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DESCRIPTIONGerman Unification. Ryan Benway & Kathleen McKernon With slides also by Catie Heil and Royce Lawrence. German Nationalism:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Ryan Benway&Kathleen McKernonWith slides also by Catie Heil and Royce Lawrence
German nationalism slowly began to show in the early 1800s. Germany was divided into a number of small states and desired a unification within them. There goal was to become completely independent out of the control of all other nations as they had been in the past.
Before the process of German unification began, German speaking people lived in small, separate states, as well as in the Austrian Hapsburg Empire, and in Prussia. When Napoleon began his invasions throughout Europe in 1807, many territorial changes throughout the German states were made.This is the area in through which the German states were spread in 1800
Between 1807 and 1812, Napoleon made major changes to the territorial states of Germany. As a French leader at the time, he gained a number of European lands and put many German -speaking states under French rule. (In red) Many Germans welcomed him because they liked his policies. But soon, extreme German nationalism arose!!!
People began to demand a unified German state more and more as German Nationalism increased due to Napoleons invasion.Many German Nationalists brought their demands to the Congress of Vienna. An Austrian politician, Clemens von Metternich, opposed these demands and stated that joining the governments of the many separated states would be extremely tricky.Instead, the group formed a German Confederation, which was a very weak body headed by Austria.
Prussia, a great rival to Austria, took over the German states in the 1830s. Trying to create an economic union, they took away borders between the German states. They still remained politically separate though. At the Frankfurt Assembly in 1848, liberals offered the throne to a united Germany to the Prussian king, but they were refused. Germany remained divided but still had a desire for unity.
Otto von Bismarck is known as the founder of the German Empire. He was Prussia's prime minister from 1862 to 1873 and was Germanys first chancellor from 1871 to 1890. He lead the Germans to victory in the Austro-Prussian war of 1866 and in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870.
He believed that power was more important than principles and that politics should be based upon the needs of the state.For the state, in contrast to the individual, self-preservation is the supreme law. The state must survive at any price; it cannot go into the poorhouse, it cannot beg, it cannot commit suicide; in short, it must take wherever it can find the essentials of life.
After years of peaceful attempts to take the dominance of Germany, Bismarck gave up and turned to other means.He used neither speeches nor resolutions to take Germany, but his new slogan of Blood and Iron.Bismarck marched Prussian armies into the colonies of Schleswig and Holstein in hopes of war with Austria.This would enable Prussia to take over the German states that were under Austrian rule.
Bismarck thought becoming allied with Austria would be a good idea. In 1864, Prussian armies under Bismarcks leadership took over the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark rule. Bismarck gave the province of Holstein to Austria and kept Schleswig under Prussian rule in hopes of an alliance.
The Austro-Prussian war of 1866The Austro-Prussian war of 1866
Shortly following the victory of Prussia,Otto von Bismarck eliminated the Austrian led German Confederation. The ruler then established a new North German Confederation which was ruled by Prussia.
The Ems TelegramThe Ems telegram was sent in 1870 from the Prussian King to Bismarck informing Bismarck about his meeting with French Ambassador.
The eager Bismarck was waiting for his opportunity to strike and when the king left it up to him to let the press know about the meeting, he took advantage of the situation.
The Ems Telegram Contd Bismarck manipulated the situation by making the Prussian king look as if he was more hostile towards towards the French then he really was.This provoked chaos in both France and Prussia and eventually led to the Franco-Prussian War.
Franco-Prussian WarOtto von Bismarck wanted to achieve unity within south Germany states under Prussian rule. Bismarck wanted to eliminate French influence on the country. The war lasted from 1870-1871 and resulted in the loss of France to the German States.
The German EmpireA United GermanyAfter the defeat of both Austria and France, Germans persuaded William I from Prussia to take the title Kaiser, or emperor.In January of 1871, Germans celebrated their empire known as the Second Reich which had in the past been taken over by Napoleon of France.
"Nothing can be more absurd than the practice that prevails in our country of men and women not following the same pursuits with all their strengths and with one mind, for thus, the state instead of being whole is reduced to half." -PlatoA constitution proposed by Bismarck and a two house legislature was set up for the Second Reich. The two houses were made up of the Bundersat (upper house) and the Reichstag (lower house). The houses were elected by rulers of German states and universal male suffrage.Otto von Bismarck, 1886.
A Growing EconomyAfter the unification of Germany, it rose to be the Industrial giant of the Europe. Germanys chemical and electrical industries were beyond any other industries in the world. Germanys coal and iron resources resulted in massive growth of the economy. A work force and rapidly growing population also aided in the development of the economy.
Kaiser William IIKaiser William II was a nationalist and believed in a strong military. He provided many funds for the German military and launched a campaign to expand the German navy and obtain an overseas empire like that of France and Britain. He strongly believed in his divine right to rule and opposed any democratic reforms. 1859-1941
Works CitedGoogle Images; http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en ; accessed 4/8/02Austria: Loss Of Leadership In Germany; http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+at0034;accessed 4/10/02Map; http://www.landjugend.de/schleswig-holstein/english/map.htm; accessed 4/8/02Franco-Prussian War; http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?ti=06802000; accessed 4/12/02
What were some of the results of Napoleons invasions of the German states between 1807 and 1812?What was accomplished at the Congress of Vienna?What Prussian man successfully united all German speaking states?What was the policy of blood and iron?What was the result of the Franco-Prussian War?