re passing

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    B. Answers will vary. Ch1 Ex 3 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Simple Present and Present Progressive II

    4 Simple Present and Present ProgressiveUses: Watches (p. 12)

    2. Action in progress at this moment 3. Habitual or repeated actions 4. Action in progress through a period of time including the present 5. Habitual or repeated actions 6. Action in progress at this moment 7. Habitual or repeated actions 8. Action in progress at this moment 9. Action in progress through a period of time including the present 10. Scientific fact/thing generally accepted as true

    5 Adverbs of Frequency and Time Expressions with Simple Present: Routines (p. 13) A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    6 Simple Present Versus Present Progressive: Usually, but Not Today (p. 14)

    A. 2. Q: What kind of clothes does Flora wear? A: She usually wears [a type of clothing], but today she is wearing [a different type

    of clothing.]

    3. Q: Which language do Elena and Frank speak? A: They usually speak [a name of a language], but right now they are speaking [a

    name of a different language].

    4. Q: How does Theresa get to school? A: She usually gets to school [by/on a means of transportation], but these days she

    is getting to school [by/on a different means of transportation].

    5. Q: When do the neighbors go on vacation? A: They usually go on vacation [at a time of year], but this year they are going on

    vacation [at a different time of year].

    B. Answers will vary.

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    7 Simple Present versus Present Progressive; Present Progressive with Always: Dudleys Driving Me Crazy! (p. 15)

    A. 3. m getting 8. is washing 13. s wearing 4. isnt going 9. have 14. reads 5. eats 10. re playing 15. m typing 6. steals 11. (are) talking 16. s driving 7. puts 12. borrows B. Answers will vary.

    8 Simple Present Versus Present Progressive: Studying the Universe and Time (p. 16)

    2. Are you visiting 8. m trying 14. study 3. m living 9. Are you going 15. are trying 4. m working 10. m trying 5. m looking 11. m getting 6. dont earn 12. observe 7. are you working 13. do cosmologists do

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Verbs with Stative Meaning

    9 Identifying Verbs with Active Meaning and Verbs with Stative Meaning: Astronomy Class I (p. 18)

    3. A 4. S 5. A 6. S

    7. S 8. A 9. A 10. A

    11. S 12. S

    10 Verbs with Both Active and Stative Meanings: Astronomy Class II I (p. 19)

    2. a. A b. A 3. a. A b. S 4. a. S b. A 5. a. A b. S

    11 Simple Present Versus Present Progressive; Stative versus Active Meaning: Astronomy Class III (p. 19)

    I. 3. belongs 8. dont agree 4. dont believe 9. think 5. m feeling 10. feels

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    6. doesnt feel 11. looks 7. re spending 12. appears II. 1. are you doing 7. believe 2. m smelling 8. suppose 3. smells 9. is 4. doubt 10. doesnt taste 5. dont smell 11. re being 6. Are you thinking

    12 Using Verbs with Stative Meaning and Verbs with Active Meaning: Are You a Lark or an Owl? (p. 20)

    A. Lark 3. want 7. feel / m feeling 4. m working 8. m falling 5. have 9. need 6. m thinking 10. dont want

    Owl. 3. dont want 7. m not feeling / dont feel 4. m not moving 8. m starting 5. dont have 9. m studying 6. m not thinking 10. m planning / plan

    B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    CHAPTER 2: SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE

    Introductory Task: What Were You Doing? (p. 22)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Simple Past and Past Progressive I

    1 Simple PastForm: Natural Time (p. 24)

    3. did people spend 10. woke up 4. were 11. didnt stay up 5. worked 12. didnt have 6. Did the farmers have 13. Were you 7. they didnt 14. I wasnt 8. didnt need 15. did you learn 9. followed 16. learned

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    2 Simple PastIrregular Verbs; Questions: Clock Time (p. 25)

    A. The order of the answers will vary. The sentences should be:

    She began working at . . . She left her office at . . . She made some phone calls at . . . She put on her clothes and makeup at . . . She drank a cup of instant coffee at . . . She read business reports at . . . She drove to work at . . . She saw a movie with her boyfriend at . . . She ate some French fries at . . . She had dinner with her sister at . . . She fell asleep at . . . She wrote some letters at . . . She spoke to her boss at . . . She took a shower at . . .

    B. Answers will vary.

    3 Past ProgressiveForm: Observing Mr. Doe (p. 25)

    A. 3. was sleeping 10. were they talking 17. was studying 4. wasnt sleeping 11. werent speaking 18. was staying 5. Was Mr. Doe working 12. were planning 19. was experiencing 6. he wasnt 13. wasnt saying 7. was getting 14. was making 8. was shaving 15. Were you watching 9. was meeting 16. I wasnt

    B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Simple Past and Past Progressive II

    4 Simple Past and Past ProgressiveMeaning: Spring Forward (p. 29)

    3. 4. ? 5. 6. 7. ? 8.

    Nell forgot about Daylight Savings Time. 5S Using Simple Past and Past Progressive in Stories: Setting the Scene and Telling the Story (p. 30) Answers will vary. Ch2 Ex 5C

    The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Simple Past and Past Progressive in Time Clauses

    6 Simple Past and Time ClausesMeaning: Standard Time (p. 33)

    2. First, modern transportation and communications began to develop. 3. First, each town or city had its own time. 4. Both at the same time. 5. First, the railroads spread throughout the country. 6. Both at the same time. 7. First, train schedules were confusing. 8. First, officials divided the United States into four time zones. 9. Both at the same time.

    7 The Simple Past and Past Progressive in Time Clauses; Combining Sentences: Early Calendars (p. 34)

    2. Before they learned to recognize the moons patterns, they observed its changes for a

    long time. OR They observed the moons changes for a long time before they learned to recognize its patterns.

    3. While they were observing the moon, they recorded its cycles. OR They recorded the moons cycles while they were observing it.

    4. After they understood the cycles of the moon, they made a calendar based on lunar months. OR They made a calendar based on lunar months after they understood the cycles of the moon.

    5. While they were using the lunar calendar, they found a problem with it. OR They found a problem with the lunar calendar while they were using it.

    6. After a few years passed, the calendar and the seasons didnt match anymore. OR The

    calendar and the seasons didnt match anymore after a few years passed. 7. When they added days to the year, the calendar became more accurate. OR The calendar

    became more accurate when they added days to the year. They needed to add about 11 days to the year.

    8 Simple Past Versus Past Progressive in Time Clauses: A Night Persons Bad Day (p. 35)

    A. 2. woke up, remembered 7. started/was starting, left 3. dropped, was taking 8. got, began 4. was riding, fell, missed 9. was looking, hit 5. was running, tripped, hurt 10. came up, made 6. was having, spilled

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    B. 1. Answers will vary. 2. Answers will vary. 3. Answers will vary.

    9 Simple Past, Past Progressive, and Time Clauses: A Legend of Discovery (p. 36)

    2. lived 6. were blowing/blew 10. went 3. made 7. was swinging/swang 11. made 4. was attending 8. was watching 12. discovered 5. noticed 9. realized 13. used

    Grammar Practice 4: Used To

    10 Used ToForm: Long, Long Ago (p. 38)

    2. What did people use to believe about the earth? 3. People used to believe the earth was the center of the universe. 4. They didnt use to know that the universe has no center. 5. How did people use to measure time? 6. People didnt use to have mechanical clocks or watches. 7. They used to use the natural motion of the sun to measure time with sundials. 8. The Greeks used to have water clocks for measuring time. 9. What other kinds of clocks did people use to use? 10. Some of them used to keep time with sand clocks, or hourglasses.

    11 Used To Versus Would: When We Were Children (p. 39)

    A. 3. would 6. would 4. would 7. NC 5. NC 8. NC

    B. Answers will vary.

    12 Used To; Wh- and Yes/No Questions: Did You Use To . . . ? (p. 39)

    Answers will vary.

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    Unit One Wrap-up Activities

    1 A Telescope in Space: EDITING (p. 40)

    Astronomers didnt used to have powerful telescopes to look into space and

    observe distant parts of the universe. Most scientists use to believe that the universe was

    static. (In this case, the word static is meaning not becoming larger or smaller.)

    Then, in the 1920s an American astronomer, Edwin Hubble, was having the opportunity to

    use a big new telescope in California to observe nearby galaxies. In 1929, he made a

    discovery. The galaxies were moving away from each other. The universe were expanding.

    This meant that it once was very, very small. Hubbles discovery helped cosmologists to

    develop the theory of the big bang.

    But in order to learn more about the beginning of the universe, scientists were needing a

    telescope outside earths atmosphere to provide a clear view of distant galaxies. After years of

    planning, a team of scientists and engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space

    Administration (NASA) sended a large telescope into space in 1990. They were naming it the

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) after Edwin Hubble. After they were putting HST into orbit,

    they got an unpleasant surprise. HST didnt worked. Why was this? They were building HST,

    while they made an error. In 1993, astronauts correct the error. In simple terms, NASA

    corrected the telescopes vision by fitting it with contact lenses.

    These days, HST sending clear, beautiful images to earth. So now we are now learning

    more about the expansion of the universe, the big bang, and the beginning of time.

    2 What Was the Question? WRITING/SPEAKING (p. 41) Step 1 2. How many brothers and sisters do you have?

    3. How many languages do you speak? 4. Answers will vary. Example: What do you do in your free time? 5. Answers will vary. Example: Are you working this semester? 6. Answers will vary. Example: When did you go to Paris? 7. What were you doing a year ago today? 8. Answers will vary. Example: Did you use to exercise every day?

    1. use (given)

    2. used

    3. means

    4. had

    6. needed

    7. sent

    9. put

    10. work 11. While they

    12. corrected

    13. is sending

    8. named

    5. was

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    Step 2 Answers will vary.

    3 Origin Story: WRITING (p. 42)

    Answers will vary.

    U1 Ex 3 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    4 Terratoo: SPEAKING (p. 42)

    Step 1: Answers will vary.

    Step 2: Answers will vary.

    Step 3: Answers will vary.

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    UNIT TWO Present and Past: Perfect and Perfect Progressive Think About Grammar (p. 45)

    A 2. a. had gotten 4. a. has increased b. has gotten b. had increased 3. a. have worked 5. a. had stayed b. had worked b. has stayed B. They are similar in that they both use the past participle. They are different in that the

    present perfect uses the present form of have and the past perfect uses the past form of have.

    CHAPTER 3: PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

    Introductory Task: Quiz: What Is Your Time Type? (p. 46)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive I

    1 Present PerfectForm: A Conference on the Pace of Life (p. 49) 2. Have people lost 11. havent reacted 3. they have 12. ve felt 4. hasnt changed 13. have had 5. have changed 14. has led 6. has this happened 15. hasnt worked out /s not worked out 7. has caused 16. has taken 8. hasnt speeded up 17. s given 9. Has life speeded up 10. it has

    2 Present Perfect ProgressiveForm: What Have People Been Doing? I (p. 50) 2. I have 9. Has he been working? 3. Ive been having a good time 10. he has 4. What have you been doing? 11. hes been eating lunch at the same time 5. Ive been watching all the people. 12. That woman has been making calls on her cell phone 6. What have the people been doing 13. Everything has been moving fast 7. Have they been relaxing in the park 14. The traffic hasnt been moving at all. 8. they havent.

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    3 Contractions with Present Progressive, Present Perfect, and Present Perfect Progressive: Answering Questions (p. 50)

    3. has 6. is 9. is 12. has 15. has 4. has 7. has 10. has 13. has 16. has 5. has 8. is 11. has 14. is

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive II

    4 Present Perfect Actions at Unspecified Past Times: Free Time (p. 53) A.

    2. Have you ever built a campfire? 9. Have you ever gone on a vacation in India?

    3. Have you ever driven a sports car? 10. Have you ever gotten lost in a forest? 4. Have you ever eaten Korean food? 11. Have you ever ridden a camel? 5. Have you ever read a novel in English? 12. Have you ever drunk carrot juice? 6. Have you ever swum across a lake? 13. Have you ever written a poem? 7. Have you ever met a movie star? 14. Have you ever slept on a beach? 8. Have you ever taken a photo of a sunrise? 15. Have you ever seen a comet?

    16. Have you ever drawn a picture of your own face?

    B. Answers will vary.

    5 Present PerfectActions and States Continuing to the Present: Tell Me About Yourself (p. 53)

    A. (Questions only; answers will vary.) 1. How long have you lived in . . . ? 2. How long have you been a student at . . . ? 3. How long have you been married? 4. How long have you been a parent? 5. How long have you had a job/How long have you worked? 6. How long have you known . . . ? 7. How long have you driven? 8. How long have you had a car?/How long have you owned a car? 9. How long have you played . . . ? 10. How long have you liked . . . ?

    B. Answers will vary.

    6 Using Present Perfect Progressive: What Have People Been Doing? II (p. 54) A. Answers will vary.

    B. Answers will vary.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Present Perfect Versus Present Perfect Progressive

    7 Present Perfect and Present Perfect ProgressiveMeaning: People, Places, and Paces (p. 56)

    2. a 3. b 4. b 5. b 6. a

    8 Present Perfect Versus Present Perfect Progressive: Living in the Past in the Present (p. 56)

    3. hasnt ever used 10. has been 4. has been helping* 11. has been teaching 5. has helped 12. has already made* 6. has always known 13. has been driving* 7. has been sewing* 14. has ridden 8. has been making* 15. hasnt driven 9. has finished* 16. hasnt ever wanted 17. have always preferred

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Present Perfect Versus Simple Past

    9 Present Perfect Versus Simple Past: Timelines (p. 59)

    3. made 6. did you see 4. has made 7. has taught for [Answers will vary.] 5. have you seen 8. taught for 34

    10 Present Perfect versus Simple Past: Have You Ever . . . .? (p. 60) 2. I have 7. Have you ever seen 12. played 3. ve seen 8. havent seen 13. ve been 4. did he write 9. ve seen 14.has Leonardo DiCaprio made 5. wrote 10. saw 15. hasnt made 6. saw 11. ve watched

    11 Present Perfect and Simple Past: Telling About Your Experiences (p. 61)

    A. Answers will vary. Ch3 Ex 11 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website. B. Answers will vary.

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    CHAPTER 4: PAST PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

    Introductory Task: New Experiences (p. 62)

    A. 3. He had never drunk cranberry juice before. 4. He had never seen snow before. 5. He had never worn a heavy coat before. 6. He had never gone skiing before. 7. He had never eaten granola before. 8. He had never ridden a horse before.

    B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive

    1 Past PerfectForm: An Exchange StudentA Different Place (p. 64)

    2. I had 9. d invited 3. d learned 10. had gotten 4. had read 11. Had the other guests already arrived 5. hadnt lived 12. they hadnt 6. hadnt been 13. hadnt finished 7. hadnt understood 14. d come 8. d had 15. d taught

    2 Past Perfect ProgressiveForm: Two Views on the Pace of Life (p. 65) 3. d been having 4. had been having 5. hadnt been enjoying/d not been enjoying 6. had you been waiting 7. d been waiting 8. hadnt been waiting/d not been waiting 9. had been worrying 10. Had you been worrying? 11. I hadnt. 12. had been sitting 13. (had been) talking

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Past Perfect

    3 Past Perfect and Simple Past: Rip van WinkleA Different Time (p. 68)

    A. 2. was, had run away 7. had, had become 3. looked, had grown 8. wasnt, had died 4. seemed, had changed 9. had forgotten, thought 5. was, had fallen apart 10. had won, was 6. had grown up, didnt recognize 11. discovered, had been B. Answers will vary.

    4 Past Perfect and Simple PastCombining Sentences: A New Experience (p. 69)

    2. 1, 2 Before she traveled to her host country, she hadnt flown in an airplane. OR She hadnt flown in an airplane before she traveled to her host country.

    3. 1, 2 Until she went to her host country, she hadnt experienced another culture. OR She hadnt experienced another culture until she went to her host country.

    4. 2, 1 Before she adapted to the customs of the new culture, she had made a few embarrassing mistakes. OR She had made a few embarrassing mistakes before she adapted to the customs of the new culture.

    5. 2, 1 After she had studied hard and practiced often, she learned the language well. OR She learned the language well after she had studied hard and practiced often.

    6. 1, 2 When she had lived in the country for a while, she became more flexible. OR She became more flexible when she had lived in the country for a while.

    7. 2, 1 After she had stayed in her host country for a few months, she understood her own culture much better. OR She understood her own culture much better after she had stayed in her host country for a few months.

    5 Past Perfect and Simple PastOrder of Actions: Place and Time (p. 70) A. 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. b 9. a 10. a 11. a

    B. Answers will vary.

    Ch4 Ex 5 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    6 Past Perfect Versus Simple Past: Speed (p. 71)

    4. had happened 9. traveled 5. had moved 10. had gotten 6. happened 11. took

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    7. had begun 12. had become 8. hadnt increased 13. reached

    7 Using Simple Past and Past Perfect: Milestones (p. 72)

    Answers will vary. GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Past Perfect Progressive; Past Perfect Versus Past Perfect Progressive

    8 Past Perfect Progressive and Time Clauses: Once Upon a Time: Sleeping Beauty (p. 74)

    3. d been exploring 9. had been trying 4. decided 10. ended 5. climbed 11. d been 6. hadnt known/d not known 12. rode 7. had been spinning 13. found 8. came

    9 Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive: At the Stroke of Midnight (p. 75)

    3. had been crying 6. had lost 9. had been writing 4. had given 7. had been searching for 10. had been living 5. had forgotten 8. had been making

    Unit Two Wrap-up Activities

    1 Time for LifeEDITING (p. 76)

    For many years, John Robinson had been interested in how people use their time.

    He is now the director of the Americans Use of Time Project. Robinson has first asked

    Americans to take part in a use-of-time survey in 1965. He has been repeating the surveys

    three times since then. Robinson has used the results of each survey to answer two questions:

    How has Americans been spending their time recently? How theyve been feeling about it?

    Ten thousand Americans had taken part in the 1995 use-of-time survey. In 1995, the

    study participants have wrote down their activities in a time diary every day. In addition,

    they reported on their feelings about their amount of free time.

    1. has

    2. first asked/had first asked

    4. have 5. have they

    6. took

    7. wrote

    3. repeated

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    After the participants had completed the 1995 survey, Robinson had analyzed the results

    and compared them to previous survey results. He found some interesting changes in peoples

    use of time. Americans actually spent less time working in 1995 than in 1985. By 1995, they

    have gotten more free time. However, many people believed that they had less time and felt

    more rushed and stressed. In 1997, Robinson has published a book, Time for Life, about the

    results of his surveys.

    Why does it seem that we have so little time for life nowadays? According to Robinson,

    there are two reasons for this. First, since 1965, we spend more and more of our free time

    watching television. Most of us usually say that television is unnecessary or a waste of time.

    But in recent years we had spent more time on it than any other free time activity. Second,

    since Robinson did his first survey, we have been having many more opportunities and

    choices. We have been feeling more rushed because we want to do everything.

    2 A Question ChallengeWRITING (p. 77) Answers will vary.

    3 Things Have Changed Since I Was a ChildSPEAKING (p. 77) Answers will vary.

    4 Your Psychological ClockWRITING (p. 78) U2 Ex 4 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    Answers will vary.

    8. analyzed

    9. had

    10. published

    11. have spent/have been spending

    12. have spent/have been spending

    13. have had

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    UNIT THREE Future; Phrasal Verbs; Tag Questions

    Think About Grammar (p. 81)

    A. 1. One of the following: will take, will experience, will talk AND one of the following: is taking, are departing AND one of the following: see, leaves, returns, take, begins 2. a. One of the following: is taking, are departing AND one of the following: see, leaves, returns, take, begins b. present progressive, simple present

    B. 1. is going to be getting, will be living 2. Will we have found, will have built

    CHAPTER 5: FUTURE TIME

    Introductory Task: Vacation Plans and Predictions (p. 82)

    A. 3. are (you) leaving 6. m going to visit 4. re going to fly 7. is (your brother) going 5. m traveling 8. s going to spend B. 3. ll stay 5. s (probably) going to be 4. will be 6. re going to have

    Be going to and present progressive are used to talk about future plans. Will and be going to are used to make predictions.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Will and Be Going To I

    1 WillForm: An Outdoor VacationMesa Verde National Park (p. 84)

    3. wont forget/ll not forget 7. wont take 11. will the tour last 4. will the tour begin 8. Will my tour group be 12. ll have 5. will begin 9. it will 6. wont wait 10. wont be

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    2 Be Going ToForm: A Shopping VacationThe Mall of America (p. 85)

    3. m going to spend 8. m not going to come 4. s going to be 9. m not going to feel 5. are you going to travel 10. are going to come 6. Are you going to shop 11. re going to visit 7. I am 12. is going to play 13. m going to think about

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Will and Be Going To II; Future Time Clauses

    3 Will and Be Going ToPredictions: What Next? (p. 87)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    4 Will Versus Be Going To: Before an Outdoor Vacation (p. 88)

    3. wont 8. will make 4. Will you help 9. is going to jump 5. ll help 10. are you going to go 6. are you going to call 11. re going to take 7. m going to call 12. Will you look after

    5 Will and Be Going To: What Will They Say Next? (p. 89)

    2. re going to 6. is going to 3. ll 7. wont 4. will/are going to 8. Im going to 5. is going to/will 9. will/is going to

    6 Expressing the Future in Sentences with Time Clauses: A City Museum VacationThe Cloisters (p. 90)

    A. 2. tour, ll see 3. walk, ll see 4. ll take, looks 5. ll hear, enter

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    B. 2. Im going to point out flowers and plants that were grown during the Middle Ages after we go into the second cloister. OR After we go into the second cloister, Im going to point out flowers and plants that were grown during the Middle Ages.

    3. When you enter the room called the Treasury, youre going to see many valuable

    religious objects. OR Youre going to see many valuable religious objects when you enter the room called the Treasury.

    4. Until we go into the gardens outside the museum, you arent going to be allowed to

    take photographs. OR You arent going to be allowed to take photographs until we go into the gardens outside the museum.

    5. By the time you go home, youre going to know much more about art in the Middle

    Ages. OR Youre going to know much more about art in the Middle Ages by the time you go home.

    7 Using Will and Be Going To: Ill Give You the Guided Tour (p. 91)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Ch5 Ex 7 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: EXPRESSING THE FUTURE WITH PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, SIMPLE PRESENT, AND BE ABOUT TO

    8 Present Progressive Versus Will: In Washington, D.C. (p. 93)

    2. ll probably rain 5. ll take 7. ll miss 3. re flying 6. re going 8. m not leaving 4. re eating

    9 Future Time with Present Progressive: Youre Going on Vacation Next Week (p. 94)

    Answers will vary. Ch5 Ex 9 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links website.

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    10 Future Time with Simple Present Tense: An Outdoor VacationYellowstone National Park (p. 95)

    Yellowstone Information Association Park Information: When does the summer season begin/end? Opening and Closing Dates: When does Madison Campground close/open? When do the Visitor Centers open/close? Outdoor Education Course Dates: When does the Nature Photography course start (begin)/end (finish)? When does All About Geysers start (begin)/end (finish)? Tour Departure and Return Dates: When does the Wildlife Observation Tour return (end, finish)/depart (start, begin) When does the High-Country Fishing Tour depart (start, begin)/return (end, finish).

    11 F uture Time with Be About To: Yellowstone Vacation (p. 96)

    2. Theyre about to go hiking or camping. 3. The geyser is about to erupt. 4. The fish is about to bite the fly. OR Shes about to catch a fish. 5. Hes about to fall. 6. Theyre about to meet a bear.

    12 Expressing Future Time: Vacation Finales (p. 97)

    3. is including 4. is about to leave 5. miss 6. ll come back 7. ll get up 8. are 9. s raining 10. dont see

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    CHAPTER 6: FUTURE PROGRESSIVE, FUTURE PERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Introductory Task: Predictions About Transportation and Travel in the Future (p. 98)

    A. 3. will be driving

    4. is going to be driving

    5. will have brought

    6. are going to have proven

    B. 1. will be driving, is going to be driving 2. will have brought, are going to have proven 3. The future progressive and the future perfect both use will and be going to. The

    future progressive uses be + verb + -ing. The future perfect uses have + past participle of verb.

    C. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Future Progressive I

    1 Future Progressive with WillForm: The Flight of the Future (p. 100)

    4. will we be flying 10. ll be cruising 5. will the plane be cruising 11. will be coming 6. will be giving 12. Will you be serving 7. ll be taking off 13. we wont (be) 8. ll be climbing 14. wont bring 9. wont be breaking 15. ll be arriving

    2 Future Progressive with Be Going ToForm: The Car of the Future (p. 101) 2. arent going to be doing 9. m going to be steering 3. are going to be using 10. m not going to be controlling 4. are you going to be showing 11. is going to be using 5. m going to be demonstrating 12. is going to be changing 6. re going to be taking 13. are you going to be falling asleep 7. is the car going to be driving 14. Im not (going to) 8. it isnt (going to) 15. m going to be keeping

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Future Progressive II; Future Progressive Versus Future with Will or Be Going To

    3 Future Versus Future Progressive: Coming and Going (p. 104)

    2. b 5. a, b 7. a 3. a 6. b 8. b 4. a

    4 Using Future Progressive: Making Predictions About Transportation of the Future (p. 105)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    5 Future Progressive in Sentences with Time Clauses: Smart Cars (p. 105)

    A. 2. steers, will be monitoring 3. will be responding, keep 4. is, will be keeping 5. will be searching for, gets 6. will be sending, plays 7. Are you going to be driving, are B. Answers will vary. Ch6 Ex 5 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Future Perfect and Future Perfect Progressive I

    6 Future Perfect with Will and Be Going ToForm: The Mars Exploration Program (p. 108)

    A. 3. will have made 7. wont have gotten 4. will have launched 8. will have gained 5. Will NASA have sent 9. ll have seen 6. it will (have) B. 3. are going to have learned 7. it is/its going to (have) 4. re going to have found 8. is it going to have made 5. arent going to have developed/ 9. is going to have had re not going to have developed 10. s not going to have had/

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    6. Is NASA going to have made isnt going to have had

    7 Future Perfect Progressive with Will and Be Going ToForm: Terraforming Mars (p.109)

    A. 2. will have been traveling 6. will have been building 3. will have been searching 7. wont have been sending 4. wont have been taking place 8. will have been learning 5. will have been staying B. 2. isnt going to have been changing 5. re going to have been raising 3. are going to have been occurring 6. is going to have been pumping

    4. are going to have been expanding 7.is going to have been adding GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Future Perfect and Future Perfect Progressive II

    8 Using Future Perfect: Future Accomplishments (p. 113)

    A. 3. What will you have done by a week from today? 4. What are you going to have done by the time this semester ends? 5. What will you have done by a year from now? 6. What are you going to have done by five years from now? 7. What will you have done by 10 years from now? 8. What are you going to have done by the time you are 60 years old? Answers will vary.

    B. Answers will vary.

    9 Future Perfect Progressive in Sentences with Time Clauses: A Future Astronaut (p. 114)

    A. 2. graduates, ll have been studying astrophysics 3. get married, ll have been dating 4. finishes, ll have been working on her research project 5. joins a space shuttle crew, ll have been training

    B. Answers will vary.

    10 Future Perfect Versus Future Perfect Progressive: E-mail from an Astronaut (p. 115)

    3. ll have been 4. ll have eaten 5. re going to have eaten/re going to have been eating 6. ll already have finished 7. re going to have been writing

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    8. will have studied/will have been studying

    CHAPTER 7: PHRASAL VERBS; TAG QUESTIONS

    Introductory Task: Why Do Explorers Take On the Challenges? (p. 116)

    B. 1. b. bring out c. put off

    d. put up e. take on f. take over g. set off h. set up 2. No 3. The meaning of a verb changes when the verb combines with a particle to form a

    phrasal verb. 4. No

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Phrasal Verbs I

    1 Identifying Phrasal Verbs: A Success I (p. 118)

    In the early twentieth century, the earths polar regions seemed almost as far away and

    dangerous as Mars does today. The conditions were difficult, but a few polar explorers

    figured out ways to reach the poles and come back safely. One of these men was Roald

    Amundsen.

    Amundsen was born in Norway in 1872. While he was growing up, he wanted to be a

    polar explorer. He therefore built up his strength in extremely cold and difficult conditions.

    He worked out by skiing long distances. As a result of his training, he got along well in very

    cold climates. Amundsens strength and adaptability paid off later on. He understood the risks

    of polar expeditions, especially freezing, hunger, and exhaustion. So before an expedition, he

    always prepared carefully.

    In 1910, Amundsen decided to try to be the first to reach the South Pole. He planned an

    expedition and set off with a small crew. Then he found something out: a British expedition

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    led by Robert Falcon Scott was also trying to reach the South Pole. Amundsen and Scott were

    in a race. How did this race turn out?

    2 Phrasal Verbs: A Success II (p. 119)

    2. set up 5. set back 7. headed back 3. let up 6. keep up 8. gotten through 4. pushed on

    3 Phrasal Verbs; Placement of Noun and Pronoun Objects: A Successful Failure (p. 120)

    3. broke up the ship 7. drove him back 4. thought over their situation 8. picked up the men 5. pulled them along 9. brought them back 6. left them behind 10. brought back another exciting story

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Phrasal Verbs II

    4 Phrasal VerbsMeaning: Check This Out (p. 123)

    A. 2. brought up 4. brought in 3. bring out 5. brought down

    B. 2. b 3. e 4. b 5. c

    5 Particle Versus Preposition: Look This Over (p. 124)

    2. b Everyone in the group needed a map, so Paula ran some photocopies off. 3. b. Ethan checked his luggage in when he got to the airport. 4. a. When Mark and Terry talked long distance for hours, they ran a huge bill up. 5. a. The committee passed two other people over and chose Tim for the job. 6. b. As soon as I looked the exam over, I saw that it wasnt difficult.

    6 Using Phrasal Verbs: Turn This In (p. 124) Answers will vary. Ch7 Ex 6 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: VerbPreposition Combinations; Phrasal Verbs with Prepositions

    7 VerbPreposition Combinations: Preparing for the Unexpected (p. 126)

    A. 2. planned for 6. prepared for 3. relied on 7. believed in 4. talked to 8. worry about 5. concentrated on 9. prevented from 10. agreed with B. Answers will vary.

    Ch7 Ex 7 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    8 VerbPreposition Combinations Versus Phrasal Verbs: Do You Know About the Antarctic Region? (p. 127)

    3. ve looked at them 6. ve thought about them 4. learn from them 7. ve thought it over 5. ll try it out

    9 Phrasal Verbs with Prepositions: Running Up Against Difficulties (p. 128)

    2. started out for 5. closed in on 8. ran out of 3. stand up to 6. kept on at 9. cut down on 4. caught up with 7. faced up to 10. gave up on

    10 Using VerbPreposition Combinations and Phrasal Verbs with Prepositions: Your Expedition Diary (p. 129)

    Answers will vary. Ch7 Ex 10 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Tag Questions I

    11 Tag QuestionsForm: Test AnxietyIll Be Ready, Wont I? (p. 132) A.

    2. Ms. Moore doesnt give difficult tests, does she? 3. The first test is going to cover Columbuss voyages to America, isnt it? 4. Christopher Columbus wasnt from Portugal, was he? 5. The other students already know a lot about the topic, dont they? 6. You werent absent from class, were you?

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    7. Kim and Oliver hadnt studied before this week, had they? 8. We can study together, cant we?

    B. 1. were they 2. isnt there 3. wont they 4. wasnt she

    5. couldnt it 6. doesnt it 7. isnt it 8. is it

    9. wont we 10. arent I 11. have I 12. are they

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 5: Tag Questions II

    12 Listening to Tag Questions; Answering Tag Questions: Christopher Columbus (p. 134)

    A. 2. information 6. information 10. information 3. information 7. conformation 11. conformation 4. conformation 8. conformation 5. conformation 9. information B. 2. No, they werent. 6. Yes, he did. 10. No, it wasnt. 3. No, he wasnt. 7. Yes, he did. 11. Yes, they did. 4. No, they didnt. 8. No, he didnt. 5. Yes, he did. 9. No, he didnt.

    13 Asking and Answering Tag Questions: Test Anxiety Again (p. 135) A.

    3. Yes, it is. 6. No, I wasnt. 4. No, he wasnt. 7. No, they hadnt. 5. Yes, they do. 8. Yes, we can.

    B. 1. No, they werent. 2. Yes, there is. 3. Yes, they will. 4. Yes, she was.

    5. Yes, it could. 6. Yes, it does. 7. Yes, it is. 8. No, it isnt.

    9. Yes, we will. 10. Yes, you are. 11. No, you havent. 12. No, they arent.

    14 Using Tag Questions: Youre From Spain, Arent You? (p. 135) A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

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    Unit Three Wrap-up Activities

    1 Radio Talk TimeEDITING (p. 136)

    Host: This is Radio Talk Time. If you have an interesting opinion, call up me and tell me.

    Caller: What do you think about NASAs space program? Ive thought it about. Its all a lie.

    Nothing is real, isnt it?

    Host: Youre joking, dont you?

    Caller: No, Im serious. NASA says that its going to send a spacecraft to Mars next

    October. But they dont really send it to Mars in October. Well believe that its on

    Mars, but theyll be fooling us.

    Host: How theyll do that? After the spacecraft reaches Mars, its cameras will take photos

    and send back them to Earth. Well see those photos of Mars.

    Caller: Its going to be seeming to us that a spacecraft is on Mars. Antarctica looks a lot like

    Mars, isnt it? By the time theyll launch the fake spacecraft next October, theyll

    have sent people to Antarctica with video cameras and a fake lander. After they set

    the cameras up there, theyll be able to send back pictures of the lander. While were

    going to be watching the videos on television, were going to be looking at

    Antarctica, not Mars. But we wont be knowing that, will we?

    Host: Im sorry, sir. Weve run out of time. Its time for the weather forecast. Its snowing

    tomorrow.

    Caller: Wait! Dont hang up on me! Im right, arent I?

    2 Your Island VacationSPEAKING/WRITING (p. 137) Answers will vary.

    1. me up

    2. about it

    3. is it

    4. arent you

    5. wont

    6. will they

    7. send them back

    8. seem

    9. doesnt 10. they

    11. were

    12. know

    13. Its going to snow / It will snow

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    3 Your Outdoor VacationSPEAKING (p. 138) Answers will vary.

    Unit 3 Ex 2 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    4 Game: Ask the OracleSPEAKING (p. 138) Answers will vary.

    5 Acting Out the VerbsWRITING/SPEAKING (p. 138) Answers will vary.

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    UNIT FOUR Noun Phrases

    Think About Grammar (p. 141) 1. Internet, United States 2. people, cookbooks, chefs, celebrities, diets, food, pizza 3. many, some, quite a few 4. our 5. big, professional, delicious, hot, cheese

    CHAPTER 8: NOUNS, ARTICLES, AND QUANTIFIERS

    Introductory Task: Survey on the Cooking and Eating Habits of Your Class (p. 142)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Nouns; Proper Nouns and Common Nouns

    1 Identifying Proper and Common Nouns: Into the Melting Pot (p. 145)

    Celebrating with Food

    When are you planning to be in the united states? If you are here in the fall, you might be

    T

    here at the right time to have a special meal on thanksgiving. This national holiday is on the

    T N C

    fourth thursday in november. In big cities, restaurants stay open and offer meals. In chicago,

    O L R W H H L

    the oak leaf restaurant at the westlake hotel is a good place to go. The chef there is henry lee.

    M L V F E A

    Although mr. lee is vietnamese, he speaks both french and english, and americans love his

    food, especially the turkey. If you are in a small town, maybe you can cook the special dinner.

    N Y T T

    Look for recipes in newspapers like the new york times. Or try a cookbook like the

    u s

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    T T D M

    thanksgiving table by diane morgan. Wherever you are, have a happy celebration!

    2 Article Use with Proper Nouns: Regional Specialties I (p. 146)

    1. When English colonists sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to North America on the Mayflower, they landed in New England, an area thats known for its maple syrup, blueberries, lobster, and clams.

    2. New Orleans, a city in Louisiana, where the Mississippi River flows into the Gulf of Mexico, has its own typical style of cooking, which shows influences from France and Africa.

    3. After they settled in the Midwest, immigrants from Germany, Sweden, Norway, and the Netherlands continued to prepare the traditional foods of their native countries.

    4. Cattle are raised on ranches in the Rocky Mountains, so visitors often have steaks when theyre staying at the Brown Palace Hotel in Denver, the capital of Colorado.

    5. The food of the West Coast, like that of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific, has been influenced by Asia.

    3 Articles and Numbers with Proper Nouns: Regional Specialties II (p. 146)

    2. a 5. NA 3. the 6. two 4. NA

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Count Nouns and Noncount Nouns

    4 Identifying Count and Non-count Nouns: Food for Sightseeing (p. 149)

    Will you be traveling through the United States in the warm months? If so, we have some advice for you: have picnics often, especially when the weather is good. Youll be able to avoid crowded restaurants, save money, and have a lot of fun, too. You dont have to do any cookingjust stop at a supermarket and pick up some food to take with you. You can get bread and cheese for sandwiches. Get some fruit, too, and fresh vegetables such as carrots or celery. Youll want to have a drink, so dont forget to buy bottled water or juice. Then put your purchases into your backpack and take off. When you find the perfect place, enjoy the beautiful scenery and your meal!

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    5 Count Nouns Versus Noncount Nouns; Plural Count Nouns: A Good Career Choice (p. 150)

    3. advice 7. training 12. machinery 4. suggestions 8. women 13. machines 5. experience 9. progress 14. feet 6. jobs 10. work 15. celebrities 11. knives

    6 Singular and Plural Count Nouns; SubjectVerb Agreement: Culinary Education (p. 151)

    2. chooses 6. analyses 3. is 7. is 4. Bacteria 8. groceries 5. are 9. deer, sheep

    7 Nouns Used as Count and Noncount Nouns: Good Food and Good Fortune (p. 151) A. 2. foods 6. a business 11. life 3. tea 7. a cake 12. lives 4. teas 8. cake 13. beauty 5. business 9. experiences 14. a beauty 10. experience B. Answers will vary.

    Ch8 Ex 7 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Articles

    8 Definite and Indefinite Articles: The Eating Patterns of a North American Family (p. 156) 2. the, b 5. the, b 8. the, b 3. the, b 6. [0], a 4. a, a 7. a, b

    9 The Definite Article: The Story of Their Lives (p. 157) 2. b 3. d 4. a 5. b

    6. e 7. a 8. e 9. a

    10. c 11. e 12. c 13. 3

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    10 Definite and Indefinite Articles: Food Here and There (p. 158)

    A. I. 5. the 8. [0] 11. [0] 14. the 6. The 9. the 12. [0] 15. the 7. a 10. The 13. a II. 1. a 4. an 7. the 10. the 13. the 2. [0] 5. [0] 8. a 11. the 14. the 3. a 6. [0] 9. an 12. [0] III. 1. the 5. a 9. a/the 13. an 2. [0] 6. the 10. a 14. [0] 3. the 7. the 11. the 4. a 8. the 12. the

    11 The, A, Some, [0]: Old and New Recipes (p. 160)

    A. 2. some 6. a 10. some 3. some 7. some 11. a 4. The 8. the 12. the 5. the 9. some B. 2. a. [0] 3. a. some/ [0] 4. a. some/[0] b. some/[0] b. [0] b. [0] C. Answers will vary.

    12 Using The, A, Some, [0]: Two Memorable Meals (p. 161) Answers will vary.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: General Quantifiers

    13 General Quantifiers: A Big Trend (p. 164)

    A. 2. Not many 7. much 11. a great deal of 3. quite a few 8. a little 12. Several 4. a lot of 9. hardly any 13. few 5. most 10. a large number of 14. plenty of 6. Each B. Answers will vary.

    14 General Quantifiers: Market Research I (p. 165)

    3. some 11. much 4. much/a lot of 12. none 5. lots of 13. many/some 6. any 14. any 7. plenty of/quite a few 15. some 8. a lot of 16. much/a lot of 9. many 17. much/a lot 10.enough

    15 Few, A Few; Little, A Little: Shopping Behavior (p. 166)

    3. little 7. a few 11. Few 4. Few 8. a few 12. a few 5. little 9. a little 6. a little 10. little

    16 Quantifiers With and Without Of: Focus Groups (p. 167)

    3. of 7. 0 4. 0 8. of 5. of 9. 0 6. of 10. of

    17 Using Quantifiers: Market Research II (p. 167)

    Answers will vary. Ch8 Ex 17 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

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    CHAPTER 9: MODIFIERS, PRONOUNS, AND POSSESSIVES

    Introductory Task: Whats Your Reaction? (p. 168)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    Grammar Practice 1: Modifiers

    1 Identifying Modifiers: Another Look (p. 171)

    1. Broccoli is an unpleasant vegetable. It has a very strong, bitter flavor. 2. Chocolate is my favorite candy. I cant resist eating lots of rich, wonderful chocolate. Chocolate isnt an exciting food. I dont eat much chocolate. 3. I love to eat lobsters. I really enjoy their delicious, juicy white meat. I refuse to eat lobsters. I have no desire to put a frightened lobster into boiling water . 4. Snails make a wonderful meal. I like them cooked with melted butter and fresh garlic. I would never eat snails. Theyre slimy, disgusting animals.

    2 -Ing and -ed Adjectives: Food and Feelings (p. 171)

    A. 2. satisfied 5. relaxing 8. boring 3. comforting 6. relaxed 9. tempting 4. comforted 7. bored 10. tempted B. Answers will vary.

    3 Noun Modifiers: Food Safety (p. 173)

    2. vegetable soup 5. microwave oven 8. safety advice 3. refrigerator door 6. fire extinguisher 4. plastic bags 7. food processor

    4 Compound Modifiers: Long-Lasting Memories (p. 173)

    2. two-month 5. well-cooked 7. time-consuming 3. wood-burning 6. thirty-pound 8. sweet-smelling 4. home-baked

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    5 Order of Modifiers: What Are Your Cravings? (p. 174) A. 2. boring little 7. large blue plastic

    3. very big round 8. tasty red chili 4. delicious mushroom 9. rectangular, yellow cardboard 5. charming, old Italian 10. beautiful young Native American 6. very crunchy corn B. Answers will vary.

    6 Using Modifiers: Memories of the Past (p. 175) Answers will vary. Ch9 Ex 6 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    Grammar Practice 2: Reflexive Pronouns; Reciprocal Pronouns; Other

    7 Reflexive and Reciprocal PronounsMeaning: Seeing Differences (p. 177)

    2. In (a), themselves refers to Lucy and Trevor. Lucy and Trevor ordered dinner for Lucy and Trevor. In (b), each other refers to the other person. Lucy ordered dinner for Trevor, and Trevor ordered dinner for Lucy.

    3. In (a), them refers to other people. Monica and Howard were writing letters to some other people. In (b), each other refers to the other person. Monica was writing to Howard, and Howard was writing to Monica.

    4. In (a), her refers to another woman. Eva was talking to another woman. In (b), herself refers to Eva. Eva was talking to Eva.

    5. In (a), herself refers to Dora. Dora served Dora dinner. In (b), herself emphasizes Dora. Dora, not someone else, served dinner.

    6. In (a), myself emphasizes I. I, not someone else, have gone to Paris. In (b), by myself means alone. Ive gone to Paris alone.

    7. In (a), himself emphasizes the President. I talked to the President, not someone else. In (b), myself emphasizes I. I, not someone else, talked to the President.

    8 Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns: Movable Feasts (p. 177)

    1. ourselves 4. each other 2. himself, me 5. one another 3. them, themselves 6. by myself, myself

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    9 Forms of Other: Sharing (p. 178)

    2. the other 5. others, the other, the others 3. others, the others 6. Another, another 4. another, others

    Grammar Practice 3: Indefinite Pronouns

    10 Indefinite Pronouns: Something for Everyone (p. 181) 2. Nothing 3. someone / somebody 4. anyone / anybody 5. anything 6. anyone / anybody 7. something, Anything 8. everything 9. Anyone / Anybody or Everyone/Everybody 10. anything, nothing, Everything 11. Someone, anyone/someone, nobody/no one 12. Everyone

    Grammar Practice 4: Possessives

    11 PossessivesForm and Uses: Biology + Engineering = Bioengineering (p. 183)

    2. of the table (c) 6. four years (b) 3. ten thousand dollars (b) 7. their (a) 4. of the United States (d) 8. researchers (a) 5. of a grocery store (c)

    12 Forming Possessive Determiners, Possessive Pronouns, and Possessive Nouns: Technology and Food I (p. 184)

    2. directors companys, companies 3. bosss (boss), hers, Ms. Tanakas, Ms. Harriss (Harris) persons, peoples, our 4. scientists, their, scientists, its 5. theirs, her, his 6. Your, mine , yours , Ours, its

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    13 Possessive Nouns Versus Possessive Phrases: Food and Technology II (p. 185)

    3. top of the stairs 4. peoples health 5. director of a well-known biotechnology laboratory 6. farmers crops 7. the microscope of another scientist in the laboratory 8. cause of the problem 9. Dr. Frankensteins monster

    Unit Four Wrap-up Activities

    1 A Restaurant ReviewEDITING (p. 186)

    Last week, I had dinner at Magnificent Food, a newest restaurant in town. I invited the

    friend to come with me. The owner of Magnificent Food is the famous chef. His name is

    Charles whitney. My friend and I were looking forward to eating delicious specialties

    prepared by Mr. Whitney hisself.

    When we arrived at the restaurant, we had to wait, so we sat down and began to look at

    the four-pages menu. When our table was finally ready, we asked the waiter for some advice

    about what to order. Although he didnt seem to have a lot of knowledges about the menu, he

    made any suggestions. We ordered two appetizers; one was smoked fish and another was

    mushroom soup. The smoked fish looked beautiful, but its flavor was strange. A vegetable

    soup had too many salt in it. The other people in the restaurant got their main courses right

    away, but we had a long wait for our because of a problem in the kitchen. When our plates

    finally came, there was plenty food on them. I had ordered a regional specialty from South. It

    shouldnt have been a bored dish, but it wasevery of the bites was tasteless. My friends

    steak looked very appetizing, but everything on her plate was cold. We decided to go to an

    excellent small European caf across the street for coffee and dessert.

    New restaurants often have few problems, so I wasnt expecting Magnificent Food to be

    perfect. But I wasnt expecting to be such a disappointing customer. I hope that this restaurant

    improves and becomes truly magnificent.

    1. the 2. a

    3. a

    4. Whitney

    5. himself

    6. four-page

    7. knowledge

    8. some 9. the other

    10. its 11. The

    12. much

    13. ours

    14. plenty of 15. the South

    16. boring 18. friends 17. every bite / every one of the bites

    20. a few

    21. disappointed

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    2 A Very Special Dinner PartyWhos Invited? SPEAKING/WRITING (p. 187) Answers will vary.

    Unit 4 Ex 3 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    3 Review a Restaurant: WRITING (p. 187) Answers will vary.

    4 Create a Culture: SPEAKING (p. 188)

    Answers will vary.

    UNIT FIVE: Adjective Clauses

    Think About Grammar (p. 191)

    1.

    A: Hello, everyone. Im Lorrie Kress, and this is Alive in Our Times. My guest today is a

    psychologist who does research on personality. Hes someone whom I admire very

    much. Id like to welcome a man whose ideas are always interesting, Professor Bruno

    Schiller.

    B: Thank you, Lorrie.

    A: Professor Schiller, personality is something that many of us want to know more about.

    Can you tell us how we get our personalities?

    B: Well, Lorrie, psychologists have developed many theories about this. Basically, there are

    two factors which work together in childhood to form peoples personalities. The first

    is biology. Biology is responsible for the characteristics that you are born with. And the

    second is environment. Your environment includes your surroundings, your family and

    friends, and your experiences.

    A: My sisters and I had the same parents and the same environment as children, but we have

    really different personalities now. Do you know why?

    B: Actually, there is a theory which might explain the differences among children in the

    same family. According to this theory, your personality differences are a result of your

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    birth order, in other words, your position as the oldest, a middle, or the youngest child in

    your family. A firstborn child experiences things differently than a laterborn child does.

    Only children, that is children who have no brothers or sisters, are in many ways

    similar to firstborn children.

    A: So, Professor Schiller, what are some characteristics that birth order might be

    responsible for?

    B: Well, birth order might determine whether you are creative or practical. It could also

    determine whether you are the kind of person that usually follows rules or the kind of

    person that sometimes breaks the rules.

    A: Can you guess my birth order?

    B: Perhaps. Let me give you a test whose results could tell me about your personality.

    2. whom, that, which, whose 3. a. whom, that, whose b. which, that, whose

    CHAPTER 10: ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

    Introductory Task: The Birth-Order Theory of Personality DevelopmentA Test (p. 192)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    C. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Adjective Clauses

    1 Identifying Adjective Clauses: Psychologists and Mothers (p. 195)

    Are you a person who is shy? Or are you a person who is outgoing? And why are you shy

    or outgoing? Are these characteristics which you had at birth? Or are they characteristics

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    which came from your life experiences? These are questions that psychologists have been

    trying to answer for a long time. According to modern psychologists, a combination of

    biological factors and experience shaped your personality. This is something that mothers

    know, too. Each child that a mother has seems different from the others even as an newborn.

    And as her children grow, the mother can see differences in their experiences. She can see

    how the experiences that her children have help to shape their personalities. Sometimes the

    theories that psychologists develop express what mothers have always known!

    2 Adjective Clauses: Same Family, Different Personalities (p. 195) From left to right: Alan, adventurour; Jack, outgoing; Mary, shy; Barbara, practical; Joan,

    creative; Dennis, timid.

    3 Position of Adjective Clauses: Telling More (p. 196) 2. The aunt who likes to paint lives in New Mexico now. 3. Ive had some great vacations with the uncle whos a mountain climber. 4. My aunts and uncles have telephone conversations that last for hours. 5. The bird-watching book which my uncle wrote is very popular. 6. My aunt is someone whom you would really like. 7. My outgoing uncle has become a talk show host, so now he has a job thats perfect for

    his personality. 8. People that know my mother and her brothers and sisters often comment on the

    differences in their personalities and interests.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Adjective Clauses with Subject Relative Pronouns

    4 Adjective Clauses with Subject Relative Pronouns; Combining Sentences: Relationships and Personalities I (p. 197)

    1. b. The little girls who/that are outgoing are very talkative.

    c. The little girl who/that is shy takes longer to make new friends.

    d. Have you met the people who/that live next door?

    2. a. I talked to a person who/that knows my sisters.

    b. Sleeping until noon is an activity that/which appeals to my lazy sister.

    c. An activity that/which appeals to my energetic sister is going running at 6 AM.

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    3. a. Elviras two brothers who/that are interested in Africa have very different personalities.

    b. The timid brother collects stamps that/which come from countries in Africa.

    c. The adventurous brother wrestles with crocodiles that/which live in rivers in

    Africa.

    5 Forming Adjective Clauses with Subject Relative Pronouns: Defining Terms (p. 198)

    2. Psychologists are scientists who study peoples thoughts, feelings, and behavior. 3. A researcher is a person who makes a careful study of a certain subject or problem. 4. Theories are statements which try to explain situations or events. 5. Traits are characteristics which are part of your personality. 6. A first born is someone who is the oldest in a family. 7. Laterborns are children who are born second, third, and so on in a family. 8. A factor is something which helps cause a certain result.

    6 Using Someone + Who: Who Does It Better? (p. 199) Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Adjective Clauses with Subject Relative Pronouns

    7 Adjective Clauses with Object Relative Pronouns; Combining Sentences: Relationships and Personalities II (p. 201)

    1.b. The pickle ice cream which/that/[0] she made was delicious. 2.a. The story which/that/[0] I heard was true. b. I heard the story from a person who/whom/that/[0] I trust. 3.a. Arthur isnt shy when hes around people who/whom/that/[0] he knows well. b. The discussion which/that/[0] Arthur and I had was very serious. 4.a. The most fun-loving person who/whom/that/[0] I know is Tony. b. The jokes which/that/[0] he tells are really funny. 5.a. The man who/whom/that/[0] Tiffany plans to marry is generous. b. Tiffanys boyfriend gave her a kitten which/that/[0] she loves.

    8 Object Relative Pronouns; Combining Sentences: Tell Me About It (p. 202) 2. We have a teacher who/whom/that/[0] everyone admires. 3. The students who/whom/that/[0] she teaches work very hard. 4. The topic which/that/[0] were discussing is personality. 5. Have you passed all the tests which/that/[0] the teacher has given?

    9 Subject and Object Relative Pronouns: Birth Order and Personality (p. 202) 2. which/that/[0] 7. which/that 12. who/whom/that/[0] 3. which/that/[0] 8. who/whom/that/[0] 13. who/whom/that/[0] 4. who/ that 9. who/that 14. which/that

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    5. which/that/[0] 10. who/that 6. who/that 11. who/that

    10 Subject and Object Relative Pronouns; Combining Sentences: Another Theory (p. 203) 2. I talked to a scientist who /that is a friend of mine about it. 3. My friend disagrees with the theory in the book which/that/[0] I read. 4. Other researchers who/whom/that/[0] my friend respects have developed a more

    scientific theory. 5. According to this theory, some personality characteristics have a source which/that is

    biological. 6. Chemicals which/that are in our brains and bodies can influence our personalities. 7. These chemicals can affect our response to events which/that/[0] we experience. 8. What do you think of the theory which/that/[0] my scientific friend believes?

    11 Completing Sentences with Adjective Clauses: An Alien Invasion? (p. 204) Answers will vary.

    12 Using Adjective Clauses: Describing Personalities (p. 205) Ch10 Ex 12 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    CHAPTER 11: MORE ABOUT ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

    Introductory Task: Do You Agree or Disagree (p. 206) A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Adjective Clauses with Relative Pronouns That Are Objects of Prepositions

    1 Adjective Clauses with Relative Pronouns That Are Objects of Prepositions; Combining Sentences: Finding the Right Job I (p. 208)

    2. The counselor to whom we listened discussed careers. The counselor whom we listened to discussed careers. The counselor who we listened to discussed careers. The counselor that we listened to discussed careers. The counselor [0] we listened to discussed careers.

    3. I learned about some jobs for which I am suited. I learned about some jobs which I am suited for. I learned about some jobs that I am suited for. I learned about some jobs [0] I am suited for.

    2 Informal and Formal Versions of Adjective Clauses with Relative Pronouns that are Objects of Prepositions: Writing About Jobs (p. 208)

    2. We want to finds jobs in which we will succeed. 3. She is helpful to the students with whom she works. 4. The project on which they are working will be finished soon. 5. The position for which he is applying is in the sales department. 6. I am grateful to the person from whom I got the information.

    3 Relative Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions: Your Preferences and Your Personality (p. 209)

    2. whom 5. whom/who/that/[0] 8. which/that/[0] 3. which/that/[0] 6. whom 9. whom/who/that/[0] 4. which 7. whom 10. which 11. which/that/[0]

    4 Adjective Clauses with Relative Pronouns That Are Objects of Prepositions: What Are Your Interests? (p. 210)

    A. 2. The work which Im most interested in is 3. The free-time activities Im involved in are 4. The school subject that Ive excelled in is 5. The person to whom Im most grateful is 6. The world problem about which Im most concerned is

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    B1. 1. What kind of music do you like to listen to?

    2. Which sports are you interested in? 3. What kind of people do you like to work with? 4. What kind of job are you best suited for?

    B2. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Adjective Clauses with Possessive Relative Pronouns

    5 Adjective Clauses with Possessive Relative Pronouns; Combining Sentences: Finding the Right Job II (p. 212)

    A. 2. She talked about people whose personalities are well suited for the work they do. 3. People whose work gives them a lot of satisfaction are usually happy.

    4. There are several authors whose books we may read. 5. I found out about some job counselors whose specialty is personality testing. 6. The teachers whose courses weve taken have all been helpful. 7. The counselor whose office I went to gave me a personality test. 8. I am an outgoing person whose personality is practical. 9. The counselor recommended a book whose title is What Color Is Your Parachute? 10. Now Im planning to visit the departments whose programs Im interested in. 11. There are organizations whose websites have online personality tests and career

    guidance. B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Adjective Clauses with Where and When

    6 Adjective Clauses with Where; Combining Sentences: Memories of Places (p. 214) A. 2. Thats the house where my family lived.

    3. The bedroom where I slept was painted blue. 4. The garden where I played was behind the house. 5. Thats the hospital where my father worked. 6. This is the school where I first studied English.

    B. 2. The lake in which we swam was very cold. The lake which we swam in was very cold.

    The lake that we swam in was very cold. The lake we swam in was very cold.

    3. Do you remember the place in which we met? Do you remember the place which we met in? Do you remember the place that we met in? Do you remember the place we met in?

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    7 Adjective Clauses with When; Combining Sentences: Memories of Times (p. 215) A. 2. I remember the day when we moved into the house.

    3. There was a month when it rained constantly. 4. That was the year when I started school. 5. The week when we went to the mountains was exciting. 6. There was one summer when the weather was unusually hot.

    B. 2. That was the year when we started school.

    That was the year in which we started school. That was the year which we started school. That was the year that we started school. That was the year we started school.

    3. Do you remember the day when we met?

    Do you remember the day on which we met? Do you remember the day which we met on? Do you remember the day that we met? Do you remember the day we met?

    8 Using Adjective Clauses with Where and When: Describing Places and Remembering Times (p. 216)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    9 Relative Pronouns, Where, and When: A Childhood Experience I (p. 216)2. whose 3. which/that 4. when/[0]/that 5. where

    6. which/that/[0] 7. which/that/[0] 8. who/that 9. that/which/[0]

    10. who/that 11. whose 12. when/that/[0]

    10 Using Adjective Clauses: A Childhood Experience II (p. 217) Answers will vary.

    Ch11 Ex 10 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    Unit Five Wrap-up Activities

    1 Another Theory: EDITING (p. 218)

    There are people which think your blood type reveals your personality? These people

    believe in the blood type theory of personality.

    According to people who believes in the blood type theory, you can use your blood type

    to discover your natural talents and tendencies: Blood type is something what can help you

    find the right job or the right boyfriend or girlfriend.

    The blood type that is most common is Type O. What are the characteristics that a Type

    O person has them? According to a book which explains the theory, people are optimistic that

    have Type O blood. Business is a field in that they are successful.

    A person who his blood type is A usually has a good sense of order. He keeps the place

    where he lives in very neat. A Type A is also a person that tends to be patient, hard working,

    and sensitive.

    People whom have Type B blood are the most likely to be creative. They are people

    whos nature is to be flexible and full of new ideas. Some jobs that Type B people are suited

    for are artist, designer, and golfer.

    Type AB is the rarest blood type. It was the blood type of John F. Kennedy. Kennedy was

    a man whom many Americans admired. The book describes Type AB people as natural

    leaders with characteristics that includes logical thinking and honesty.

    2 The Category Game: SPEAKING (p. 219) Answers will vary.

    3 Making Up Definitions: WRITING (p. 219) Answers will vary.

    4 What Are Your Preferences? WRITING (p. 220) Answers will vary.

    1. who

    2. believe

    5. that have Type O blood are optimistic

    3. that / which

    4. has

    6. which

    7. whose

    8. where he lives / which he lives in

    11. include

    10. whose

    9. who have / having

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    UNIT SIX: Gerunds and Infinitives

    Think About Grammar (p. 223)

    A. A Popular Export? The United Statess biggest export is its popular culture. Popular culture includes forms of entertainment that appeal to large numbers of peoplefor example, television programs, movies, and popular music. These American entertainment products are extremely popular internationally, but they also cause controversy. Here are some opinions from people in various countries: A: I like to listen to American music because there are so many different styles. Listening to it gives me the opportunity to experience the cultural diversity of the United States. Im studying English in order to understand the songs better. B: We need to protect our language and culture. We can do this by not showing so many American television programs and movies. Our goal is to preserve our cultural traditions. C: I dislike having so much American entertainment in this country and throughout the world. Its the same everywhere, so its causing cultural differences among countries to disappear. Its important for the world not to lose cultural diversity. D: I like watching Hollywood movies. The movie-makers are good at telling enjoyable stories that appeal to lots of different people. American movies have been popular internationally since the 1920s. I dont think weve lost our cultural identity as a result of watching them. E: My everyday life is pretty boring. To escape is a pleasure for me. So my favorite free-time activity is watching action-adventure movies. I can dream of being a hero.

    F: Its easy to blame American television programs and movies for bringing violence to this country. But the United States isnt the only source of the violent images we see.

    B. 2. both gerunds and infinitives 4. gerunds 3. infinitives 5. infinitives

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    CHAPTER 12: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

    Introductory Task: A Good Decision? (p. 224)

    A. 2. watching

    3. to do 4. doing 5. to study 6. to watch 7. studying 8. watching 9. watching 10. to study

    C. Verbs that are followed by an infinitive: need, plan, refuse, decided Verbs that are followed by a gerund: enjoy, finished, keep, recommends, suggest

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Gerunds

    1 Identifying Gerund and Present Participles: Culture Shock? (p. 227)

    Im an American student, and Im taking my first trip outside the United States. Before I

    started traveling, Id been looking forward to experiencing a completely different culture. But

    not all the experiences that Im having are new and different. For example, at the moment,

    Im listening to the radio. Willie Nelson is singing, On the road again . . . The life I love is

    making music with my friends. I dont mind listening to country-and-western music at home,

    but hearing it in this country seems very strange. Watching television here is a surprise, too

    many of the programs come from the United States. Im experiencing a weird kind of culture

    shock!

    2 Gerunds as Subjects and Subject Complements: Thinking About Entertainment (p. 228) Answers will vary.

    PP

    G G

    G G

    G

    PP

    PP

    PP

    G

    PPPP

    PP

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    3 Gerunds as Objects of Verbs: Matching Up (p. 228)

    A. 2. studying 3. living

    4. watching

    5. seeing 6. listening 7. not pairing

    B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary. Ch12 Ex 3B The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    4 Gerunds as Objects of Prepositions: The Roots of Rock and Roll (p. 229)

    2. for moving 5. in attracting 8. at expressing 3. about seeing 6. in playing 9. of losing 4. about watching 7. to hearing 10. of hurting

    5 By + Gerund: Entertainment Challenges (p. 230)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    6 Gerunds with Go and in Other Expressions: Popular Culture in Two Generations (p. 230)

    3. sits around listening to 8. its no use explaining 4. wastes his money buying 9. have a good time listening 5. spends too much time going 10. go dancing 6. be busy doing 11. cant help liking 7. have problems understanding

    7 Using Gerunds: The Music That We Keep Listening To (p. 231)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Infinitives I

    8 Infinitive as Subject; It + Infinitive : Is It Your Dream to Be a Rock Star? (p. 233)

    2. To become a successful rock musician takes hard work and creativity. It takes hard work and creativity to become a successful rock musician.

    3. To develop a unique style is necessary. It is necessary to develop a unique style.

    4. To be able to compose music is essential. It is essential to be able to compose music.

    5. To write expressive song lyrics is important. It is important to write expressive song lyrics.

    6. To create artistic videos is a great challenge. It is a great challenge to create artistic videos.

    9 Verb + Infinitive Patterns: Our Band (p. 233)

    1. d. [0] 3. a. [0] 4. a. [0] 2. a. her b. her b. her / [0] b. her / [0] c. her / [0] c. her c. [0] d. her / [0] d. her / [0] d. her

    10 Verb + Infinitive Patterns: An Interview on the Music Channel (p. 234)

    3. to thank 8. not to do 4. to know 9. to develop 5. me to play 10. to go 6. to write 11. not to perform 7. me to continue 12. you to know

    11 Using Verbs with Infinitives: I Want (You) to Tell Whats Going On (p. 235)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Infinitives II

    12 Adjectives + Infinitives: Soap Opera Scenes (p. 237) Answers may vary. Examples are given. 1. to hear 3. to go, to leave 2. to find, to tell 4. to be, to talk

    13 Infinitive of Purpose: Why Did They Do It? (p. 238)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    14 Infinitives with Too and Enough: Changing Channels (p. 238) The Sport Show Police Drama

    2. too weak to win 1. too upset to talk about 3. enough strength to play 2. too late to catch 4. talented enough to be 3. enough money to live on 5. too soon to know 4. smart enough to figure out 6. soon enough to help

    15 Infinitives as Noun Modifiers: The Value of Television (p. 239)

    Answers will vary.

    16 Using Infinitives; Infinitives Shortened to To: Your Own Talk Show (p. 239)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    CHAPTER 13: MORE ABOUT GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

    Introductory Task: A Crime Movie (p. 240)

    A. 2. A burglar alarm was connected to the floor of the museum, so they decided to

    enter from the roof.

    3. A witness ran to the police station and reported seeing someone on the roof.

    1 2

    1 2

    1 1

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    4. The thieves kept lifting jewels out of the building.

    5. They wanted to finish the job.

    6. They intended to sell the jewels to a man in Amsterdam.

    7. The police caught them several days later, but they denied stealing anything.

    8. While they were in jail, the thieves got into an argument, and finally, one of them admitted stealing the jewels.

    B. 1. infinitive 2. gerund

    1 2

    1 2

    1 2

    1 2

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Verbs + Gerunds and Infinitives

    1 Verbs That Take Only Gerunds or Only Infinitives: A Film Festival (p. 243)

    A. 3. studying 6. to see 9. having 4. to go 7. to like 10. to attend 5. watching 8. living B. Answers will vary.

    2 Using Verbs That Take Gerunds and Infinitives: Whats Your Opinion? (p. 245) A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    3 Verbs That Take Gerunds and Noun Phrase + Infinitives: Entertainment and More (p. 245)

    A. 2. going 5. to rent 3. to watch 6. to see 4. understanding

    B. 1. Answers will vary. 2. Answers will vary.

    4 Remember, Forget, Stop and Try: Slapstick Comedy (p. 246)

    A. 2. no 5. no 8. yes 3. yes 6. no 9. no 4. yes 7. yes

    5 Remember, Forget, Stop and Try: The Hughes Brothers (p. 247)

    3. to do 7. planning 11. to help 4. seeing 8. shaking 5. looking 9. to hand 6. to buy 10. going

    6 Using Gerunds and Infinitives: Your Movie Script (p. 248)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    Ch13 Ex 6A The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Performers of the Actions of Gerunds and Infinitives

    7 Performers of Gerunds: Indianas Adventures (p. 250)

    A. 3. Indiana was upset about Marions/her disappearing in Cairo. 4. Indiana was happy about finding her in a tent where she had been tied up. 5. She resented his not untying her. 6. Indiana hated dropping into a pit full of poisonous snakes. 7. Marion was terrified by the villains/their pushing her into the pit, too. 8. Indianas finding the lost ark made the villains /them very angry. 9. Their/the villains capturing Marion infuriated Indiana. 10. Indiana saved Marions life by telling her not to look at the evil spirits coming from

    the ark. B. 3. Indiana was upset about Marion/her disappearing in Cairo. 4. Indiana was happy about finding her in a tent where she had been tied up. 5. She resented him not untying her. 6. Indiana hated dropping into a pit full of poisonous snakes. 7. Marion was terrified by the villains/them pushing her into the pit, too. 8. Indianas finding the lost ark made the villains very angry. 9. Them/The villains capturing Marion infuriated Indiana. 10. Indiana saved Marions life by telling her not to look at the evil spirits coming from

    the ark.

    8 Performers of Infinitives: Remaking King Kong (p. 250) A. 7. to climb to the top of the building 4. to play the leading role 8. for Adam to climb to the top 5. Adam to wear a gorilla costume 9. to win an Academy Award 6. for Adam to climb to the top of the

    Empire State Building 10. for Adam to do it

    B. Answers will vary.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Verbs Followed by Base Forms

    9 Forms Following Causative Verbs, Verbs of Perceptions and Other Verbs: The Wizard of Oz (p. 252)

    2. dance/dancing 7. to give 13. enter 3. to go 8. move 14. go 4. to follow 9. join 15. scream/screaming 5. find/ to find 10. to get 16. melt/melting 6. come 11. to come 17. click 12. to give

    Unit Six Wrap-up Activities

    1 Going to Graceland: EDITING (p. 254)

    Every year, thousands of people from all over the world travel to Memphis, Tennessee,

    for visiting Graceland, Elvis Presleys home. Ive never been to Graceland, but I want going

    there. I look forward to do it someday because Elvis has a very important place in the history

    of American popular culture. I wasnt enough old to see Elvis when he was alive, but Ill

    never forget to hear Love Me Tender for the first time. Ive watched his movies, and Ive

    talked to people who saw his performing in the 1950s. People who are my age sometimes

    have problems to understand why he shocked people so much.

    I think that Elvis was an example of the American dreama poor boy who became

    successful by using his talent and energy. When he was young, he dreamed about to be rich.

    But later it was difficult for him to deal with his success. He was very generous, and he often

    went to the store for buying Cadillacs and other expensive gifts for people. Being so generous

    caused him to have financial problems, though. He started taking too many pills, and he

    became famous for eating lots of fried food. Now we are used to think of Elvis as a troubled

    person who lost control of his lifean American tragedy. But I prefer to keep remembering

    his musical achievements.

    2 A Game-Show Pretest: WRITING (p. 255) Answers will vary.

    10. thinking

    9. to buy

    8. being

    7. understanding

    1. to visit 2. to go

    3. doing

    4. old enough

    5. hearing

    6. him

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    3 A Fan Letter: WRITING (p. 255) Answers will vary.

    Unit 6 Ex 3 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links website.

    4 Whats Your Opinion: SPEAKING/WRITING (p. 256) Answers will vary.

    UNIT SEVEN: Modals

    Think About Grammar (p. 259) 2. b, a 3. b, a 4. a, b 5. a, b 6. b,a

    CHAPTER 14: MODALS

    Introductory Task: How Certain Is She? (p. 260) 1. must; might, could

    2. isnt; must not be, couldnt be; might not be 3. could

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Overview of Modals

    1 Identifying One-Word Modals, Phrasal Modals, and Modal-Like Expressions: A Study Group (p. 264)

    Bo23: Hi, Darryl. We ought to meet soon. The midterm exam is going to include questions

    about marriage customs in other cultures, so we have to review that topic. Weve got to

    review the definitions of the terms in the textbook, too.

    DK: I have everything in my notes. For example, in most cultures men must not have more

    than one wife at a time. Its prohibited. But there are a few cultures in which men are

    allowed to have more than one wife. Thats called polygamy.

    Bo23: Could I borrow your notes?

    DK: Of course. I can bring them to the study group. Do you want to meet at eight tomorrow

    night?

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    Bo23: I havent made any other plans, so I should be able to meet at eight. Im not sure

    about Andre, though. He might not be free then. Wed better check with him before we

    decide for sure.

    DK: He isnt available now. When is he supposed to be home?

    Bo23: He had to work tonight, so he may not be home until later. I will send you a message

    after I talk to him. Bye for now.

    2 One-Word Modals, Phrasal Modals, and Modal-Like Expressions--Form: A Student-Teacher Conference (p. 265)

    2. had to stay 9. ought to think about 3. May I ask 10. has got to include 4. do we have to turn in 11. mustnt be 5. is supposed to turn in 12. cant find 6. can give 13. might be able to find 7. may not turn them in 14. dont have to go 8. Are we allowed to choose

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Modals of Ability

    3 Present, Past, and Future Ability: Developing Survival Skills (p. 267) 1c. be able to 2d. could/was able to 3d. be able to 1d. can/are able to 9. have been able to 4a. wont be able to 2a. could / was able to 3a. was able to 4b. ll be able to/s

    2b. couldnt/wasnt able to 3b. couldnt/wasnt able to going to be able to 2c. could/was able to 3c. was able to

    4 Present, Past, and Future Ability: Your Skills (p. 268) Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Belief Modals Used to Talk About the Present

    5 Belief Modals About the PresentForm and Meaning: The Family Connection (p. 271)

    2. should 3. may 4. could

    5. has to 6. may not 7. must not

    8. Might 9. has got to 10. shouldnt

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    11. cannot

    6 Belief Modals about the Present: Making Guesses (p. 272) 7. must/has to//has got to 3. cant/couldnt 8. may/might/could 4. Might/Could 9. may not/mightnt 5. must/has to/has got to 10. cant/couldnt/mustnt 6. may not/mightnt 11. should/ought to

    7 Using Belief Modals About the Present: Singles Seeking Mates (p. 273) Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Belief Modals Used to Talk About the Future

    8 Belief Modals About the Future: Finding Mr. or Ms. Right (p. 276)

    A. 3. shouldnt/might not 5. could/may/might 7. should/ought to 4. wont/isnt going to 6. may not /mightnt 8. will/are going to B. Answers will vary.

    9 Belief Modals About the Present and Future: Matchmakers in Action (p. 277)

    3. should 7. could/ may 11. may not 4. must/has to 8. may not 12. is going to 5. might 9. Will 6. mightnt 10. mustnt

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 5: Social Modals I: Modals for Permission, Requests, and Offers

    10 Modals for Permission: Situations and Relationships I (p. 280)

    Answers will vary, but examples are: 2. Can/Could I have some water? Sure, help yourself. 3. May I look at your garden? Yes, of course you may.

    11 Modals for Requests: Situations and Relationships II (p. 280) Answers will vary, but examples are:

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    2. Would you go over that problem again? Of course. Id be happy to.

    3. Can you give me a ride home? Im sorry. Im not going your way.

    4. Could you sign my health insurance form? Yes, of course.

    12 Modals for Offers: Situations and Relationships III (p. 281) Answers will vary, but examples are:

    2. Could/Can/May I help you carry those books? Thanks, I appreciate it.

    3. Can I show you how to use that new computer program? Yes, thanks. 4. Shall I turn on the air conditioner? Yes, that would be nice. 5. Can I help you wash the dishes. Grab a towel. 6. Can I take a message? Yes, please. Have her call me.

    13 Modals for Permission, Requests, and Offers: Another Matchmaker (p. 281) 2. Will 3. Would 4. will

    5. Could 6. can 7. Shall

    8. will 9. May

    14 Permission, Requests, and Offers: Practicing Politeness (p. 282) Answers will vary.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 6: Social Modals II: Modals for Suggestion, Advice, Expectations, Warnings, and Necessity

    15 Modals for Suggestions, Expectations, Advice, and Necessity: Wedding Customs (p. 285)

    A. 2. shouldnt 8. are to 14. had better not 3. ought to 9. could 15. must 4. are supposed to 10. shall 5. should 11. have got to 6. might 12. arent allowed to 7. Do (I) have to 13. dont have to

    B. Answers will vary.

    16 Modals for Opinion, Obligation, Lack of Necessity, and Prohibition: The Roles of Marriage Partners I (p. 286)

    A. 2. should 4. shouldnt 3. should / ought to 5. shouldnt B. 3. mustnt 7. has to/has got to/must 4. dont have to 8. doesnt have to 11. have to/have got 5. mustnt 9. mustnt to/must 6. Does (a couple) have to 10. has to/has got to/must

    17 Modals for Opinion, Obligation, Lack of Necessity, and Prohibition: The Roles of Marriage Partners I (p. 287)

    Answers will vary.

    18 Using Ability, Belief, and Social Modals: Points of View (p. 288)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    Ch14 Ex 18B The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

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    CHAPTER 15: MORE ABOUT MODALS

    Introductory Task: Giving Advice (p. 289)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Perfect Modals

    1 Perfect ModalsForm: The Dangers of Romantic Love (p. 291)

    2. had to have been 8. ought to have rescued 3. Should Juliet have obeyed 9. should Juliet have done 4. should have been 10. couldnt have gone on 5. shouldnt have killed 11. must have have loved 6. may not have seemed 12. might have met 7. might have tried 13. could that have happened

    2 Perfect ModalsContracted and Full Forms: A Communication Problem? (p. 292)

    3. must have 7. ought to have 11. must not have 4. could have 8. might not have 12. should not have 5. could have 9. may not have 13. must have 6. might have 10. may have 14. could not have

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Belief Modals Used to Talk About the Past

    3 Belief Modals About the PastForm and Meaning: Your Parents Wedding (p. 295) 2. mustnt have 5. may not have 8. have got to have had 3. could have 6. cant have 9. mustnt have 4. shouldnt have 7. had to have 10. couldnt have

    4 Belief Modals About the Past: The Mystery of a Long-Term Marriage I (p. 296)

    3. may have/might have/could have 4. couldnt have/ mustnt have/cant have 5. must have/have to have / have got to have 6. shouldnt have 7. may not have/mightnt have

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    8. should have/ought to have

    5 Belief Modals About the Past: The Mystery of a Long-Term Marriage II (p. 297) 3. They may/might/could have gone to Antarctica. 4. They mustnt/couldnt have gone to Antarctica. 5. They may/might/could have gone to the beach. 6. They must /have to/ have got to have gone to Hawaii. 7. They must/have to/have got to have forgotten to tell Don. /They mustnt have told Don. The captain told Don that his parents must have gone to Hawaii.

    6 Using Belief Modals about the Past: Married Couples (p. 297) Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Social Modals Used to Talk About the Past

    7 Social Modals About the Past: An Odd but Happy Couple (p. 301) 2. shouldnt have 5. wasnt allowed to 8. could have 3. ought to have 6. couldnt 9. didnt have to 4. had to 7. had to 10. d better have

    8 Social Modals About the Past: Nanas Rules (p. 302)

    3. should have/ought to have 9. d better not have 4. was supposed to/was to 10. had to 5. shouldnt have 11. could have 6. could have/might have 12. couldnt/werent allowed to 7. could have/might have 13. didnt have to 8. could have

    9 Using Social Modals About the Past: Communication Problems? (p. 303)

    Answers will vary. Ch15 Ex 9 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

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    10 Belief and Social Modals about the Past: Which Words Should Addy Viser Have Used? (p. 304)

    2. must have gotten 6. had to let 3. didnt have to work 7. couldnt telephone 4. ought to have called/ 8. had to wait should have called 9. might not have wanted 5. has to have gotten/must have gotten 10. might have asked/could have asked

    .

    Unit Seven Wrap-up Activities

    1 Should Ms. Monish Give Advice? EDITING (p. 305)

    By now, you must hear of Ms. Monish, the marriage counselor whose advice column

    appears in hundreds of newspapers. Every day thousands of people write to Ms. Monish.

    They ask her, May you give me some advice? or I was confused. What should I have

    done? When people tell her they are considering divorce, she responds, You shouldnt

    get a divorce. You are able to work out your marriage problems in the future. Recently,

    she criticized a divorced woman by telling her, You mustnt have divorced your husband.

    You should have try harder. Sometimes she writes, A mans way of communicating can

    be different from a womans. You ought to try to understand your husband better.

    Because so many people read Ms. Monishs column and follow her advice, I wanted to

    know more about her background and qualifications. I finally could interview her one day.

    But when I talked to her, I mustnt find out much because she refused to answer my questions

    about her past. In order to learn more, I must ask other people. One of her friends told me that

    Ms. Monish has been married and divorced twice. When I heard this, I thought, Ms. Monish

    has to have had marriage problems of her own in the past. She mustnt have worked those

    problems out very well. Her friend told me, Ms. Monishs first marriage mustnt break up.

    And her second marriage hadnt got to break up, either. She couldnt communicate well with

    her husbands, and now she regrets it. But she must of learned a lot from those experiences.

    1. must have heard

    2. Can/could/will/would

    3. will be 4. shouldnt

    5. tried

    6. was able to

    7. couldnt/wasnt able to

    8. had to

    9. didnt have to break / shouldnt have broken

    10. didnt have to / shouldnt have

    11. have

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    2 Describing Yourself and Your Ideal Mate: WRITING (p. 306) Answers will vary.

    Unit 7 Ex 2 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    3 Join the Politeness Patrol: WRITING/SPEAKING (p. 306) Answers will vary.

    4 Love-Life Dilemmas: SPEAKING/WRITING (p. 307)

    Answers will vary. Unit 7 Ex 4 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    UNIT EIGHT: Passives

    Think About Grammar (p. 311)

    A. Active sentence: The goalie threw the ball.

    Passive sentence: The ball was thrown by the goalie.

    1. subject, by 2. threw, be 3. subject, B. 1. are played/are spent/are paid 2. were built 3. havent been broken shouldnt be paid 4. are being broken/is being spent/is being replaced 5. have been set/havent been broken 6. will be broken/will be built/will ... be forgotten 7. can be found/ shouldnt be paid/Can ... be expected

    CHAPTER 16: Introduction to the Overview

    Introductory Task: Sports Trivia (p. 312) A. 2. a 3. d 4. 3 5. h 6.g 7. f 8. c B. Answers will vary.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: The Passive I

    1 Passive Sentences in the Simple Present: Baseball Uniforms I (p. 315) 3. is made 9. are often designed 4. is something done 10. is built 5. are used 11. is done 6. is modified 12. are put 7. isnt considered 13. are kept 8. Are the old uniforms kept 14. are sold

    2 Passive Sentences in the Simple Past: Baseball Uniforms II (p. 316) 2. were given 7. Was one player ever sent in? 12. were players names added 3. was expected 8. was traded 13. were first put 4. werent worn 9. was dropped 14. was probably influenced 5. werent required 10. was often changed 15. were shown 6. were assigned 11. wasnt used 16. was opposed

    3 Forming Passive Sentences: Names for Sports Facilities (p. 317)

    2. sports facilities, sports facilities are named 3. sports facilities, sports facilities werent named 4. sports facilities, Sports facilities were named 5. sponsors names, are sponsors names given 6. large fees, Large fees are paid 7. some of the teams expenses, some of the teams expenses are covered

    4 Passive SentencesQuestions and Answers: Stadiums (p. 318)

    Invesco Field at Mile High The Skydome 2. What is it used for? It is used for

    football and soccer. 3. Are games played on grass? Yes,

    they are. 4. Why was a computerized system

    put under the grass? A computerized system was put under the grass to monitor the water needed for the grass and heat the

    1. When was the Skydome first opened to the public? It was first opened to the public in 1989.

    2. What it is used for? It is used for football, baseball, basketball, and other events.

    3. Are games played on grass? No, they are played on artificial grass called Astroturf.

    4. How was the roof designed to

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    field in winter. 5. How was money raised for artwork

    at the stadium? Money was raised for artwork for the stadium by selling seats from the old Mile High Stadium.

    open? It was designed to open with three panels that take 20 minutes to open or close.

    5. What is used to fasten the artificial turf? Eight miles of zippers are used to fasten the artificial turf.

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    5 Transitive and Intransitive Verbs; Writing Passive Sentences: Player Salaries (p. 319) A.

    (1) Sports teams pay some of the highest salaries in the world to their top athletes. (2)

    These athletes work hard, but are they worth the money they receive?

    (3) Players salaries reflect the popularity of a sport. For example, in the past hockey

    players didnt earn as much money as football players. (4) Recently, hockey seems to have

    become a more popular sport. (5) Now, nearly all sports fans recognize the names of the top

    hockey players. (6) As a consequence, these players earn higher salaries. (7) But basketball

    players still appear to be the top earners in sports year after year. (8) The average salary of a

    professional basketball player was $3.5 million in 2001 compared to $1.1 million for a

    hockey player.

    (9) According to one financial expert, paying high salaries hurts sports teams. (10) Top

    players attract fans. (11) However, what happens when ticket prices are so high that fans

    cant afford to buy them? (12) When fans dont come to watch the teams, will athletes

    salaries change? B.

    2. The popularity of a sport is reflected by the players salaries. 3. Now, the names of the top hockey players are recognized by nearly all sports fans. 4. As a consequence, higher salaries are earned by these players. 5. According to one financial expert, sports teams are hurt by paying higher salaries. 6. Fans are attracted by top players.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: The Passive I I5

    6 Meaning of Passive Sentences: Can the Cougars Win? (p. 321)

    2. a 4. b 6. b 8. b 3. b 5. a 7. b

    7 Receivers in Active and Passive Sentences: Babe Didrikson Zaharias (p. 322)

    3. Babe hit balls hard like Babe Ruth, the famous baseball player. (This explains her nickname.) 4. In high school, she achieved recognition as an All-American basketball player.

    I

    T

    T

    I

    I

    I

    T

    I

    T

    T

    I

    T

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    5. In the1932 U.S. track and field championship, more points were scored by Didrikson alone than by any team.

    6. Two track and field records were set by Didrikson in the 1932 Summer Olympics. 7. She won two gold medals and a silver medal in the 1932 Olympics. 8. Didrikson earned 35 victories in her 21-year golf career. 9. From April 1946 to August 1947, she defeated all her opponents, winning 17 consecutive

    golf tournaments. 10. Many competitions in tennis and bowling, were won by Didrikson, too. 11. The title Greatest Female Athlete of the First Half of the Twentieth Century was awarded

    to Babe Didrikson Zaharias in 1950.

    8 Omitting the By Phrase: Catch a Wave (p. 322)

    3. The sport was popularized by Duke Kahanamoku in the early twentieth century .

    4. Kahanamoku, an Olympic swimmer, was recognized by people as an accomplished surfer.

    5. This happened when surfing exhibitions were included in swimming competitions by some competition organizers.

    6. Today, many people surf, partly because formal training isnt needed by surfers .

    7. More and more women are seen on surfboards by other surfers.

    8. Women, especially, are inspired by champion surfer Lisa Andersen.

    9. They are motivated by her surfboarding skill and her accomplishments.

    9 Writing Passives; the By Phrase: Individual Sports (p. 323)

    3. Snowboarding was first included in Olympic competition in 1998. 4. The first road race was held by the French in 1869. 5. The Tour de France is watched by millions of people every year. 6. The first Tour de France was organized in 1903 by Henri Desgranges. 7. The length of a marathon is defined as 42 km, 195 m. 8. This distance was originally run in the 1908 Olympic Games. 9. The sport was dominated by African runners in the 1990s.

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    10 Passives in Academic Writing: Arthroscopic Surgery for Sports Injuries (p. 324) A.

    2. 12 3. 3 4. The agent is not important. The process and results are more important. 5. In scientific writing, the passive emphasizes the process and results, not the agent.

    Injuries occur in all sports, and injuries to joints, especially the knee, are common.

    Surgery for these injuries has become simpler because of the advances in arthroscopic

    surgery, one of the most common procedures in sports medicine today. Arthroscopic surgery

    was first performed in the mid 1950s by a Japanese doctor, Masaaki Watanabe, who also

    designed one of the first widely used arthroscopes. The procedure was brought to North

    America in 1965 by a Canadian doctor, Robert W. Jackson.

    Using an arthroscope, a surgeon can examine and treat joint problems that used to

    require extensive surgery and long recovery periods. An arthroscope is a thin tool containing a

    fiber optic light, a magnifying lens, and a video camera. In arthroscopic surgery, a small

    incision or cut is made and the arthroscope is inserted into the incision. Sterile fluid is injected

    into the joint space to enlarge the space, and the tissues are examined. Repairs are made to the

    injury through another small incision. Usually, because the incisions are so small, stitches are

    not required and surgical tape is used to close them instead. When injuries are treated with

    arthroscopic surgery, they heal faster, so little time is needed for recovery, and normal activity

    is resumed by the patient within a short time.

    B. Answers will vary. Ch16 Ex 10B The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

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    CHAPTER 17: MORE ABOUT PASSIVES

    Introductory Task: The Things Fans Do (p. 326) A. All are true.

    B. 1. were being thrown 2. get, got married/get taken 3. have get got their faces painted, got his hair cut and colored, had a soccer-ball dress made,

    wont have his lucky shirt washed

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Passives in Progressive and Perfect Tenses

    1 Passive Sentences in Progressive Tenses: A Baseball Stadium Is Being Built (p. 328)

    2. wasnt being raised 7. wasnt being done 12. were being finalized 3. was being made 8. are being created 13. are being placed 4. were being given 9. are being installed 14. is being designed 5. are being described 10. are being put in 15. is being planned 6. was being planned 11. are being included

    2 Passive Sentences in Perfect Tenses: Sports Records Have Been Broken (p. 329)

    3. had been kicked 8. have been earned 13. has been set 4. hadnt been achieved 9. have been scored 5. have been made 10. havent been scored 6. had been hit 11. had been set 7. hadnt been reached 12. have been struck out

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Passives with Modals

    3 Passive with Modals: Should a New Stadium Be Built? (p. 332) 2. cant be paid for 10. cant be measured 3. ought to be financed 11. Should a stadium be built 4. has to be approved 12. will be debated 5. are going to be created 13. Can something be done 6. will not be brought about 14. can be placed 7. should be paid 15. could be absorbed 8. will be paid back 16. might be considered 9. might not be paid back

    4 Using Passive with Modals: Can This Problem Be Solved? (p. 333) Answers will vary.

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    5 Passives in Different Verb Tenses: What a Place! (p. 333) Answers will vary.

    Ch17 Ex 5 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Get Passives

    6 Get Passives: Bad Things Can Happen to Good Players! (p. 335)

    5. get cut 9. are getting arrested 2. have gotten hit 6. can get kicked 10. get traded 3. havent gotten injured 7. may get suspended 11. dont get hired

    4. will probably get knocked down 8. get kicked out 12. (will) get chosen

    7 Get Passives: Lucky Larry and Poor Pete (p. 336)

    2. Is Poor Pete getting promoted to head coach? No, he isnt. He is getting demoted to assistant coach.

    3. Does Poor Pete get recognized by the fans? No, he doesnt. He gets confused with the equipment manager.

    4. Is Poor Pete going to get paid to write a book? No, he isnt. Poor Pete is going to get charged for his parking space.

    5. Has Lucky Larry gotten blamed for his teams failure? No, he hasnt. Lucky Larry has gotten praised for his teams success.

    6. Does Lucky Larry get ignored by his friends? No, he doesnt. Lucky Larry gets invited to many social events.

    7. Will Lucky Larry get ejected from the game for bad behavior? No, he wont. Lucky Larry may get elected to the Sports Hall of Fame.

    8. Will Lucky Larry get fired at the end of the year? No, he wont. Lucky Larry will get chosen coach of the year.

    8 Using Passive Sentences: The Games We Play (p. 337)

    A. Baseball is played on a field by two teams. A point (or run) is scored when a batter-runner safely touches all four bases. Sometimes a runner can run only to the next base, but when the ball gets hit out of the ballpark, the player who hit it is allowed to run to all the bases and score.

    B. Answers will vary.

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    9 True Passives Versus Stative Passives: Fan Superstitions (p. 337)

    I. 2. S 3. P II. 1. P 2. S 3. P

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Passive Causitives

    10 Passive Causatives: Supporting the Team (p. 339)

    A. 4. a (The players get/have their travel arrangements made by a travel agent.) 5. b (The players get/have their uniforms washed by a laundry service.) 6. c (The players get/have their hair cut by a hair stylist.) 3. d (The players get /have their positions chosen by the coach.)

    2. e (The players get/have their meals cooked by a gourmet chef.) B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    11 Using Passive Causatives: Getting Things Done (p.340) Answers will vary.

    Unit Eight Wrap-up Activities

    1 Sports Nicknames: EDITING (p. 341)

    There are many nicknames in sports. Some athletes given interesting nicknames as a

    result of their actions in games. One such athlete was Wrong-Way Riegels, who played in

    the 1929 Rose Bowl. The Rose Bowl is an important college football game that is play on

    January 1st every year. In the 1929 game, the football was dropped by a player from Georgia

    Tech, and Roy Riegels from the University of California picked it up and began to run. It was

    seemed that Riegels would score easily. But, for some reason, he got confused and ran 65

    yards the wrong way. By the time he got turn around by a teammate, the other team had also

    run down the field, and Riegels got tackled on the one-yard line on the wrong end of the field.

    1. are given / have been given

    2. played

    4. turned

    3. seemed

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    Because of Riegels run down the field, his team was lost the game 87, and he was

    nicknamed Wrong-Way Riegels.

    Sometimes the play, not the player, gets the nickname. A famous soccer goal knows by

    its nickname, the Hand of God goal. This goal was scored by Argentinean superstar Diego

    Maradona against the English in the 1986 World Cup. When the ball kicked over the heads of

    the English defense by another Argentinean player, both Maradona and the English

    goalkeeper, Peter Shilton, jumped for it. Maradona was appeared to have hit the ball into the

    goal with his head, but Shilton protested that Maradona had been hit it with his hand. The goal

    was permitted to stand, and the game was won by Argentina, 2-1. When the television replays

    proved that Shilton was correct, Maradona was declared that the goal had been a little bit

    Maradona, a little bit the hand of God.

    2 Guess that Sport: SPEAKING (p. 342) Answers will vary.

    3 Get the Answer: SPEAKING (p. 342) Answers will vary.

    4 All About ...: WRITING (p. 342)

    Answers will vary. Unit 8 Ex 44 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    UNIT NINE: Conditionals

    Think About Grammar (p. 345)

    A

    If you were looking at the earth from a satellite now, you would see a beautiful

    and peaceful-looking planet. But the peaceful appearance of the earth from space is

    misleading. Within the earths atmosphere and beneath its surface, there are powerful, and

    often violent, forces at work. If its a late afternoon in the early summer, a tornado is

    probably forming somewhere in North America. If its late summer, a hurricane is

    9. had hit

    5. lost

    6. is known

    7. was kicked

    8. appeared

    10. declared

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    probably moving across an ocean toward land. And, regardless of time of year, an

    earthquake may occur and a volcano may erupt.

    These eventssevere weather, earthquakes, and volcanoesare part of the cycles of

    nature and the forces that shaped the earth. The earth would be a very different place if

    these events didnt occur. For example, the Hawaiian islands wouldnt have formed if

    volcanoes hadnt erupted in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Severe natural events

    continue to have beneficial effects for life on the earth. For example, both volcanoes and

    floods make the soil more fertile, which is good for farming. However, these natural events

    can become natural disasters if they negatively affect people and their property.

    More and more people are being affected by violent natural events because the

    population is increasing in areas where these events are most likely to occur. More and more,

    then, natural events are causing disasters. Our ability to predict some natural events

    hurricanes and blizzards, for exampleis relatively good, so we have time to escape from

    them or to prepare for them. But othersearthquakes, for exampleoccur without warning.

    If earthquakes could be predicted, many lives could be saved. In short, even though our

    scientific knowledge has increased, at this point humans still cant defend themselves against

    some of the most powerful forces of nature. If we can learn more about prediction of

    natural events, then perhaps someday well be able to keep more of these events from

    becoming natural disasters. B. 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. T

    CHAPTER 18: Factual Conditionals; Future Conditionals

    Introductory Task: Hazardous Conditions and Results (p. 346)

    A. 2. b 4. e 6. c 8. h 3. f 5. a 7. d B. Answers will vary.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Overview of Conditionals

    1 Conditional Questions and StatementsForm: Temperature Facts and Figures (p. 348) A. 2. Does water boil if it you heat it to 100 F? No, it doesnt. Water doesnt boil if you heat it to 100 F. 3. If water is heated to 212 F, does it boil? Yes, it does. If water is heated to 212 F, then it boils. 4. Does water freeze if its temperature is 32 C? No, it doesnt. Water doesnt freeze if its temperature is 32 C. B. 2. If the temperature is 20 C in their classroom, how do students feel? If the temperature is 20 C in their classroom, then students feel comfortable. 3. How do students if the temperature is 20 F in their classroom? Students dont feel at all comfortable if the temperature is 20 F in their classroom. 4. If you want to convert temperatures from Celsius to Fahrenheit, what do you do? If you want to convert temperatures from Celsius to Fahrenheit, use this formula: F = 9C/5

    + 32.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Factual Conditionals

    2 Factual Conditionals with Present Tense Verbs and Modals: The Nature of a Tornado (p. 352)

    A. 3. If the air cools, then the water vapor in it condenses. 4. If the drops become too heavy for the air to hold, then they fall to earth. 5. The drops fall as rain if the temperature isnt below the freezing point. 6. If a mass of warm, moist air is rising very rapidly, then a thunderstorm can occur. 7. A tornado cant occur if there is no thunderstorm. 8. If thunderstorms are moving across Tornado Alley at this moment, then a tornado is

    probably forming. 9. If a house is hit by a tornado, then the house might explode. B. Number 8

    3 Factual Conditionals with Past Tense Verbs: The Making of a Television Meteorologist (p. 353)

    A. 2. He listened with fascination if they told stories about terrible tornadoes. 3. If he was playing outside, he raced into the house. 4. If people saw threatening clouds or tornadoes, they reported them to the sheriff. 5. Everyone in Englands family ran into the cellar if they heard the siren. 6. If the weatherman predicted a snowstorm, he looked forward to it. 7. He was disappointed if the storm didnt begin / hadnt begun before his bedtime. 8. If it had snowed, he was very excited.

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    B. Answers will vary.

    4 Using Factual Conditionals with Modals and Imperatives: The Weather Helpline (p. 354)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Future Conditionals 5 Future ConditionalsForm: The Hurricanes of the Future (p. 356)

    2. becomes, will get/is going to get 3. becomes, will increase/are going to increase 4. will affect/are going to affect, continues 5. wont be/arent going to be, take 6. will hear/are going to hear, comes 7. are, will form/are going to form 8. is forming, ll be able to see/re going to be able to see

    6 Future ConditionalsUses: If You Come Visit Me . . . (p. 357) Answers will vary, but examples of the modals to use are:

    2. will 6. will 3. (imperative) 7. imperative 4. could/might/can 8. can/could/would/will 5. will 9. d better/re going to

    7 Using Factual and Future Conditionals: If You Like Cold/Warm Weather . . . (p. 358)

    Answers will vary Ch18 Ex 7 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    CHAPTER 19: PRESENT AND PAST UNREAL CONDITIONALS; HOPE AND WISH

    Introductory Task: At Home in the Storm (p. 360) A. 1. b 2. a 3. a 4. b B. 1. a. factual b. unreal 2. past, present, present

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Present Unreal Conditionals

    1 Present Unreal ConditionalsForm: Natural Hazards in the U.S. Pacific Region (p. 364)

    2. wouldnt feel, were 3. would be, werent monitoring 4. were erupting, would be flowing, would be shooting 5. were, might do 6. became, might be 7. didnt meet, wouldnt be 8. would take, were 9. came, would cause 10. were vacationing, would (you) be thinking/hink about

    2 Present Unreal ConditionalsMeaning: Visiting Hawaiis Volcanoes (p. 365)

    2. F, T 4. T, F 6. T, T 3. F, F 5. F, F

    3 Present Unreal Conditionals with Would and Could: Waiting to Be Rescued (p. 366) 2. If we had electricity, we could cook. 3. If we didnt have plenty of canned food, we would be hungry. 4. If we had hot water, I could take a bath. 5. If I didnt have a flashlight, I couldnt find my way in the dark. 6. If our battery-powered radio werent working, we couldnt listen to news reports. 7. If we couldnt play card games, we would be bored. 8. If our sleeping bags werent keeping us warm at night, we wouldnt be sleeping well. 9. If I werent prepared for disasters, I would be worried.

    4 Factual Versus Unreal Conditionals: Earthquakes (p. 367)

    3. would know, were 4. are, measure 5. paid, would earn 6. cause, build 7. didnt build, would cause

    5 Using Present Unreal Conditionals to Give Advice: Avoiding Risk (p. 368)

    Answers will vary.

    6 Using Present Unreal Conditionals: Things Would Be Different If . . . (p. 368)

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    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    Grammar Practice 2: Past Unreal Conditionals

    7 Past Unreal ConditionalsForm: The Dust Bowl (p. 371)

    3. wouldnt have had, had managed 4. hadnt plowed up, wouldnt have gotten 5. had planted, could have protected 6. might have gotten, had lived 7. had been, could have seen 8. had been, would not have been 9. hadnt given, might have starved

    8 Present Versus Past Unreal Conditionals: The Weather Here and There, Then and Now (p. 372)

    2. werent having, would be 3. had had, wouldnt have had to 4. were, would be 5. were, would be 6. would have run out of, hadnt gone 7. had come, would have caused

    9 Past Unreal Conditionals: Weather Pleasures (p. 372) 2. You couldnt have skated on the pond all winter if the ice had melted. 3. The vegetables in our garden wouldnt have grown so fast if it hadnt rained every afternoon

    last summer. 4. People couldnt have gone skiing in the park if the snow hadnt been so deep. 5. We couldnt have flown kites if the wind hadnt been blowing so hard. 6. I wouldnt have sat by the fire drinking cocoa and reading if I could have gone to my office. 7. I wouldnt have gotten to know my neighbors if they hadnt needed help after the storm.

    10 Past Unreal ConditionalsMeaning: Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 1889 (p. 373)

    2. D 4. D 6. S 8. D 3. S 5. D 7. S 9. S

    11 Expressing Regret with Past Unreal Conditionals: If I Had Known . . . (p. 373) Answers will vary.

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    12 Using Past Unreal Conditionals: My Life Might Have Been Different If . . . (p. 374)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Sentences with Hope or Wish

    13 Sentences with Wish and Hope: Delays Due to Weather (p. 376) 2. a. (that) he is having a good time. b. (that) he were having a good time. 3. a. (that) the storm will end soon. b. (that) the storm would end soon. 4. a. (that) his plane can take off soon. b. (that) his plane could take off soon. 5. a. (that) he is coming home tomorrow. b. (that) he were coming home tomorrow. 6. a (that) he heard the forecast b. (that) he had heard the forecast

    14 Hope and Wish About the Present and Future: Natural Disasters Make TV News (p. 377)

    4. wouldnt come/werent going to come/werent coming 5. could control 6. will be able to come/are going to be able to come/can come 7. were going down 8. had 9. is 10. will make/is going to make/makes 11. wouldnt happen/didnt happen 12. werent going to snow/wouldnt snow 13. werent 14. were (snowing now) 15. would start

    15 Hope and Wish About the Past: Talking About the News (p. 378)

    3. had known 6. hadnt had to talk 9. could have seen 4. hadnt kept 7. found 5. didnt destroy 8. didnt cause

    16 Using Hope and Wish: Questions and Answers (p. 379)

    A. 2. What is something that you hope happened yesterday? 3. What is something that you wish had happened yesterday? 4. What is something that you hope isnt happening now?

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    5. What do you wish that you were doing now? 6. What is something that you hope will happen soon? 7. What do you wish that you could do tomorrow? B. Answers will vary.

    17Using Unreal Conditionals, Hope and Wish: What Are Your Regrets? What are Your Dreams? (p. 380) 1. Answers will vary. 2. Answers will vary.

    Ch19 Ex 17 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    Unit Nine Wrap-up Activities

    1 A Disastrous Prediction: EDITING (p. 381)

    In 18111812, the small town of New Madrid, Missouri, was the center of some of the

    biggest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States. When the area had been densely

    populated then, the earthquakes would have caused great devastation. The shock waves from

    the earthquakes traveled for hundreds of miles. If you had lived in Boston at the time, you

    could of felt them. The area around New Madrid is still a dangerous earthquake zone. If the

    area wasnt so dangerous, people who live there might not take earthquake predictions so

    seriously.

    In 1989, it was reported that Iben Browning, a business consultant, made this

    announcement: If my calculations are correct, there is a 50 percent chance of a destructive

    earthquake striking New Madrid on December 3, 1990. Because many people believed that

    Browning had predicted previous earthquakes, hundreds of news reporters went to New

    Madrid. One reporter said, If an earthquake will occur, it will be the best-recorded event in

    Missouri history. If nothing happens, peoples reaction to the prediction will make an

    interesting news story. New Madrid experienced an earthquake hysteria. Thousands of

    people bought disaster supplies, many residents decided to spend the week elsewhere, and the

    schools closed.

    2. have

    1. If

    4. correct, there

    3. werent

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    December 3 came and went. No earthquake occurred. Many people blamed the reporters

    for the hysteria. A physicist said, Browning had not accurately predicted previous

    earthquakes. The reporters would have found this out if they would have investigated.

    Earthquakes cannot be predicted. I wish we can predict them! Red Cross officials were glad

    that the prediction raised awareness about earthquakes, but they wished the hysteria wouldnt

    have happened. A government official said, I hope an earthquake wouldnt ever come. But

    now we will be better prepared if one comes.

    2 The Chain Reactions Game: SPEAKING (p. 382) Answers will vary.

    3 A Guide to Disaster Preparation: WRITING (p. 382) Answers will vary.

    4 A Disaster Movie: WRITING/SPEAKING (p. 382) Answers will vary.

    Unit 9 Ex 17 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    UNIT TEN: Noun Clauses

    Think About Grammar (p. 385)

    A. 1. the object of a verb 2. a clause, a subject and a verb, a word such as that B.

    In almost any bookstore, youll see a large Fiction/Literature section. Youll probably also see that many works of fiction are in other sections instead. These sections have labels such as Romance, Mystery, Science Fiction, Horror, and Westerns. You might wonder how these books are different from the books in the Fiction/Literature section. The answer is that these books belong to genres (pronounced JAHN-ruhz), types of fiction that follow certain formulas, or rules. If you pick up an unfamiliar novel from the Fiction/Literature section, you wont know what kind of story it tells. But if you pick up a novel from the Romance section, you can be pretty sure that its about a young woman who falls in love. The reason is that books in the romance genre almost always follow a certain formula.

    9. doesnt

    8. hadnt

    7. could

    6. had

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    That genre fiction is popular is something no one would question. Booksellers say that two-thirds of all books sold are genre fiction. In fact, another name for genre fiction is popular fiction. However, experts wonder why genre fiction is so popular. Experts also wonder whether books based on formulas can be considered literature the way, for example, Shakespeares plays are literature. The first question might not be very hard to answer. A careful look at genre fiction shows that its like real life but much better. The hero, man or woman, of a work of genre fiction has an important goalwhether its to save the world from creatures from outer space, find the murderer before he strikes again, or marry the handsome millionaire. Readers are afraid that the hero will fail. When they close the book for the last time, they are relieved and gratified that the hero has succeeded. They care about what happens to the hero because they can identify with the hero and his or her goal. The second question is probably a harder one. See if you can come up with an answer.

    how, what, why, whether, if

    C. 1. that these books belong to genres/that its about a young woman who falls in

    love/that books in the romance genre almost always follow a certain formula/that genre fiction is popular/that two-thirds of all books sold are genre fiction/that its like real life but much better/that the hero will fail /that the hero has succeeded

    2. how these books are different from the books you find under Fiction/Literature/what kind of story it tells/why genre fiction is so popular/what happens to the hero

    3. whether books based on formulas can be considered literature the way, for example, Shakespeares plays are literature / if you can come up with an answer

    CHAPTER 20: NOUN CLAUSES

    Introductory Task: Judging a Book by Its Cover (p. 386)

    A. 2. b 3. a 1. d 2. a 3. c

    1. b 2. c 3. b 1. a 2. d 3. d

    B. Answers will vary.

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Overview of Noun Clauses

    1 Identifying Noun Clauses and Their Uses: Two Views of Popular Fiction (p. 389)

    A.

    Dear Editor:

    I am extremely disappointed that you included an article about genre fiction in your

    magazine last month. That this inclusion is inappropriate is obvious to any serious reader.

    A literary magazine is supposed to be about literaturewritten works of art. Literature is

    fiction that is original and uses poetic language. With literature, you must read carefully and

    think about whether you understand the meaning.

    It is clear that genre fiction is the opposite of literature. Genre fiction just follows

    formulas: for example, boy meets girl, and boy and girl fall in love and get married. Reading

    genre fiction is like watching TV.

    My position is that you should stick to literature from now on.

    Professor Harold Burton

    Dear Editor:

    As a writer of genre fiction, I feel that I must respond to Professor Burton.

    First, 90 percent of all new fiction published is genre fiction. I dont know why the

    professor wants us to ignore 90 percent of all new fiction?

    Second, I not sure if any fiction is fully original. Even Shakespeare got most of his stories

    from other sources!

    Third, genre fiction deals with the same issues that the greatest works of literature

    deal with. Undoubtedly, the professor admires Dostoyevskys Crime and Punishment.

    Doesnt he realize that mysteries are about crime and punishment?

    O

    Adj + NC

    O

    O

    S

    adj + NC

    O Prep

    adj + NC

    SC

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    Finally, I dont understand why the professor thinks watching TV is so bad. Perhaps hes

    a snob. That TV and genre fiction can bring people pleasure seems obvious and important.

    Lydia Burgess

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Noun Clauses with That

    2 That Noun ClauseForm: The Rules of the Game (p. 391)

    2. that the crime must be important. 3. that they will find clues 4. that all genres share certain rules 5. that they werent authentic enough 6. that the books were good 7. that he didnt smell the gunsmoke

    3 Forming Sentences with That Clauses: And Then There Are SubgenresA Tale of Two Detectives (p. 392)

    3. One of the first things a reader notices is that the tone of the writing is very different. That the tone of the writing is very different is one of the first things a reader notices.

    4. The reader of classic mysteries, like Agatha Christies, expects that the crime will take place in an upper-class setting, like a mansion in England.

    5. The detective in these mysteries, for example, Christies Hercule Poirot, knows that hell be able to solve the crime through logical thinking.

    6. It is usually the case that the classic detective is an amateur with an interest in crime. That the classic detective is an amateur with an interest in crime is usually the case.

    7. Experts have shown that the hard-boiled mystery developed in the United States as authors tried to write more authentically about crime.

    8. The reader of hard-boiled mysteries expects that the action will occur in the streets of a city and will involve tough lowlifes as well as the rich.

    9. The detective, like Raymond Chandlers Philip Marlowe, is a professional who knows that he may need to use his weapon as well as his brains.

    10. It doesnt surprise me that many people read one kind of mystery but not the other. That many people read one kind of mystery but not the other doesnt surprise me.

    B. Answers will vary. (a. Chandler; b. Chandler; c. Christie; d. Christie)

    S

    O

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    4 That ClausesEditing: He Said, She Said (p. 393)

    Conversation adds interest to our daily life is something we all know. And all readers know

    that dialoguethe conversations of characters in a bookadds interest to fiction. Dialogue

    brings characters to life for readers. Good writers realize dialogue can also be a way of

    introducing information without taking up much space. There are limits to this use of dialogue

    to provide information. One writer decided that he will start a book with the following line:

    Oh, Uncle, if you had come into my life years ago, I wouldnt have been alone, then in the

    orphanage, then with that cruel family, and then . . . (And this writer was surprised about that

    nobody publishes his book!)

    Dialogue should be like real conversationbut not too much like it. Listen to a real

    conversation. It is filled with ums and pauses is the first thing you will notice. You will

    probably also notice it is boring and hard to understand. Readers would wonder about a

    book that had lines like this: Um, . . . you know those canned tomatoes on the shopping

    list . . . uh, never mind. If writers want that people enjoy their books, they shouldnt have

    their characters sound exactly the way we do.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Noun Clauses with Wh- Words

    5 Noun Clauses with Wh- WordsForm: Page Turners (p. 395)

    2. how she wasnt able to put the book down. 5. how the book ended 3. who the murderer was 6. why characters behave the way they do 4. what the clues were 7. why the hero seems unfriendly

    6 Indirect Request for Information: Can You Tell Me Why He Is Asking These Questions? (p. 396)

    2. who Martha Blikenstrop is 3. when the library closes today 4. what time it is

    1. That

    2. would

    3. surprised that

    4. published

    5. That it

    6. people to enjoy

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    5. how I get downstairs 6. where I can find a good place for lunch

    7 Using Noun Clauses with Wh- Words: I Wonder Wh- . . . (p. 396) Answers will vary. GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Noun Clauses with If/Whether

    8 Noun Clauses with If/WhetherForm: I WonderIf . . .? (p. 398)

    3. whether my story would fit into the romance genre 4. if/whether I would find readers who are interested in my story 5. Whether readers can accept something a little bit different 6. if/whether I should go 7. if/whether Lydia Burgess would have the time to read the manuscript for my book

    9 Indirect Requests and Statements of Uncertainty: Do You Know If . . .? (p. 399) 2. whether your book belongs to the romance genre Im not certain whether my book belongs to the romance genre. 3. whether your story would interest readers Im not sure whether my story would interest readers. 4. whether you have that new romance by Stuart Forrester I dont know whether I have that new romance by Stuart Forrester.

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    10 Using Noun Clauses: I Think That . . . I Wonder If . . . (p. 400)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Ch20 Ex 10B The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    CHAPTER 21: QUOTED SPEECH; NOUN CLAUSES WITH REPORTED SPEECH

    Introductory Task: Passing Along a Message (p. 401)

    A. Miriam to Carlos, the next day: Claire said that she would be here tomorrow on her

    way to Tokyo. She asked if you and I could meet her for dinner. She said that she really was

    sorry she hadnt called sooner.

    1. a. past b. past perfect 2. a. will, can b. would, could 3. pronouns

    B. 1. he was glad, he couldnt wait to see you, he would pick you up

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Overview of Quoted Speech and Reported Speech; Quoted Speech

    1P Punctuating Quoted Speech; Identifying Reported Speech: A Woman from His Past (p. 403)

    A., B. Brent grabbed his coat and, glancing at his watch, said, Im leaving, Tom. Ive told

    my clients that they can reach me tomorrow. Are you off to another night on the town, Brent? Tom asked. Id thought that youd reformed. Who are you going out with this time? Live your life the way you want, Brent replied. Let me do what I want with mine. Sure, youre the boss, Tom said. Hey, do you know whos back in town? That secretary of yours who left so suddenly. I thought that she was nice. But you said you were glad she was gone. . . . What was her name? In a strange voice, Brent replied, Katie.

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    2 Verbs Introducing Speech: Brent and Katie (p. 404)

    A. 3. asked 4. answered 5. said 6. reminded him 7. admitted 8. promised 9. thought B. 3. asked her 4. answered him 7. admitted to her 8. promised her 9. to herself

    3 Writing Quoted Speech: What Happened? What Will Happen? (p. 405)

    Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Changes in Reported Speech; Verb Tenses in Reported Speech

    4 Changes in Verb Tense in Reported Speech: The Doctor and the Lawyer Speak (p. 408)

    2. were would 3. d been had been getting had recovered 4. had poisoned felt had been 5. d been reviewing d changed 6. hadnt changed would have gone 7. was going 8. received

    5 Optional Changes in Verb Tense: The Money Angle (p. 409)

    2. general truth 5. situation still true 3. general truth 6. future event 4. future event

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Modals in Reported Speech

    6 Changes in Modals in Reported Speech: More Clues Emerge (p. 411) 2. couldnt talk, had to meet 3. must have poisoned 4. could be 5. shouldnt have done 6. had to be 7. might talk, might, was able to live

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    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Pronouns and Time and Place Expressions in Reported Speech

    7 Changes in Pronouns in Reported Speech: Poisoned Grape Juice? (p. 413)

    2. her, she, them, 3. her, she, it, her, herself, that, she, me 4. she, her, she, them, they, her 5. she, that, her 6. I, you, I, you

    8 Changes in Time and Place Words in Reported Speech: Getting at the When and Where of It (p. 414)

    2. there, here, Sunday night 3. yesterday morning 4. yesterday evening, today, then/yesterday 5. now, there, Sunday evening

    9 Changes That Occur in Reported Speech: Putting It All Together (p. 415) A.

    2. after dinner Mrs. Victoria had been helping her put things away in the pantry

    3. suddenly she had seen someone creeping behind the bushes and she had screamed

    4. she had run into the garden but she hadnt been able to get a good look at him

    5. later that evening they had looked through the house but nothing had seemed to be missing

    6. they had just then found a bottle of nitroglycerin

    7. if a person took too much nitroglycerin, it could cause death

    8. they had found it in the trash can in the bedroom that Mr. Small had been using.

    B. Answers will vary.

    10 Relationship Between Original and Reported Speech: What Exactly Did They Say? (p. 416)

    2. a 5. a 8. b 3. b 6. b 4. b 7. a

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    Grammar Practice 5: Reported Questions, Commands, and Requests

    11 Reported Questions: Brainstorming (p. 419)

    2. Paul wanted to know if/whether more men or women bought books.

    3. Tim wanted to know how many books the average person in the United States read each year.

    4. Carrie wondered if/whether reading books could change peoples lives.

    5. Tanya wondered if/whether people had been reading fewer books because of TV and the Internet.

    6. Paul asked what reasons people gave for reading books.

    7. Angela wondered if/whether childeren who read a lot would continue to read a lot when they are adults.

    8. Carrie asked what could be done to encourage people to read more.

    12 Reported Commands and Requests: She Told Us to Write (p. 420) 3. Mrs. Blair told us first to think about questions we had about reading. 4. Mrs. Blair asked us to help her get everyone started by sharing our questions with each other.

    Mrs. Blair asked if we could help her get everyone started by sharing our questions with each other.

    5. Mrs. Blair said to use the questions for ideas about topics. 6. Mrs. Blair told us not to use just our own ideas for this paper. 7. Mrs. Blair said to work on the paper in groups. 8. Tanya and Paul asked me if you and I could do some research for the paper. Tanya and Paul

    asked you and me to do some research for the paper. 9. Tanya and Paul asked you and me if we would also edit the final paper. Tanya and Paul asked

    you and me to edit the final paper. 10. Mrs. Blair told us not to write more than five pages because she didnt want to have too

    much reading to do.

    13 Using Noun Clauses and Reported Speech: A Survey About Reading (p. 420) A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary. Ch21 Ex 13C The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

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    Unit Ten Wrap-up Activities

    1 The Business of Romance Fiction: EDITING (p. 422)

    For my assignment, I decided to interview Alexa Smith, president of Forever Yours

    Publishers. I wondered that I could get an interview with her, because I know that shes very

    busy. I was surprised at that her secretary said there would be no problem.

    As soon as I met Ms. Smith, I told to her how much I enjoy reading Forever Yours

    romances. I added that I had a whole bookcase of them and asked if this was unusual. She

    answered that some women bought every Forever Yours romance that was published. Then

    she told me to dont be shy about asking my questions.

    I started by asking Ms. Smith how did she decide which books to publish.

    Computer analyses could be useful seemed obvious to me, so I asked her whether she used

    computers. Ms. Smith replied that she preferred to use Madge. She explained me that Madge

    was a secretary who always guessed right about if a book would be a success.

    I asked her whether she read manuscripts by first-time writers. She told me that she has

    just looked at one. It began like this: Oh, uncle, if you had come into my life years ago, I

    wouldnt have been alone Maggie said. According to Ms. Smith, after that first line she

    wasnt sure if to read any more.

    But she pointed out that some inexperienced writers had become very successful. For this

    reason, she always tells her workers that they had to read each manuscript. After this, Ms.

    Smith ended the interview by giving me a copy of the latest Forever Yours romance.

    1. whether

    2. surprised that

    3.told her 4. enjoyed

    9. had

    5. not to

    6. she decided

    7. That computer

    8. explained to

    10. alone, 11. whether

    12. have

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    2 A ______ Story: SPEAKING/WRITING (p. 423)

    Answers will vary.

    3 Reporting a Scene: WRITING (p. 423)

    Answers will vary.

    4 Write Your Own Story: SPEAKING/WRITING (p. 424)

    Answers will vary. Unit 10 Ex 4 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

  • Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.

    UNIT ELEVEN: Adverb Clauses; Correcting Ideas

    Think About Grammar (p. 427)

    A. Joyce needs a durable accurate watch she wears the Adventurer

    Edgar wants a watch that reflects the importance of his position he wears the Prestige

    transition

    B. 1. Furthermore 2. because, so, Therefore 3. Although, but, however 4. After, Afterward

    CHAPTER 22: ADVERB CLAUSES

    Introductory Task: A Questionnaire on Advertising and Your Buying Behavior (p. 428)

    A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Adverb Clauses

    1 Identifying Adverb Clauses: The Research Behind the Advertising (p. 430)

    Before they try to sell a product, advertisers need to know which group of consumers

    would be most likely to buy it. Advertisers call these consumers the target market for the

    product. The target market for a product may be very large (e.g., the market for snack foods),

    or it may be relatively small (e.g., the market for luxury cars). Because they want to advertise

    effectively, advertisers do a great deal of research on the consumers in the target market. They

    try to find out about the consumers habits, interests, opinions, and buying behavior.

    Advertisers use various techniques to get information from and about consumers. When

    consumers buy a product, they are often asked to fill out a questionnaire. They are asked to

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    comment on products or advertisements in telephone surveys or in group interviews.

    Advertisers also interview or observe consumers while they are shopping. Although

    consumers may not be aware of it, advertisers gather data about their Internet shopping habits,

    too. After advertisers have collected all this information, they analyze it. Then they make

    decisions about products and advertising.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Types of Adverb Clauses I

    2 Adverb Clauses of Time: New Products and Consumer Behavior (p. 432)

    A. 2. When a new product is introduced, only a few people begin using it. 3. Innovators try the new product as soon as they hear that it is available.

    4. Once innovators adopt a new product, some other people will try it.

    5. After the innovators and early adopters accept the product, they become opinion leaders for other people.

    6. Before other consumers try the product, they usually ask an opinion leader for information and advice about it.

    7. Laggards may never adopt the product as long as they live.

    8. Whenever advertisers introduce new products, they want these opinion leaders to notice the products.

    9. Advertisers must think about these opinion leaders as they are planning their advertising strategies.

    10. Since microwave ovens were introduced, only a few Norwegians have started using them.

    B. Answers will vary.

    3 Adverb Clauses of Reason: The Opinions You Trust (p. 434) A.

    2. I needed help because I was confused. Because I was confused, I needed help. 3. I asked a friend for advice since computers are so expensive. Since computers are so

    expensive, I asked a friend for advice. 4. Lots of her friends trust her opinions as she is an expert. As she is an expert, lots of her

    friends trust her opinions.

    B. Answers will vary.

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    4 Adverb Clauses of Time and Reason: Enter the Contest (p. 434) A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Ch22 Ex 4A The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Types of Adverb Clauses II

    5 Adverb Clauses of Contrast and Opposition: Escape to the Mall (p. 436) 2. He came to the mall with us although he had a lot of homework to do. Although he had a lot

    of homework to do, he came to the mall with us. 3. Even though we had a big lunch, we bought snacks at the food court. We bought snacks at

    the food court even though we had a big lunch. 4. Though the mall was noisy and crowded, we had a good time. We had a good time though

    the mall was noisy and crowded.

    6 Using While to Show Contrast: Information About Consumers (p. 437) A. Answers may vary, but some possible answers are:

    2. In a restaurant; Some people prefer to eat dinner in a restaurant, while other people prefer to eat dinner at home.

    3. males; While males account for 48 percent of the population, females account for 52 percent. 4. a long time to decide; It takes a long to decide which kind of car to buy, while it takes a short

    time to decide which brand of toothpaste to buy. 5. Most people have computers; While most people have computers now, very few people had

    home computers in the 1970s. B. Answers will vary.

    7 Reason Versus Contrast and Opposition: Brand Loyalty (p. 438) A. 2. even though 5. as 3. although 6. While 4. since 7. even though

    B. Answers will vary.

    8 Adverb Clauses of Purpose: The Psychology of Buying (p. 439)

    A. 2. Consumers buy food so (that) they can satisfy a basic survival need.

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    3. People buy some products so that they will stay safe and healthy.

    4. Scott and Martha bought a car seat so that they could protect their baby from injury in an accident.

    5. People buy some things so that other people will accept or admire them.

    6. Jay drove a luxury car so that other people would know that he had achieved financial success.

    7. Dolores always wore an unusual style of clothing so that she could express her individuality.

    B. Answers will vary.

    9 Adverb Clauses: The Influences on Your Buying Behavior (p. 440) A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary.

    Ch22 Ex 9B The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    CHAPTER 23: CONNECTING IDEAS

    Introductory Task: Is It Fair? (p. 442)

    A. 2. and 7. and 11. or 3. However 8. Nonetheless 12. Furthermore 4. First 9. Besides 13. or 5. Then 10. but 14. Nevertheless 6. so B. Answers will vary.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1: Coordinating Conjunctions

    1 Coordinating ConjunctionsMeaning: Childrens Wants and Needs (p. 445)

    2. and 3. or 4. so 5. but 6. so 7. yet

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    2 Combining Ideas with Coordinating Conjunctions; Subjects Joined with And, Or: Cartoons and Superheroes Sell Toys (p. 446)

    1.b. The cartoons and another childrens show are on TV now. 2.a. Robbie and Jenna have seen the ads for those toys. 2.b. Robbie or Jenna has seen the ads for those toys. 3.a. A cartoon character or a superhero was in the commercial. 3.b. A cartoon character and a superhero were in the commercial. 4.a. Their grandparents and their aunt are going to buy those toys for them. 4.b. Their grandparents or their aunt is going to buy those toys for them.

    3 Punctuating Sentences With or Without Coordinating Conjunctions: Image Advertising (p. 446)

    3. Advertisers know this, so they often use images or music to appeal to consumers emotions. 4. Sometimes commercials dont show the product at all. They show positive images that

    advertisers want consumers to associate with the product. 5. Images of freedom, youthfulness, and friendship are common in American commercials. 6. NC 7. The car seems to be traveling through a terrible storm, but the family inside it is safe. 8. NC 9. Hector loves his wife very much, and he would like to give her a diamond necklace. 10. Car commercials often show wild driving scenes. Advertisers know that consumers want

    fun adventure and excitement in their lives. 11. Naomi isnt really an adventurous person, yet she bought a fast sports car.

    4 Parallel Structures: The Messages the Images Send (p. 447) 2. NC 3. When you serve these snacks at your parties, your life will be full of pleasure, happiness, and

    friendship. 4. NC 5. As soon as a man buys this car, he begins having exciting adventures and attracting beautiful

    women. / As soon as a man buys this car, he begins to have exciting adventures and to attract beautiful women.

    6. They will know that his car is elegant, powerful, and expensive/costly.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 2: Connecting Main Clauses That Have the Same Verb Phrase

    5 Connecting Main Clauses: What Are Your Reactions I (p. 449)

    A. 3. Ive seen the Burger Heaven commercial, and my children have seen the Burger Heaven

    commercial.

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    Ive seen the Burger Heaven commercial, and my children have, too. Ive seen the Burger Heaven commercial, and so have my children have. 4. My children see a lot of fast food commercials, and Im not happy about that. NC 5. French fries arent good for them, and sodas arent good for them.

    French fries arent good for them, and sodas arent, either. French fries arent good for them, and neither are sodas.

    6. Barry likes the sports car ad, and Diego likes the sports car ad. Barry likes the sports car ad, and Diego does, too. Barry likes the sports car ad, and so does Diego.

    7. The fast driving looks exciting, and the scenery is amazing. NC 8. Laura cant remember that ad, and Wendell cant remember that ad. Laura cant remember that ad, and Wendell cant, either. Laura cant remember that ad, and neither can Wendell. 9. I saw the new sneaker ads, and Heather saw the new sneaker ads. I saw the new sneaker ads, and Heather did, too. I saw the new sneaker ads, and so did Heather. 10. The music didnt impress us, and the basketball players didnt impress us. The music didnt impress us, and the basketball players didnt, either. The music didnt impress us, and neither did the basketball players. 11. Alvin thinks the commercials on TV are better than the programs, and I think Alvin has

    watched every one of them. B. Answers will vary.

    6 Using Coordinating Conjunctions: What Are Your Reactions II (p. 450) Answers will vary. Ch23 Ex 6 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 3: Transitions I

    7 Punctuating Sentences Connected by Transitions: All Image and No Product? (p. 452)

    2. The manufacturer of Infiniti automobiles hoped to create excitement and curiosity about them. The advertising agency decided, therefore, to follow an unusual approach in introducing the cars to consumers. OR The manufacturer of Infiniti automobiles hoped to create excitement and curiosity about them; the advertising agency decided, therefore, to follow an unusual approach in introducing the cars to consumers.

    3. They wanted consumers to associate Infinitis with nature. Also, they wanted consumers to equate the cars with peace of mind and serenity. OR They wanted consumers to associate Infinitis with nature; also, they wanted consumers to equate the cars with peace of mind and serenity.

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    4. The commercials consisted of lovely natural scenes. In addition, they featured an announcer quietly discussing the harmony that exists between nature and man. OR The commercials consisted of lovely natural scenes; in addition, they featured an announcer quietly discussing the harmony that exists between nature and man.

    5. The commercials showed rocks and trees and rain falling on ponds. They didnt show the cars at all, however. OR The commercials showed rocks and trees and rain falling on ponds; they didnt show the cars at all, however.

    6. The announcer talked about the simplicity of nature. Many people, consequently, were confused about what was being advertised. OR The announcer talked about the simplicity of nature; many people, consequently, were confused about what was being advertised.

    7. The advertisers were convinced that the no product commercials were a great success because millions of people were curious about their meaning. However, the manufacturer decided to hire a new agency. OR The advertisers were convinced that the no product commercials were a great success because millions of people were curious about their meaning; however, the manufacturer decided to hire a new agency.

    GRAMMAR PRACTICE 4: Transitions II

    8 Addition Transitions: Valuable Information? (p. 454)

    A. Many people have criticisms of advertising. They say that it causes dissatisfaction among

    people who cant afford the products that it promotes. They say that advertising leads to

    materialism in our culture. It does this by encouraging people to want and buy more things.

    However, other people point out the benefits of advertising. It informs consumers about

    services such as health care and educational programs. Advertising gives consumers

    information about prices and about new products that they might need or want. These kinds

    of information can be valuable for consumers. Although I can understand both points of

    view, I believe that advertising has the potential to do more good than harm.

    B. Answers will vary.

    2. Also, Furthermore, In addition, Besides

    1. Also, Furthermore, In addition, Besides

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    9 Time Transitions: At Work at an Ad Agency (p. 455) First

    This is the agenda for our meeting today. Jack is going to describe the process he used to carry out the market research for a new client. The client is happy with the results, Next, then so we can all benefit from Jacks information. Helene is going to give us a progress report on Next, then her project. Well look at and discuss the artwork for the new Space-Lex ads. Those are the Finally ads that Nora and Perry have been working on. Were going to brainstorm ideas for the next Burger Heaven commercials. B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary.

    10 Result Transitions; Contrast and Opposition Transitions: The Images Versus Reality (p. 456)

    A. 2. One of the special ingredients is sugar. Consequently, the soft drink causes tooth decay. One of the special ingredients is sugar; consequently, the soft drink causes tooth decay. 3. People who use this product have lost weight. Therefore, it can make you lose weight. People who use this product have lost weight; therefore, it can make you lose weight. 4. Those people ate less and exercised more. As a result, they lost weight. Those people ate less and exercised more; as a result, they lost weight. 5. Michael Jordan wears these shoes. Therefore, you can succeed in sports by wearing these

    shoes. Michael Jordan wears these shoes; therefore, you can succeed in sports by wearing these

    shoes. 6. Michael Jordan worked very hard. Consequently, he succeeded in sports. Michael Jordan worked very hard; consequently, he succeeded in sports.

    B.

    2. He isnt a doctor. However, he plays the part of one in advertisements. He isnt a doctor; however, he plays the part of one in advertisements. 3. The actress has never used that product. Nonetheless she recommends using it in the ad. The actress has never used that product; nonetheless she recommends using it in the ad. 4. The men in those ads werent really dentists. However, many people believed that they

    were. The men in those ads werent really dentists; however, many people believed that they

    were. 5. Using actors to play the parts of real people can be misleading. Nevertheless,

    advertisers continue to do it. Using actors to play the parts of real people can be misleading; nevertheless, advertisers

    continue to do it.

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    11 Result Versus Contrast and Opposition Transitions: Telling the Difference (p. 457)

    Answers will vary.

    12 Example Transitions: Can You Support These Ideas? (p. 457)

    Answers will vary.

    13 TransitionsFunction: Issues in Advertising (p. 458)

    2. b 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. b 7. b 8.a 9. b 10. a

    14 Using Connectors: Your Turn Now (p. 459) Answers will vary.

    Ch23 Ex 14 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    Unit Eleven Wrap-up Activities

    1 New Coke: EDITING (p. 460)

    The story of New Coke began in the early 1980s. When Pepsi began using the rock star

    Michael Jackson in commercials, sales of Pepsi rose rapidly. Young people were turning

    away from Coke therefore the president of Coca Cola Company decided that Coke needed a

    new image. He instructed the chemists at Coca Cola to develop a new recipe for Coke, they

    produced New Coke. It had a sweeter, less fizzy taste than old Coke. After they developed the

    new product the company spent $4 million and two years on consumer research. In taste tests,

    consumers preferred the new taste over the original by 61 to 39 percent. Coke was sure that

    New Coke would be successful. Because its flavor was so popular in the tests.

    In 1985, Coca Cola announced that old Coke would soon be replaced by New Coke.

    Trouble began, as soon as this announcement was made. Consumers wanted to buy old Coke

    3. product, the

    1 Coke; therefore,

    2. Coke, so /Coke. They

    4. successful because

    5. began as soon as

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    while they still could. However, they began to buy all the old Coke that they could find. Coca

    Cola spent over $10 million on an advertisements to introduce New Coke. Nonetheless people

    remained loyal to old Coke. They hated the flavor of New Coke, furthermore many of them

    were emotionally upset about the change. Thousands of people wrote letters to the company.

    One letter said, My wife doesnt like New Coke, and neither dont I. Its too sweet and flat.

    We liked drinking old Coke and to feel its tingle in our throats. If you dont bring back old

    Coke, well sue you in court for taking away a beloved symbol of America. Another man

    wrote and performed a protest song to express his strong feelings. Although the company had

    spent millions on research and advertising, but they hadnt taken into account peoples

    emotional attachment to old Coke. Millions of consumers were very angry the company

    announced that it would bring back old Coke as Coke Classic. No one was disappointed.

    Today you wont find New Coke anywhere, and Coca Cola has no plans to change the real

    thing again.

    2 A Print Advertisement: WRITING (p. 461) Answers will vary.

    3 A Television Commercial: SPEAKING (p. 461) Answers will vary.

    4 An Essay: WRITING (p. 462) Answers will vary.

    Unit 11 Ex 4 The following model is also available to students at the Grammar Links Website.

    12. angry, so the/angry; therefore,/consequently,/as a result, the

    11. Although . . . advertising, they / The company . . . advertising, but

    6. Therefore, Consequently, As a Result

    7. Nonetheless, 8. Coke; furthermore, /Coke. Furthermore,

    9. do

    10. to drink ... to feel drinking... feeling

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