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GHAZIABAD GATEWAY OF UTTAR PRADESH
“VOTED NO. 6 IN AMONGST THE TOP 10 DYNAMIC CITIES OF THE WORLD BY NEWSWEEK”
Historic Context of the City
The 1857 Revolt: A sleepy town in Northern India was on the verge of an awakening, just as any other town in India, the times were distressed, and so were the people, in the fight for freedom, many old walled cities crumbled to ruins, one of them being Ghaziabad, situated near the Capital and old walled city.
In 1740, the vizier Ghazi-ud-din, who served as the minister of the Moghul Emperor Ahmadshah and Alamgir Ilnd, established the place and called it Ghaziuddinnagar after himself. He then proceeded to build a spacious structure and that consisted of 120 rooms of masonry with arches that point up. According to records, this city that the vizier established was constructed within the boundary of four giant doors named Dasna Gate, Sihani Gate, Delhi Gate, and Shahi gate.
The Jawahar Gate as it stands today.
A ruined structure from the old times.(old city)
Circa 1857:In 1857 to 1858, the city was the scene of fighting during the Indian Mutiny, when Indian soldiers in the Bengal Army that was under the British East India Company mutinied but soon turned into a widespread uprising against British rule in India. The Hindon River, in particular, was the site of several skirmishes between Indian troops and British soldiers in 1857.The entire district witnessed scenes of public war.
22 kms. from NCT Delhi and is an important industrial and trading center in DMA area.
National Highway 24 connecting the city with Delhi-Mordabad-Lucknow.
Two other National Highways i.e. NH-58, Lucknow-Varanasi passing through Niti Pass and NH 91 to Bulandshahar also passes through the city.
The State Highway (SH-57) connects the city to Baghpat and Sahaaranpur. The city is bounded by the NCT Delhi in the west and NOIDA in south.
• 2.5 km from the Hindon river.
• On the north it is bound by the district of Meerut
• On the south by that of Bulandshahar and Gautambudh Nagar.
• On the south-west by Delhi and on the east by the district Jyotibaphule Nagar.
• Road Distance or driving distance from New
Delhi Airport to Ghaziabad is 42 kms
Linkages with nearby towns:
Major Road Network:
Major Road Network:
GDA Objectives: •Preparation of Master Plan for Planned Urban Development. •Development & Control as per Master Plan. •Acquisition of Land and Management for Housing and Urban Development. •Construction Housing and Development. •Provision of Physical and Social Infrastructure.
GDA Departments Land Actuation •Planning •Engineering •Property •Finance •Master Plan •Enforcement •Computer
From the year 1960 to 1977, the Improvement Trust and later on GDA has constructed about lacs of houses and plots of various categories i.e. site/services, EWS, MIG, LIG, HIG and apartments.
•Kaushambi, Vashali, Indirapuram and Govindpuram, Karpooripuram, Swarn Jayanti Puram and Partap Vihar in Hindon Area are the new upcoming residential colonies in Ghaziabad. The authority is constructing commercial complexes in these colonies to create to the needs of the people.
•Prompt service with total transparency. •Development and construction work of high standards at reasonable rates. •Transparency and time bound schedule for every transaction. •Timely clearing of all complaints. •Providing Information and documents regarding working of G.D.A. at the reception and providing base for acceptance or cancellation of the applications for same cases. •Holding "JANTA DARBAR" to resolve the pending cases frequently.
Ghaziabad was declared a ‘District’ in 1976.
•Ghaziabad Municipal Corporation •Niwari,Loni,Dasna,Potla,Faridnagar,Babugarh town panchayats. •Modinagar,Muradnagar,Garhmukhteshwar,Hapur,Pilakhuwa •GNN area has been divided into administrative zones namely City zone, Kavi Nagar Zone, Vijay Nagar Zone .The area is further divided into 60 wards.
Administration: Ghaziabad was given the status of a municipal corporation on 31 August 1994.This was converted to Nagar Nigam in 2000. Jal Nigam is the prime authority which deals with water supply and sewerage works in Ghaziabad Due to its strategic location it has been under tight security in recent times.
Timeline: 1740 :Founded by Wazir Ghazi-ud-din Siddiqi 1763 :The Jat Hindu Raja, Surajmal, was killed near the city by the Rohillas. 1857-58: First war of Independence 1864 Train (Rail) was introduced to the city. First train to Ghaziabad ran from Aligarh, on the Calcutta- Delhi line. There was a problem in printing railway ticket " Gajeeudin Nagar" due to the long name. To reduce the name, it was changed to Ghaziabad. Late 19th Century: Extension of Railway Line, opening of the Ghaziabad- Saharanpur-Amritsar- Lahore line . English settlements begin. Post Independence: Ghaziabad gradually grew as an important industrial centre, its proximity to Delhi, always helping in this cause. The major industries to be established during that period include the Mohan Meakins Industrial estate (Mohan Nagar) and the International Tobacco Company (Guldhar). 1933: The Modinagar Industrial town built by the industrialist Gujarmal Modi. Upto 1976: Influx of refugees, rise in population and steady growth in economic activity. 1976: Ghaziabad declared an independent District,from Meerut
The Central Methodist Church
Area of Development & early Planning efforts
•The total area of the district (according to Census 1991) was 2590.0 sq.km but after the formation of the new district Gautam budh Nagar, it becomes 1933.3 sq.km. •The planned development of Ghaziabad began way back in 1958, when the State Government issued notification to declare development (regulated) area and subsequently in another notification in 1977, Ghaziabad and 137 villages in its surroundings were declared as Ghaziabad Development Area. •The development area of Ghaziabad today is 452 sq. km. •Perceived as a satellite town in MPD-1962. •During 1960-80, the industrial development gave it as an image of industrial township. •With development of Noida and Greater Noida, there has been a distribution of population & Economic activities.
Influence of Proximity to Delhi:The issue & the question
•In the shadow of National Capital Territory of Delhi, the Delhi Metropolitan Region has assumed significance.
The issue: the burden of population coupled with strain on city.s infrastructure has to be shared by the DMA cities/towns. •DMA Cities: Ghaziabad, NOIDA (UP), Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh-Kundli The question: Whether these cities/towns have been able to develop on the basis of induced growth or they have been developed only because of the close proximity and accessibility to NCT Delhi? The cause: There was deliberate planning from 1960s onward to develop towns on the periphery of Delhi to accommodate population growth; eventually these areas grew faster than the urban agglomeration of Delhi. The presently contiguous cities of Ghaziabad, NOIDA, Gurgaon and Faridabad located in other states still do not form the part of Delhi Urban Agglomeration whose assigned population was over estimated by 0.66 million.
Comparative population of Delhi and NCR Towns
•The highest order settlement in the NCR Plan . 2001were six DMA cities/towns. These towns were slated to grow to 37 lakh against which they actually grew to 30.33 lakh as per 2001 Census.
Hindus and Muslims, as shown in the above table, constitute about 99 per cent population of both the district and the state. Hence population of remaining four religious communities is but a symbolic importance.
Sex-ratio is one of the important demographic characteristics of a society. It is also a sensitive indicator of women’s status. Imbalance in sex-ratio (i.e. a gap between number of females and males) generates a lot of demographic, social and ethical problems. Sex-ratio of six religious communities is not uniform.
Population & Growth rate
Comparative growth rate from 1901 to 2001
Demographic Analysis Ghaziabad city has witnessed unprecedented growth of population especially during the last three decades. 1911: Population was 11309 which grew to 9.6 lakh in 2001. 1971-2001: Population increased by 6.5 times. 1981-2001: Increased by 2.37 times. The population growth of 89.25% during 1991-2001 in comparison to 62.46% population growth in urban areas of UP sub-region signifies that the city's population has been growing at a very rapid pace compared to other cities of UP sub-region. Reasons for the rapid Growth rate: •Proximity to Delhi •Establishment of planned industrial estates •Discouragement to the establishment of large-scale industries in NCT Delhi. •Due to the availability of fertile land the nearby villages wherein the population desired to improve their living conditions settled down in Ghaziabad. •Due to close proximity to NCT Delhi, the middle class families, which were unable to purchase houses in NCT Delhi, preferred to purchase them in Ghaziabad.
Pull factors in Ghaziabad and push factor from NCT Delhi.
Demographic Analysis The majority of people settled from in Trans-Hindon Area work in NCT Delhi, which is an indication of growing urbanization in the DMA area and to be part of Ghaziabad Urban Agglomeration. Post independence: Establishment of industries, therefore discouragement of establishing large scale industries in Delhi NCT. 1921-1951: There was sharp increase in the growth rate of population mainly due to establishment of grain markets and oil mills, breweries and administrative offices during 1930.s and influx of refugees. 1961: Planned Development begins, which further attracted population contributing the growth of 81.29% during 1961-71 and 109.66% during 1971-81 and 78.21% during 1981-91.
Factors Responsible for rapid Population Growth: •UPSIDC developed industrial estates like Sahibabad, Kavinagar, Bulandshahr Road, Loni Road, Meerut Road and G.T.Road whereas GDA developed residential and physical infrastructure. •The fertile land coupled with widespread agriculture attracted labor which became push factors for the population migrating towards an employment generating area during 1950.s and 1960.s. •Availability of relatively cheaper land in Ghaziabad as compared to NCT Delhi. •Transport corridors connecting NCT Delhi to the resource base of the Western Uttar Pradesh via Ghaziabad gave impetus to the trade and industrial activities.
•As per 1981 Census, the density of Ghaziabad was 4366 persons per sq. km •increased to 7066 persons per sq. km. in 1991. •However, in2001, the same declined to 6702 persons per sq. km. This was mainly due to increase in the jurisdiction of Municipal Corporation. •The area of Municipal Corporation also increased from 63.94 sq. km in 1981 to 144.50 sq. km in 2001. However, in actual terms, it is observed that as per the land use pattern, the population density is about 13070 persons per sq. km (130 persons per hectare).
Literacy Rate & Education
Occupational Pattern of people •The occupational pattern of any city/town signifies the major activity in which people are
Educational Infrastructure Number of Government educational institutions and their availability per one lakh population is as follows: •Primary Schools :2668 (66.15 per 100,000 population in 2006-07) •Upper Primary Schools :860 (21.32) •Secondary Schools :198 (4.91) •Alternative Education Centre :168 (4.17) •Degree Colleges: (0.07) •Post Graduate Colleges : (0.27) •University 1 :(0.02) •ITIs 4 : (0.10) •Polytechnics 1: (0.02) Availability of Primary and Secondary Schools as well as Degree colleges per lakh population in the district is lower than the state average, which is 78, 22 and 0.86 respectively. There are about 80-100 Medical, Dental, Pharmacy colleges, and Physiotherapy institutes which makes Ghaziabad one of the most education friendly city in India.
MASTER PLAN DEVELOPMENT 1961: The first Master Plan for Ghaziabad was prepared with a perspective of 1981 In 1961, the area of the city was 573.72 hectares 1981: 5853.50 hectares was proposed for development, however against this only 4365.35 hectares (74.60%) were developed. 1986: Next Master Plan was notified , according to which the total developed area was 5933.00 hectares. 2001: Master Plan-2001 proposed 10039.23 hectares as developed land. In actual terms only 8455.00 hectares (84.21%) was developed area.
EXISTING LAND USE:GHAZIABAD,2003
MASTER PLAN DEVELOPMENT As per the Master Plan 2021, total development area of Ghaziabad is 8455 hectares. 4670 hectares is under residential use constituting 55.03% of the developed land. This is followed by industrial use (20.16%) and 6.13% use under the roads, bus stands. These three uses together constitute more than three-fourth of the total landuse of the city. Among the entire uses category both residential and industrial uses have witnessed intensive development. The land under residential use was 1648.37 hectares in 1961, which increased to 3160.39 hectares in 33 1984 and 4670 hectares in 2003. This signifies that that increase in area under residential use in about 40 years has been 2.8 times. As far as industrial development is concerned, the 1961-81 period witnessed expansion, as the city was perceived as industrial town with 91.60 hectares of land developed per year.
The 1991-2001 period has not witnessed industrial development : as many industrial units got closed down due to number of prevailing reasons like shortage of water and power and other supporting infrastructure facilities. Further, the focus of industrial development in UP sub region shifted to NOIDA and Greater Noida with the establishment of separate industrial development authorities for the two towns.
There is further possibility of setting up of new industries as there has been shifting of polluting units from NCT Delhi following recent Hon.ble Supreme Court orders now.
Land Use Analysis •The pace of development could not match the provisions for both physical and social infrastructure and services as per the requirement of the growing population. •It has been observed in the context of landuse pattern that there is exorbitant increase in land prices (for plotted houses), which has led to the development of multistoried apartments (Group Housing) residential units. Plotted Development & Housing
•The Trans- Hindon areas especially Shalimar Garden, Ramprastha, Kaushambi,Vaishali, Rajender Nagar have witnessed large scale construction of group housing flats even on the plots with size of 500 sq.mt.-1000 sq.mt. •This development has by and large been in an unauthorized manner thereby resulting in extreme strain on infrastructure / facilities and services. •The areas meant for plotted development where 2 to 3 dwelling units are supposed to be developed has been converted into multiple dwelling units (15-20) on a plot of 500 sq.mt to 1000 sq.mt. •Density norms suggested for residential purpose had increased to 200 persons per hectare in Regional Plan-2021 from 150 persons per hectare from earlier Plan. This will increase the residential density in the city in coming years.
Type of Housing •In Ghaziabad, most of the respondents i.e. 72 % live in MIG housing.
Authority from which house is being purchased
Comparative chart(with NCR)
Source of Finance for houses:
The Consequences of High Rise,High Density Alters planning principles drastically . have serious adverse repercussions on the overall city infrastructure any up gradation or augmentation of the same is offset by multifold increase in the dwelling units and with consequent problems of low level of access to basic infrastructure like absence of drainage and sewerage, shortage of drinking water, absence of proper solid waste management etc. resulting in deteriorating quality of life. The development Trans- Hindon areas without any consideration of planning for basic facilities have in fact led to mushrooming of large number of residential colonies at the periphery of NCT Delhi.
Major Planning & Developmental Problems The separate identity of Ghaziabad is somewhat diluted under the shadow of NCT Delhi thereby the city has not been able to come up as self induced bustling urban center in NCR. •The economic base with declining industries and new economic activities coming up in unplanned manner has disturbed the physical development of the city. •Unauthorized colonization on agricultural land has resulted in unauthorized and uncontrolled development. •It gives rise to numerous problems for planned development like regularization of colonies and augmentation of infrastructure services / facilities thereof. •lack of strict enforcement of Building Bye Laws and Master Plan provisions has also been responsible for haphazard development. •Excessive congestion on major arterial road for example Ambedkar Road and GT Road. Further due to absence of planned parking spaces, on-road parking of trucks, buses and other vehicles has created serious traffic and transportation problems.
Major Planning & Developmental Problems •Absence of proper solid waste management has caused dumping of wastes into pits thereby resulting in pollution of land, air and water resources. Solid waste is collected and transported in an inefficient way using outdated equipment and techniques. Collected municipal solid waste is indiscriminately dumped at the outskirts of the city and/or at road sides or at crude duping sites. Availability of appropriate site for landfill is another crucial factor. •Uneven distribution of water supply, absence of sewage system and drainage system has added to the woes of city infrastructure. •Absence of common Effluent Treatment Plan in the industrial areas of the city has led to mixing of chemical effluents, which has ultimately polluted the Hindon river and ground water resources. •Indiscriminate exploitation of ground water has led to drastic fall in the level of ground water.
Household Basic Amenities •Household Basic Amenities (HBA) are critical indicators for assessing socio-economic status of people. The district seems to have better position in this regard except percentage of water closet latrines in rural and urban areas.
Health •Although there are many private hospitals, dispensaries and clinics in the district, these are beyond the reach of poor people due to their exorbitant charges. Poor people of both town and villages are mainly dependent upon Government for health care services which are not adequately available. Nor they provide quality and efficient health care services. •District Statistical Report 2005-06 (DSR) indicates that there are 6 Allopathic hospitals, 35 Ayurvedic hospitals, 1 Unani hospital, 35 Homeopathic hospitals, 48 Primary Health Centres, 19 Child and Women Welfare Centres, 1672 Anganwadi Centres and 11 Community Health Centres. •One-third children have not so far been immunized. Two-third of the deliveries are still performed within homes. (for minority concentration district)
Economic Base •The Ghaziabad economy is heavily dependent on the industries mainly SMEs, which are the real assets of the city. The many industries account for the economic growth of the Uttar Pradesh State. •The most important sector is the steel sector. More than 500 steel organizations in the place employ more than 50,000 people. Also, the manufacturing segment employs 53% of the non-agricultural jobs in Ghaziabad. •106 units of medium and large industries employed 24,595 workers in 2001. •Industrial area occupies about 20.16 % according to the master plan which makes it an essential aspect in Ghaziabad’s economy. Various types of industries are : •Manufacturing of Railway Wagons •Maintenance of electric locomotive and EMU Trains •Embroideries •Bicycles •Clayware •Glasswork •Heavy chains •Varnish and paint •In addition, Bharat Electronics Limited is famous for making defense equipments and Muradnagar houses a gun and shell factory. The city of Ghaziabad houses various shopping centers, well designed thoroughfares, and flyovers and is rated as one of the top 10 vibrant cities by Newsweek.
Problems faced by SME’s (Small & Medium Enterprises) •The industrial hub gets only 40% of their total power requirement •The U.P. Government charges 13.5% VAT on spare-parts whereas it is 4% on steel and other metals. •A large number of manufacturers feel that there should be special loans, schemes and rebates for the small units to help them grow as an industry. •Some of the other major challenges faced by SMEs include lack of access to finance, low R&D investment, lack of access to technology, lack of product innovation, inadequate marketing support in an increasingly competitive environment, etc.
Effective Platform •Small industry owners of Ghaziabad decided to join hands and make their presence felt by forming various small scale associations, one such Association is 'Laghu Udyog Evam Vyapar Mandal Samiti.‘ •The association primarily deals with the government departments like DIC, UPFC, UPSIDC, UPPCL, GMC, electricity board, labour department, trade tax department, excise department etc. and takes up the issues facing the industry. •They were successful in registering the industrial area starting from Hindon Vihar till Morta as an approved Industrial Area under DIC •The SME sector accounts for almost 60 percent of the total industrial output in Uttar Pradesh with Ghaziabad being one of the most industrialized cities.
Accessibility to Social Infrastructure Facilities The primary survey regarding social infrastructure facilities revealed that in Ghaziabad, majority i.e. 50 % to 70% of the facilities are located within a distance of 5 kms.
Existing Transport System Major Traffic Intersections .
The important national Highways passing through the Ghaziabad city are NH-58 which goes to Meerut, NH-24 which goes to Hapur and NH-91 which goes to Sikandrabad. Along with these highways, there is Hapur bypass passing through Ghaziabad connecting Madan Mohan Malviya marg and NH 91. The Y junction on NH 24 connecting NH 58 (near Mahamaya sports stadium) has become the most critical intersection in the city. The GT road carries large volume of traffic to an extent that it has exceeded its capacity by 50-60%. Public Transport: •Shared auto service •Bus service from old & new bus stand •Local trains(EMUs) from railway station •Metro at Vaishali & Dilshad Garden
RAPID URBANIZATION INCREASE IN TRAVEL DEMAND Urban transport infrastructure in Ghaziabad, like other cities, is handled by multiple agencies including GNN. State PWD, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India, UP State Road Transport Corporation, Ghaziabad Development Authority.
Traffic related Issues • Inadequate and poor condition of internal roads • Virtually non-existent intra-city public transport. • Bus Stand with inadequate facilities • Inadequate pedestrian facilities • Inadequate parking facilities resulting in haphazard on-street parking • Absence of Truck Terminal parking areas. • Inadequate facilities for non-motorized modes of transport • Inadequacy of roadways • Absence of intra-city public transport: • Inadequate pedestrian facilities • Deficient Junctions • Lack of Traffic Control Devices • Improper location of Bus Stops • Loading and unloading of goods at unauthorized places, obstructing the traffic and pedestrians alike • Absence of Truck Terminal • Inadequate facilities for non-motorized modes of transport • Intermixing of Regional and local traffic.
Traffic related Issues Old Bus Stand Area: Haphazard Traffic,No traffic Police at times to control traffic. Autos & buses create ‘Chaos’
Traffic related Issues Old City Area:Ghantaghar No definite Parking. No segregation of Pedestrian & Vehicular Movement
Proposed Flyover at Mohan Nagar)
The project is expected to bring quite a few benefits, viz, •Result in lower transport costs for freight and passengers of motorised and nonmotorised vehicles; • Improved road transport corridors ; • Road network connectivity; •Improved management of road sector institutions, and •Basic amenities to the town along the proposed highways
Major points of Conflict/Traffic Jams, Creation of a ‘Bottleneck’ at Hindon flyover leads to long traffic jams.
Another important Traffic intersection is the Lal Kuan at NH-24, which serves traffic from Noida,Bulandshahar and adjoining areas. No traffic police at times for monitoring. Heavy traffic jams.
Meerut Morh ‘Y’ Intersection:NH-58 Caters traffic from Meerut,modinagar,Hardiwar, Dehradun ,Roorkee and vice versa. Mostly chaotic due to absence of proper control. Resulting in Haphazard Movement.
Statistics • Daily trips are more with 41% followed by alternate days and weekly trips with about 25% and 14% respectively. •Trips are for business purpose averaging about 43% comparing with 23% of work,18% social and recreation, 8% tourism, 7% of education and 19% other trips respectively.
The majority of people are using their own transport for commuting to their work place.
Results of the Road Side Interview Survey Conducted at NH-24,NH-58 & NH-91 • daily trips are more with 41% followed by alternate days and weekly trips with about 25% and 14% respectively. •trips are for business purpose averaging about 43% comparing with 23% of work,18% social and recreation, 8% tourism, 7% of education and 19% other trips respectively.
Improvement proposals • A grade separator •Road widening on a corridor stretch •A multi-level parking facility •A bus terminal. Thus the main project rationale lies for the rehabilitation of the Transport system for Ghaziabad city in filling the demand – supply gap.
Factor % of people who are not satisfied by the existing conditions
Non-slum Households Slum Households
Road Conditions 20 47
Services of Street Lights 30 20
Drainage facilities along roads 77 65
Vehicular Parking Facilities 75 94 parking space 78 84
Ghaziabad- Water Supply System Ground water has been utilized for piped water supply since 1955, when piped water supply scheme was introduced. From 1977, onwards Ghaziabad Development Authority started developing the Master Plan sectors and with U.P.Jal Nigam services, water supply facility continued to be provided on sector basis without any water supply master plan. To prepare the status and pre-feasibility report of water supply in Ghaziabad city, U.P.Jal Nigam, in 1995, delineated the water supply zones for equitable, economical and efficient distribution of water. 23 Master Plan sectors which are reorganised into 19 water supply zones (WS Zns) and 10 Master Plan sectors
Ghaziabad- Water Supply System : The ‘ISSUES’ Receding water table : ban on ground water abstraction for sale and supply (commercial) of water in Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam area by Central Ground Water Authority . Poor quality of services : intermittent supplies of 2 to 3 hours once a day in specific water supply zones . Inadequate service coverage : piped water supply covers 5% of the abadi population, 16% of slum population, 65% of general population. Weak financial position : financial position of the GNN with respect to watersupply is not healthy as revenue collected from the service is barely sufficient to cover its operation anD maintenance.
Ghaziabad- Water Supply System : The ‘OBJECTIVES’ Goals for the city ‘s water supply system are Total coverage of city population with safe drinking water as per the stipulated norms and standards on sustainable basis; and Ensuring equity in distribution of available supplies. 1. Management To maintain the ground water reserve To reduce the unserved population by 25% upto 2006, 50% upto 2011 and 100 % upto 2021, To improve the water supply and service quality. 2. Finance To match the revenue against expenditures of water supply, To improve the collection efficiency to 75% by 2006, 80% by 2011 and 100% by 2021. 3. Institution To improve the institutional capacity.
Map of Ghaziabad Showing Expansion
Multiple housing projects like Raj Nagar Extension, and various housing schemes at Indirapuram,Vaishali,vasundhara & Kaushambi. Proper traffic planning needs to be done. Suggestive measures for improved power supply and water supply.
The extension of metro till Arthala in Phase-3 of DMRC Metro Project will decongest the stretch from Old Bus stand to Mohan Nagar.
Main Features of the latest Metro Stations at Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad has witnessed development in clusters, which has led to sustainability and organized development. The clusters have developed their own commercial activities and are witnessing further improvement in facilities. More Clusters can be developed and planned better than the existing ones. “Ghaziabad rated in world’s Top 10 most dynamic Cities”.In order to maintain this dynamism,effective planning is needed in terms of Infrastructure facilities. . “The authorities must see the interest of entrepreneurs and make land available to set up their units for the industrial development in the region”.
Complete segregation of pedestrian & vehicular traffic ,specially in congested markets of the old city area, ghantaghar,turab nagar,and chopla.
Create Public Awareness ,and highlight the Historic Context of the city.
A detailed Transport Plan should be Developed.
Sources: Internet Final Report:Capacity Development of the National Capital Regional Planning Board: Economical & Financial Analysis DPR for Multi-Level Parking facility in Ghaziabad : Willbur Smith Associates Final Report: Capacity Development of the National Capital Regional Planning Board: Detailed project report for improvement of Solid Waste Management in Ghaziabad: Willbur Smith Associates Final Report: Capacity Development of the National Capital Regional Planning Board: Initial Environmental Examination model DPR for Bus Terminal at Ghaziabad: Willbur Smith Associates Final Report: Capacity Development of the National Capital Regional Planning Board: Short resettlement Plan DPR for flyover at Mohan Nagar Junction,Ghaziabad Baseline Survey of Minority Concentration District,Ghaziabad U.P. Comissioned by Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Offical Website of the Ghaziabad Development Authority
Sources: Miscellaneous Documents: DELHI METROPOLITAN AREA (DMA TOWNS) ROLE IN PLANNED DEVELOPMENT Miscellaneous Documents: RESIDENTS & BUILDERS PERCEPTION IN DMA TOWNS Primary Survey TCPO 2006(Town & Country Planning Organisation) Miscellaneous Documents: GIS Based Monitoring System For Urban Water Supply System: By.Dr.Kusum Lata-Research Fellow at National Institute for Urban Affairs,IHC,New Delhi Census of India 2001 “States at a Glance” by Laveesh Bhandari & Sumita Kale 2006-07 The Hindustan Times ,Times of India,The Economic Times Draft Analysis Report for Nagar Nigam,Ghaziabad
K.V.Abhishek ,MURP, IIT Roorkee