geriatric depression scale

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The Geriatric Depression Scale

The Geriatric Depression Scale Eden Balbas, Melanie Doi, and Alyssa HirataStanbridge University

Eden Balbas, OTSUniversity of California, IrvineDegree: BA in Social EcologyMinor: Education

Stanbridge UniversityDegree: MS in Occupational TherapyMy experience with geriatric clients includes...

Melanie Doi, OTSUniversity of California, RiversideDegree: BS Sociology

Stanbridge UniversityDegree: MS Occupational TherapyMy experience with geriatrics clients include...

Alyssa Hirata, OTSCalifornia State University, Long Beach Degree: BA PsychologyMinor: Chemistry

Stanbridge UniversityDegree: MS Occupational Therapy

My experience with geriatrics clients include...

Todays AgendaIntroductionAgendaObjectivesKey TermsLecture Community Resources AvailableActivity: Case StudySummary Quiz

ObjectivesBy the end of this presentation, the attendees will be able to:Define occupational therapyIdentify the populations that work with occupational therapists (OTR)Discuss the symptoms of depressionDistinguish how occupational therapy (OT) benefits individuals with depressionIdentify how to assist individuals with depression

Objectives (cont.)

Discuss the causes of depressionIdentify the function of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)Discuss how to administer the GDSDescribe how the GDS is scoredDescribe how the results of the GDS is interpreted Discuss community resources available to individual with depression, and their family and friends

Key Terms Clients = individuals receiving occupational therapy (OT) services Depression= decrease in energy or drive to participate in the things important to an individual; its a medical diagnosisGeriatrics= the study of the issues and processes of agingGeriatric Depression Scale= survey screening tool used to identify depression in older adults

Opp, Ashley. (2017). Occupational therapy and depression: Reconstructing lives. In The American Occupational Therapy Association. Retrieved from https://www.aota.org/about-occupational-therapy/professionals/mh/articles/depression.aspx

Key Terms (cont.)

Life events= a change in an individuals typical routine, leading to major changes or adjustments to their lifeOccupation= everyday activities that have meaning to an individual and occupies their timeOccupational therapist (OTR)= the practitioners who deliver OT services and are responsible for the safety and efficacy of the OT servicesOccupational therapy (OT)= a client-centered medical profession that revolves around the use of occupations to enable and empower an individual, to participate in life

American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). (2014). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process (3rd ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(Suppl. 1), S1- S48. http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2014.682006

xXJEashXx. (2010, March 22). Favorite Pixar's Up scene ever: Ellie and Carl's relationship through time, sad scene. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2bk_9T482g

What is Occupational Therapy?

occupation= everyday, meaningful activities Therapeutic use of everyday, meaningful activities (occupations) across the lifespanHolistic approach to treatment using occupations to facilitate growth or change in the clientEnable clients by adapting or modifying the environmentAmerican Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). (2014). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process (3rd ed.). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(Suppl. 1), S1- S48. http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2014.682006

Client Populations of Occupational Therapy

Occupational therapists (OTR) work with all populations throughout the lifespan.

CHECKPOINT:

Depression is a normal part of aging.FALSE

What is Depression?Decrease in energy or drive to participate in the things that are important

Emotional symptoms:Extreme sadness and hopelessnessAnxiety to leave the houseEmotional withdrawal

Physical symptoms: HeadachesStomachachesBowel and bladder complaints

Symptoms must be present for at least two weeks

Opp, Ashley. (2017). Occupational therapy and depression: Reconstructing lives. In The American Occupational Therapy Association. Retrieved from https://www.aota.org/about-occupational-therapy/professionals/mh/articles/depression.aspx

Baycrest Health Sciences. (2010, June 10). Story of Don: A story of late-life depression after unexpected retiremen.. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jupO4O0Fg0w&list=LL1x5Tdt3d6ER5Pi3vjRCnYA

Occupational Therapy and Depression OTRs can assist people with depression by:Examining client roles and helping them engage and gain feelings of accomplishment from themDiscovering what factors are preventing clients from engaging in their responsibilitiesHelping rebuild the clients self-esteem and identityAssisting with finding balance between their work, relationships, and leisure activities

Opp, Ashley. (2017). Occupational therapy and depression: Reconstructing lives. In The American Occupational Therapy Association. Retrieved from https://www.aota.org/about-occupational-therapy/professionals/mh/articles/depression.aspx

How Depression Relates to You You may have loved ones who are older adults (family members or friends 65+ years or older)You may observe subtle signs of depression in older loved ones You can discuss how theyre feeling and what theyre thinking, without using the terms depressed, drugs, therapy, or other terms that may make them defensiveParticipate in loved ones medical care if your loved one gives permission

Depression in the elderly: 7 ways to help. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20518814,00.html

How Depression Relates to You (cont.) Inform their physician of your observations and concerns Ensure theyre getting the assessment/ care they needHelp, but dont take over your loved ones lifeDivide tasks into small stepsPraise them for attempts at tasks

Depression in the elderly: 7 ways to help. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20518814,00.html

What Causes Depression?Life eventsLack of satisfaction from their relationshipsDeath of a loved oneLoss of independenceRetirementAdmission to nursing home or hospitalCo-occurring illnesses

Decreased neurotransmitters in the brain- may be geneticOpp, Ashley. (2017). Occupational therapy and depression: Reconstructing lives. In The American Occupational Therapy Association. Retrieved from https://www.aota.org/about-occupational-therapy/professionals/mh/articles/depression.aspx

CHECKPOINT:

Think of a time where an older adult in your life may have experienced depression.Would anyone like to share?

Considering all these different life-events that cause depression, I want you to think of a time where an older adult in your life may have experienced depression.

Ex. death of a grandparent

StatisticsMore than two million Americans age 65 and older suffer from some form of depression.Individuals aged 65 and older account for 20% of all suicide deaths.Approximately 68% of adults aged 65 and over know little or almost nothing about depression.Less than 3% aged 65 and older receive treatment from mental health professionals.

Depression in older adults: More facts. (2017). In Mental Health America. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/depression-older-adults-more-facts

What is the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)?Self-report screening tool to identify depression in older adults Originally developed as 30-item measure (Geriatric Depression Scale- Long Form: GDS-L) by J.A. Yesavage and others Newer shortened form is 15-item measure (Geriatric Depression Scale- Short Form: GDS-S) developed by J.I. Sheikh and J.A. Yesavage in 1986

American Psychological Association (APA). (2017). Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/about/publications/caregivers/practice-settings/assessment/tools/geriatric-depression.aspx

What is the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)? (cont.) Research shows the GDS-L and GDS-S are both successful in recognizing depressive symptoms Used with healthy, medically ill, and mild to moderately cognitively impaired older adults Used in any setting: community, acute and long-term careEasy to administer and scoreYes/No formatTakes approximately 5-7 minutes to administer

American Psychological Association (APA). (2017). Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/about/publications/caregivers/practice-settings/assessment/tools/geriatric-depression.aspx

Greenberg, S. A. (2007). How to try this: The Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form. The American Journal of Nursing. 107(10), 60-69. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.naj.0000292204.52313.f3

Questions on the Geriatric Depression ScaleQuestionYesNoAre you basically satisfied with your life?01Have you dropped many of your activities?10Do you feel that your life is empty?10Do you often get bored?10Are you in good spirits most of the time?01Are you afraid that something bad is going to happen to you?10Do you feel unhappy most of the time?01Do you feel helpless?10

Questions on the Geriatric Depression Scale (cont.)

QuestionYesNo Do you prefer to stay at home, rather than going out and doing new things?10 Do you feel you have more problems with memory than most?10 Do you think it is wonderful to be alive now?01 Do you feel pretty worthless the way you are now?01 Do you feel full of energy?01 Do you feel that your situation is hopeless?10 Do you think that most people are better off than you are?10

How to Administer th

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