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  • 1.


  • Each woman faced the decision to either challenge or accommodate the traditional role of women.
    • Matilda Bradley Carse
    • Alice Austen
    • Ani DeFranco
    • Marilyn Monroe

3. Matilda Bradley Carse

  • Born September 19, 1835
  • Time Period she was active: Gilded Age (mid 1860s to early 1900s)

4. Women and the Gilded Age

  • Known for political involvement during campaigns and elections
  • Began to take action in prohibition

5. Matildas Many Involvements

  • WCTU (Womens Christian Temperance Union)
  • WTPA (Womens Temperance Publishing Association)
  • Temperance Temple

6. Matilda and the WCTU

  • She was the president of the Chicago chapter of the WCTU
  • Sponsored activities that took place in the WCTU
  • Was capable of providing economic aid to the WCTU through various fund raisers she put together.
  • Created social reforms to aid the Chicago Slums

7. Logo of the WCTU 8. Matilda and the WTPA

  • She founded the association, this published a weekly newspaper called The Signal.
  • This association published books and articles that were in favor of the WCTU and the temperance movement.
  • She provided employment for many women.
  • Wrote various articles herself.
  • Overall a success as a businesswomen.

9. Matilda and the Temperance Temple

  • Her last project
  • Meant to provide funds for the WCTU
  • Never fully developed
  • Considered a failure
  • Matilda died shortly after in 1917

10. Alice Austen 11. Alice Austen

  • Austen was born in 1866 in Staten Island, NY
  • She began taking photographs at age 10

12. Alice Austen:The Victorian Age

  • The Victorian Age lasted from the year 1837 to 1901
  • Leisure activities became very popular including bicycling, tennis, and traveling

13. Text Photos by Alice Austen of friends cycling, practicing gymnastics and goofing around 14. Alice Austen:The Victorian Age

  • Women were expected to marry early and create happy, comfortable homes for their families
  • However, Austen never married, but instead formed strong bonds with other women, a practice that received much negative attention during the time period

15. Julia Martin, Julia Bredt and Self Dressed Up as Men 1891 Darned Club 1891 16. A Victorian Age Photographer

  • Aside from capturing upper-middle class life, Austen also photographed those at the bottom of society
  • The Victorian Era saw a large influx of immigrants into the country especially into large cities such as New York where Austen lived

17. Below: Hester Street, Egg Stand Group1895 A perfect example of lower class life in New York City 18. Life for most 19 thcentury immigrants in New York was all about work, including young children, like the ones below 19. Alice Austen:A woman Before her time

  • -One of the first female photographers in a male dominated sphere
  • -Did not marry or have children
  • -Spent her life with a female companion
  • -Photographed the world as she saw it, both the good and the bad


  • Ani DiFranco (1970- )

21. I think its really important for people to tell their story, so I want to be as frank as possible Its especially important for women, because the dominant history is male.Ani Difranco

  • Born in Buffalo, New York on September 23, 1970 as Angela Maria DiFranco.
  • Age 9-She began to learn and play guitar.
  • Age 11- Parents divorced
  • Age 15-Declared herself an emancipated minor.
  • Graduates high school in three years leading her to pursue a career in music.
  • Age 19- Starts her own record label: Righteous Babe Records

22. Significance

  • She is a business woman, musician and political activist.
  • Independent Folk artist [18 albums and numerous Grammy nominations]
  • Has won a Grammy, a Woman of Courage, and numerous awards for her outstanding work

23. Challenging traditional role of women

  • Propaganda via
  • Righteous Babe Records
  • Her popularity is mostly explained because she is outspoken about her business and ideals...
  • Most of her songs deal with politics, racism, sexism, sexual abuse, homophobia, reproductive rights, poverty, and war.

24. Challenging the Status Quo

  • In the early 1990s, created Righteous Babe Records and began to release music
  • As the music turned larger many began to follow in her footsteps.[like Madonna]
  • Many in the music industry began to be like-minded and started their own business and revel in the complete artistic freedom.
  • She began something and others have followed.

25. March for Women's LivesApril 25, 2004- Washington, D.C

  • Ani singing and playing guitar for the audienceMy body is all that I own

26. On her own

  • Folk music: writes, plays and produces her music
  • Contributes to the feminist movement just like many influential women do
  • Works for what she believes is right and gets recognized for her individualhard work
  • Understands the meaning of DIY and informs others of it.

27. Ani in the end...

  • Independent folk artist who speaks out about politics, feminism and other touchy subjects to get the word out.
  • Does what she does because it makes her happy
  • I was able to quit my day job and devote myself to what I love.

28. 29.

  • Born in Los Angeles on June 1, 1926
  • Spent most of her childhood in and out of orphanages before getting married at age 16

30. Changing to fit in

  • In 1945 Marilyn startedher modeling career, and began bleaching her hair blonde due to the agency wanting a model with lighter hair.
  • As a model she took whatever jobs her modeling agency offered to her was on the cover of many magazines includingPlayboyin 1953.

31. Changing her name

  • In 1947 it was suggested by a head of a movie studio that Monroe should change her name from her original name Norma Jean Baker to Marilyn Monroe.

32. Films

  • In films such asDont Bother to Knock ,Gentlemen Prefer Blondes , andHow to Marry A MillionaireMonroe became known for playing the ditzy dumb blonde characters.

33. Marriage

  • During the 1950s women were supposed to get married and start a family.
  • Marilyn Monroe was married three times:
    • James Dougherty, 1942-1946
    • Joe DiMaggio, 1954
    • Arthur Miller, 1956-1961

Marilyn and Joe DiMaggio 34. Death

  • Despite all of the glamour that Marilyn was surrounded by, she had become dependant on anti- depressants.
  • Marilyn Monroe died on August 5, 1962 of an overdose which was also considered to be aprobable suicide in her home in Los Angeles.

35. Going with the status quo

  • Marilyn Monroe went along with what others wanted her to be and was never completely happy.
  • While she was a famous actress, she was mostly known for being a sex symbol.


  • While some women have gone along with what others have wanted them to be many have chosen to go against it and still be as successful and in some cases happier than those who followed the traditional role of women.