Germany Before Bismarck Early 1800s industry is growing rapidly Zollverein – Trade org. that excludes Austria Italian unification 1859 stimulated German

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p> Slide 2 Slide 3 Germany Before Bismarck Early 1800s industry is growing rapidly Zollverein Trade org. that excludes Austria Italian unification 1859 stimulated German nationalism Slide 4 Bismarck 1862 Called upon to head ministry to suppress liberalism Blood and Iron Prussia and Austria go to war with Denmark Bismarck wanted Prussia to control the northern Protestant part of Germany Slide 5 Slide 6 Provokes Austria into war Seven weeks. Prussia wins and gives Venetia to Italy Gives Austria generous terms Slide 7 Slide 8 The Taming of Parliament Conservatives had to make peace with the liberal middle class German Govt. Federation with king as pres. Chancellor responsible only to king Controls Army And foreign affairs Two houses Upper house appointed by different states Lower house universal male suffrage-appeals to working class Middle class liberals subdued and happy Slide 9 Ruling Parties Align With the Lower Class European Countries that have a large working class receive social programs Middle class taxes pay for social programs Governments gain support from the majority- The working class Slide 10 The Franco Prussian War 1870-1871 The Ems Dispatch Bismarck edits a letter to insult the French over succession to the Spanish throne Napoleon III demands an apology Wilhelm I refuses France prepares to teach Prussia a lesson Slide 11 Slide 12 Blood and Iron Vs. Elan and Cran Slide 13 The War Southern German states support cause Prussia defeats France at Sedan Sept.1 1870 Napoleon III is captured and humiliated Riots break out in Paris: wow thats different Napoleon is deposed and The Third Republic is born Paris is surrounded and starved into submission Slide 14 The Hall of Mirrors 1871 Slide 15 France is Humbled Wilhelm I is proclaimed Emperor of Germany at Versailles France receives harsh terms Pay 5 billion Francs Cedes the Alsace-Lorraine to Germany Slide 16 The Paris Commune 1871 Parisian Socialists refuse to accept German peace terms Set up a socialists dictatorship backed by the International Working Mens Association and Proudhon (Germinal) French troops backing the National Assembly of the Third Republic in May of 1871 enter Paris and kill 20,000 Communards Thier that monstrous little gnome Karl Marx Slide 17 USA Indians Slaves War with Mexico Gold Rush Civil War Homestead Act 13 th Amendment Slide 18 The Aftermath of Crimea 1853 Slide 19 Modernization of Russia The Great Reforms Background Serfs were property Army recruits 25 years Sexually exploited Lost the Crimean War Ottomans Empire weak Russia is behind Slide 20 Alexander II (r.1855 1881) Slide 21 1861 Emancipation of Serfs Slide 22 Alexander II Reforms Russia 1861 serfs are freed Villages were responsible for payments Collectives made it difficult for individuals to improve agriculture Zemstvo local authorities did not lead to greater liberalism. Gave Jews certain freedoms Slide 23 Russia Marches With Europe Towards Industrialism Slide 24 Industrialism in Russia Two industrial surges 1860 Railways 1,250 15,500 miles of track by 1880 Increases grain production Creates a class of modern factory workers Slide 25 The Trans-Siberian Railway Slide 26 Second Surge Alexander III 1881- Alexander III reactionary no political modernization State owned railways The Trans Siberian Line connects Moscow with the Pacific Ocean Nationalism becomes key Slide 27 Russian Steel and Oil Production Slide 28 Encourages Foreign Investors Extremely successful Modern steel factories, by 1900 Russia was one of the major producers Oil production equaled USA Slide 29 Japan and Russia Collide Near Korea Slide 30 Russo- Japanese War 1904-05 Slide 31 The Revolution of 1905 The Russo-Japanese War Russia eyes Korea Japan launches surprise attack Russia is defeated in 1905 Slide 32 Bloody Sunday 1905 Slide 33 Political Upheaval at Home Factory workers were organized in illegal labor orgs. The Army still pinned down in the East Massive group of workers attempt to deliver a petition to Nicholas II Bloody Sunday Guards open fire on demonstrators Slide 34 Nicholas II Slide 35 Upheaval Continues General strike of October 1905 Govt. gives in The October Manifesto. Granted full civil rights Promised a popularly elected Duma Middle class helped the survival of a constitutional monarchy Slide 36 Liberalism Takes a Step Back The tsar had absolute veto The Ministers were chosen by the tsar The tsar dismisses the Duma More power is given to the propertied classes Workers, peasants and national minorities are weakened Slide 37 The Responsive National State For the most part the Frame work of the Europe was set Mass Politics and mass loyalty to the state More people could vote By 1914 universal male suffrage was the rule Part of the system USA by 1913 women could vote in many state and local elections Many suffragettes emerged setting the way for women to vote after WWI Slide 38 Mass Politics Political parties had to respond to the will of the people Multi party system appears in many countries In order to pass laws coalitions had to be formed Individual parties gain leverage Slide 39 The Down Side to Nation States The power structure can manipulate the population with nationalist rhetoric Patriotism and loyalty At the expense of international security WWI, Iraq? Hatred for certain ethnic groups create unity Slide 40 The Kulturkampf and Socialism Bismarck launches attack on Catholics as an impediment to German unity Socialism and Liberalism are gaining ground Has to reverse his culture struggle to achieve greater unity Has to give into to some social programs and the growing liberal middle class Slide 41 The German Empire Bismarck controlled the Reichstag popular elected body Kulturkampf fails Crash of 1873 Bismarck uses tariffs to protect German economy Led to anger among other counties and trade wars Slide 42 German State Continued Socialism was growing in Germany Socialist rhetoric transcended the nation state Bismarck tried to drive them underground The Socialists were too organized-The International Working Mens Association Slide 43 As a result Germany becomes a leader in progressive socialist programs Social security laws Sickness and accident insurance 1889 Old age pensions and retirement benefits Slide 44 Bismarck is Let Go.The dropping of the pilot Social Democratic party by the turn of the century gains power Many wealthy and middleclass Germans feared The Social Democrats but they were becoming less radical Opposition to military and imperialist aims declined Social Democrats were Germans first. Slide 45 Republican France 1871 The Third Republic Adolf Their The government that divides the least. Gambetta by 1879 parliament becomes boss Upper and Lower houses of parliament were republicans. Many groups = coalition politics Jules Ferry-mandatory public education Teachers could marry Husband and wife team could support each other Example of secular republicanism Slide 46 The Dreyfus Affair Jewish officer falsely accused of treason Split France apart Catholic establishment- for the army Republican civil libertarians for Dreyfus 1905 reaction against the Church State withdrew support Members no longer paid by state Only socialism stood in the way of republican nationalism Slide 47 Great Britain and Ireland The Vote 1832- males of the solid middle-class 1859- utilitarian's struggle with how to protect the rights of individuals while franchise expanded. 1884 Disraelis conservative party expands franchise to every adult male. Lower class expected to be responsible. 1906 Lloyd Georges Liberal party raised taxes on the rich to create social programs. Slide 48 Ireland Irish Famine 1840s England began concessions 1880s Gladstones Liberal party tried to pacify Ireland Bills did not pass Irish support Liberals to receive Home Rule. Irish Protestants and Catholics refused mix. Ulster refused to accept home rule Problem put on hold in 1914 - WWI Slide 49 Austro-Hungarian Empire Magyar nationalism Hungary 1866 defeated by Prussia Dual Monarchy Austria threatened by slavs 1914 Hungary 1/4 of males could vote Slide 50 Jewish Emancipation and Jew Hating 1791- French Rev. Jews gain rights 1848 -1870 continued gains through Liberalism and sometimes Socialism 1873 stock market crash Jews blamed Zionism =Jewish national state - Palestine Slide 51 Marxism and the Socialist Movement Marx wanted an international proletariat The Socialist International Rapid growth after 1871 1912 millions of followers especially Germany The Workers International Marx Authors Das Capital. 1867 Embraced the Paris Commune First International collapses May Day one day strike Second International Slide 52 Unions and Revisionism European Socialism became militantly moderate Gradual change Less revolution Sober action Slide 53 Workers gained the right to vote, used elections to make change National pride Schools Military Aggressive foreign policy Standard of living improved Growth of labor unions For a long time illegal 1870-1906 legalizedGermany Slide 54 Socialist not really interested in unions they wanted revolution Unions focused on bread and butter issues Wages Working conditions Collective bargaining brought improvement- revision not revolution Militant Marxist saw this as a sin. Second International rejects revision Slide 55 By 1914 Socialist parties were clearly nationalistic Germany France Great Britain By WWI socialist leaders supported their government </p>