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Download GIC Modeling - WECC NERC TPL-007-1 ¢â‚¬¢ FERC Order 779 Requirements ¢â‚¬â€œInitial and on-going assessments

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  • GIC Modeling SRWG Meeting

    March 2014

  • Introduction

    • Terminology

    • Theory

    • GMD Impacts to Power System Equipment

    • Historic Events

    • Regulatory Activities

    • Geomagnetic Induced Current Modeling

    • GIC Study Tools

    • GIC Modeling Data

    • Challenges

    • IPCO GIC Study Experiences

    • SRWG Discussion Topics

  • Terminology

    • CME = Coronal Mass Ejection

    • GMD = Geomagnetic Disturbance

    • GIC = Geomagnetically Induced Current

    • HILF = High Impact Low Frequency Events

    – Coordinated Cyber, Physical, and Blended Attacks

    – Pandemics

    – Geomagnetic Disturbances

    – Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

    – Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI)

  • GMDs and the Power System

    DC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    GIC

    AC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    Powerflow Solar

    Flare CME

    Perturbation

    of Earth’s

    Magnetic

    Field

    nT/min

    Planetary Science

    Space

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    Maxwell

    Equations

    and Earth

    Conductivity

    (σ) Model

    V/km

    Physics (E&M) Power Engineering

    Near Earth’s Surface

  • GMD Impact on Power System

    Equipment

    • Transformer Half-Cycle Saturation

    – Harmonics

    – Increase Reactive Power Consumption

    • Increased risk of system voltage collapse

    – Transformer Heating

    • Increased risk of transformer damage

    • Protective Relaying Misoperation

    • Harmonics / DC Offset due to GIC

    • Electromechanical Relays

    • Communication System Issues

  • October 31 - Sun storm causes problems for Swedish

    power system. The solar storm has caused technical

    glitches in Sweden's power system in the past few

    days and may be to blame for a blackout that affected

    50,000 people on Thursday, October 30.

    Information Notice No. 90-42: FAILURE OF ELECTRICAL POWER EQUIPMENT

    DUE TO SOLAR MAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

    Specific events occurred at the Three Mile Island Unit 1, Hope Creek Unit 1, and Salem Unit 1

    nuclear power plants. …inspection of the generator

    step-up transformer… severe overheating, melted

    low

    -voltage service connections in phases A and C,

    and insulation discoloration in phase B. On

    September 19, at Salem Unit 2 nuclear power

    plant, a second solar storm damaged the generator

    step-up transformer. Sep 1990

    Transformer exit-lead

    overheating

    Transformer winding failure

    Historic Events

  • GMD Regulatory Activities

    • FERC Order 779

    – Issued to NERC in May 16, 2013

    – Directed NERC to develop reliability

    standards to address the potential impact of

    GMD Events on the reliable operation of

    the Bulk-Power System

    – Directed Standards Development in Two

    Stages

    • Stage 1 Standards

    – Focus on GMD Operating Procedures

    – Must be filed by January 2014

    • Stage 2 Standards

    – Focus on initial and on-going study

    assessments of benchmark GMD events

    – Must be filed by January 2015

  • NERC Project 2013-03

    Geomagnetic Disturbance Mitigation

    • Stage 1: NERC EOP-010-1 Geomagnetic Disturbance Operations

    – NERC BOT adoption 11/7/2013

    – Filed with FERC 11/14/2013

    • Stage 2: NERC TPL-007-1 Transmission System Planned

    Performance During Geomagnetic Disturbances

    – Standards Authorization Request (SAR) Completed

    – Status = Active Formal Development

  • NERC EOP-010-1

    • Applicable Entities

    – Reliability Coordinator

    – Transmission Operator with a Transmission Operator Area that includes a

    power transformer with a high side wye-grounded winding with terminal

    voltage greater than 200 kV

    • Effective Date Timeline

    – First day of the first calendar quarter that is six months after applicable

    approvals (i.e. FERC, NERC BOT, etc.)

    • Requires TOPs to develop, maintain, and implement GMD

    Operating Procedures to mitigate the effects of GMD events

  • NERC TPL-007-1

    • FERC Order 779 Requirements

    – Initial and on-going assessments of the risk and potential impact of

    benchmark GMD events on the Bulk-Power System

    – Identification of benchmark GMD events

    – Develop and implement action plans to protect against instability,

    uncontrolled separation, or cascading caused by GMD events

    • Proposed Effective Date Timeline

    – Implementation Period was not addressed in Order 779

    • Potential Impact to SRWG

    – May need to develop GIC Modeling and Data Reporting Requirements

  • GIC Modeling

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    Qloss_GIC, IGIC QV

    PV DC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    GIC

    AC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    Powerflow

    Qloss_GIC

    Contingency

    Analysis Transient

    Stability

    E&M DC Network Model AC Network Model

    Equivalent Circuit

    Substation

    Transmission Line

    Transformer

  • Transmission Lines

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    DC Voltage Source

    Transmission Line GIC Model

    LY

    SUB 1

    (Lat A, Long A)

    SUB 2

    (Lat B, Long B)

    Ex

    EY

    Lx

    System Voltage

    Level

    (kV)

    DC Resistance

    (ohm/km)

    230 0.072

    345 0.037

    500 0.013

    735 0.011

  • Series Capacitors

    Transmission Lines with Series Capacitors

    Block GIC Current from flowing

    Image: Idaho Power

  • Caution Regarding Series Capacitors

    • Line Shunts can form GIC circuits

  • Transformers

    Transformer GIC Model

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    Winding Configuration Winding Resistance

    Core Type

  • Substations

    Typical Network Resistance Values

    Image: Advanced Grounding Concepts

    Grounding Resistance Measurement

    Fall of Potential Test Method

    System

    Voltage Level

    (kV)

    Grounding

    Resistance of

    Substation

    (ohms)

    230 0.563

    345 0.667

    500 0.125

    735 0.258

    Substation GIC Model

    Rgnd

  • GIC Study Tools

    • General Electric Positive Sequence Load Flow (GE PSLF)

    – GIC add-on module available in GE PSLF V18.1_02

    • Latitude / Longitude in bus record table

    • Four New tables for Substation, secddg table, trang table, e-field table

    • Siemens Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS®E)

    – GIC add-on module available in Versions 32.2 and 33.3

    • Input data via auxiliary text file *.GIC file or GIC module GUI

    • PowerWorld Simulator V17

    – GIC add-on module available

    • Input data via auxiliary text file or GIC Add-on Analysis Dialog

    • Calculation Methods are based on NERC GMD Task Force

    Recommendations

    • Default values for some GIC data if unknown

  • GIC Modeling Data

    • GIC Modeling Data on an wide area basis

    – Powerflow Network

    – Latitude / Longitude of Substations

    – Substation Grounding Resistance

    – Transformer Connections

    – Transformer DC Winding Resistance

    – Status of GIC Blocking Devices

    • Equipment Specific GIC Modeling Data

    – Transformer Core Construction

    – Transformer Saturation Coefficient (K-Factor)

  • Challenges

    • GMD has more impact on Northern Portion of the Interconnection

    – Defining GIC Data Reporting Requirements

    • All of WECC?

    • Portions of WECC?

    • All elements of the Bulk-Power System (BPS)?

    • Portions of the BPS?

    – Transmission Lines 200kV and above?

    – Transformers with HV grounded-wye windings 200 kV and above?

    – Additional details are needed in order to completely define new data

    reporting requirements

    • GIC Data Conversion between Software Packages

    – PSLF, PSS/E, PowerWorld have different input data requirements

  • Needs

    • GIC studies should be performed using Wide Area Models

    • GIC Data needs to be available and shared between Entities

    • GIC Blocking in one Area impacts GIC currents in adjacent Areas

    – Whack-a-Mole

  • IPCO GMD Study Experiences

    • DC GIC Analysis

    – Uniform Electric Field

    • AC Powerflow Analysis with GIC

    – Wide Area

    – Idaho Area

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