Georgia DOT Pedestrian and Streetscape Guide

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  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    IntroductionWhy a Pedestrian and Streetscape Guide? 1Who Will Use This Guide? 2What is the Focus? 3References and Other Resources 3Acknowledgments 3

    How to Use this GuideHow Should the Information in This Guide Be Used? 5Relationship to Other Guidelines and Standards 5Permission to Reproduce and Copy 6Where Can You Find the Information You Need in This Guide? 6

    About PedestriansPedestrians Defined 9Pedestrian Safety 9Pedestrian Needs 11Levels of Use and Travel Characteristics 16

    Design Toolkit

    Toolkit 1 General Design GuidelinesPedestrian Facilities Defined 22The Importance of Good Design for Pedestrians 22The Bigger Picture Creating Pedestrian-Friendly Communities 24Creating a Continuous Pedestrian System 26Special Pedestrian-Oriented Districts and Areas 26Creating an Effective Pedestrian System 27Pedestrian-Friendly Streets 27Other Sources of Information 29

    Toolkit 2 AccessibilityUnderstanding the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) 32Designing for People With Disabilities 33Designing for Older Adults 33Pedestrian Access Routes 33Eliminating Barriers and Obstacles 35Widths and Clearances 35Passing and Resting Areas 36Difference Between Site Development and Site Development Requirements 36

    I

  • PEDESTRIAN AND STREETSCAPE GUIDE

    Sidewalk Curb Ramps 38Accessibility Across Driveways 41Surfacing 42Textural and Visual Cues 43Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS) 46Crosswalks 53Medians and Pedestrian Refuge Islands 54Signing and Other Communication Aids 54Other Sources of Information 56

    Toolkit 3 Children and School ZonesSpecial Considerations Related to Children 58Improving Student Pedestrian Safety -A Cooperatative Process 58School Related Pedestrian Improvements 59The School as a Community Focal Point 60Pedestrian-Friendly Schools and School Zones 60Traffic Control and Crossings Near Schools 65School Walk Routes and Safety Programs 72Education Tools and Programs for Child Safety 72Ongoing Maintenance 73Other Sources of Information 73

    Toolkit 4 Trail and PathwaysTrails and Paths Across Multiple Jurisdictions 75Regional Connectivity 75Accessibility of Trails and Paths 76Special Considerations for Shared Use Paths 77Recommended Dimensions 80Paving and Surfacing 82Grades, Cross Slopes, and Drainage 83Shoulders, Side Slopes, and Railings 83Connections and Crossings 84Managing Motor Vehicle Access 84Vegetation and Landscaping 85Seasonal and Nighttime Use 86Maintenance 86Other Sources of Information 86

    Toolkit 5 Sidewalks and WalkwaysDetermining When and Where Sidewalks and Walkways are Needed 90Sidewalks and Walkways in Various Settings 91Descriptions and Comparisons of Sidewalks and Walkways 92Location Both Sides Versus One Side 93Accessibility 94Recommended Dimensions 94Passing, Waiting, and Resting Areas 95

    II

  • TABLE OF CONTENT S

    Grades, Cross Slope, and Drainage 95Side Slopes, Railings, and Walls 96Surfacing 97Street Separation and Edge Treatments 98Street Furnishings, Utilities, and Related Clearances 103Landscaping and Street Trees 105Lighting 105Signing 106Historic Districts 106Sidewalks in Business Districts and Downtowns 107Shoulders as Walkways in Rural Areas 108Bicycles on Sidewalks 110Street Design Considerations 111Maintenance 115Other Sources of Information 116

    Toolkit 6 IntersectionsEffects of Pedestrian Improvements on Vehicle Capacity 120Common Design Practices for Pedestrian Crossings at Intersections 120Crosswalk Use 120Minimizing the Crossing Distances at Intersections 129Minimizing Pedestrian/Motor Vehicle Conflicts 135Other Sources of Information 145

    Toolkit 7 CrossingsDetermining the Need for Mid-Block Crossings 148Mid-Block Crossing Design 149Railroad Crossings 158Grade Separated Crossings 159Multi-Use Trail Intersections and Crossings 162Boardwalks and Trestles 162Other Sources of Information 163

    Toolkit 8 Traffic CalmingWhy Is Traffic Calming Used? 165The Traffic Management Approach 166Traffic Calming Techniques 166Traffic Calming on Arterial Streets 174Administration of a Traffic Calming Program 175Other Sources of Information 176

    Toolkit 9 Pedestrian Access to TransitTransit Compatible Design 180Improving Transit Facilities for Pedestrians 180Transit Stops and Bus Pullouts 183High Capacity Right-of-Way Transit 184

    III

  • PEDESTRIAN AND STREETSCAPE GUIDE

    Transit Centers 186Park-and-Ride Facilities 186Transit Malls 197Transit-Oriented Development 187Coordination Between Agencies 188Other Sources of Information 188

    Toolkit 10 Site Design for PedestriansThinking About Pedestrians as Part of Site Development 191Pedestrian-Friendly Site Design 192Building Location and Design 193On-Site Circulation and Parking 194Walkways and Accessible Routes 196Site Access and Driveway Design 197Landscaping and Furnishings 199Ramps, Handrails, Stairways, and Steps 200Sites Used Exclusively by Pedestrians 202Play Streets 204Strategy for Increasing Pedestrian Travel Mixed-Use Site Development 204Other Sources of Information 205

    Toolkit 11 Safety in Work ZonesProtective Barriers 208Covered Walkways 208Sidewalk Closure During Construction 208Intersections and Crossings Near Work Zones 210Accessibility in the Work Zone 211Maintenance 211Other Sources of Information 212

    Resource Guide 213

    IV

  • TABLE OF CONTENT S

    Table 1 - GDOTs Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan Goals 2Tble 2 - Anticipated Guide Users 2Table 3 - Design Focus 3Table 4 - Pedestrian Facilities 3Table 5 - Other Documents to Review for Pedestrian and Streetscape Guide 6Table 6 - Common Characteristics of Pedestrian Collisions 10Table 7 - Some Important Needs of Pedestrians 12Table 8 - Common Pedestrian Characteristics by Age Group 14Table 9 - Aids to Older Pedestrians 15Table 10 - Aids to Pedestrians With Disabilities 15Table 11 - Why Urban Areas Receive High Pedestrian Use 17Table 12 - Typical Types of Pedestrian Trips 17Table 13 - Pedestrian Trip Facts 17Table 14 - Common Reasons for Low Levels of Pedestrian Travel 18Table 15 - Ask the Following Questions 20Table 16 - Pedestrian Facilities 22Table 17 - Typical Policies for Encouraging Pedestrian Travel 23Table 18 - Common Characteristics of Pedestrian Friendly Communities 24Table 19 - Typical Elements of Pedestrian-Friendly Streets 27Table 20 - Pedestrian Access Route 33Table 21 - Important Things to Remember About Curb Ramps 41Table 22 - Most Common Types of Pedestrian/Motor Vehicle Collisions 57Table 23 - Some Special Limitations of Children Aged 5 to 9 58Table 24 - Process for Improving Student Pedestrian Safety 59Table 25 - The School as a Community Focal Point 60Table 26 - Elements of Good School Site Design 61Table 27 - Roadside Pedestrian Improvements Along School Walk Routes 62Table 28 - Potential Traffic Control and Crossing Treatments Near Schools 66Table 29 - When to Utilize Adult Crossing Guards 69Table 30 - Primary Functions of Student Safety Patrollers 69Table 31 - Procedures for Developing School Walk Routes 72Table 32 - Delineation/Separation Treatments for Shared Use Paths 79Table 33 - Separation Treatments for Shared Use Path Next to Roadway 80Table 34 - Recommended Dimensions for Trails and Paths 81Table 35 - Priorities for Pedestrians Traveling Along Streets 89Table 36 - ITE Criteria for Determining Pedestrian Safety Deficiencies 90Table 37 - Guidelines for New Sidewalk Installation 93Table 38 - Recommended Dimensions for Sidewalks and Walkways 95Table 39 - Advantages and Disadvantages of Planting Buffers 98Table 40 - Recommendations for Walking Shoulders 110Table 41 - Access Management 113Table 42 - Benefits and Disadvantages of One-Way Streets 114Table 43 - Maintenance Recommendations for Sidewalks 115Table 44 - Basic Principles of Intersection Design to Accommodate Pedestrians 121Table 45 - Guidelines for Determining the Need for Marked Crosswalks 124Table 46 - Advantages and Disadvantages of Crosswalk Marking Patterns 127

    Tables

    V

  • PEDESTRIAN AND STREETSCAPE GUIDE

    Figure 1 - Fatalities Based on Speed of Vehicle 10Figure 2 - Thinking and Stopping Distances Related to Speed of Travel 11Figure 3 - Human Dimensions When Walking and Sitting 13Figure 4 - Passing on a 6-foot Sidewalk 13Figure 5 - Spatial Needs for Pedestrians 13Figure 6 - Spatial Bubbles 14Figure 7 - Spatial Dimensions for People With Disabilities 15Figure 8 - Creating an Effective Pedestrian System 28Figure 9 - Accessible Site Design 34Figure 10 - Accessible Passing Area 36Figure 11 - Accessible Ramped Pathway With Landings 37Figure 12 - Accessible Curb Ramp Design Detail - Type A 39Figure 13 - Accessible Curb Ramp Design Detail - Type B and C 39Figure 14 - Sidewalk Curb Ramps at Intersections 40Figure 15 - Traditional Driveway Design 41Figure 16 - Driveway With Wide Sidewalks 41Figure 17 - Driveway With Planting Strips 42Figure 18 - Driveway With Sidewalk Behind 42Figure 19 - Driveway With Dipped Sidewalk 42Figure 20 - Detectable Warning At Multiuse Path 44Figure 21 - Detectable Warning At Railroad Crossing 44Figure 22 - Refuge Island 44Figure 23 - Detectable Warning At Curb Ramp 45Figure 24 - Detectable Warning At Transition Ramp 45Figure 25 - Detectable Warning At Shared Ramp 45Figure 26 - Detectable Warning At Blended Curb 45Figure 27 - O Dome Spacing 45Figure 28 - N Dome Section 45Figure 29 - P Dome Alignment 46Figure 30 - Curb Ramp APS Zones 49Figure 31 - Transition Ramp APS Zones 49

    Table 47- Benefits and Disadvantages of Shortening Curb Radii 131Table 48 - Locations Where Refuge Islands are Most Beneficial 132Table 49 - Measures to Improve the Effectiveness of Push Buttons 138Table 50 - Crossing Distances, Speeds, and Time 139Table 51 - Suggestions for Reducing Turning Conflicts 140Table 52 - Design Guidelines for Medians and Refuge Islands 154Table 53 - Common Residential Traffic Management Program Actions 168Table 54 - Common Types of Traffic Calming Methods 168Table 55 - Approaches for Administrating a Traffic Calming Program 177Table 56 - Low Cost Improvements to Increase Pedestrian Access to Transit 183Table 57 - Pedestrian-Friendly Site Design Checklist 192Table 58 - ADA Requirements for Ramps 200Table 59 - Checklist for Successful Mixed Use Site Developments 206Table 60 - Considerations for Pedestrian Safety in Work Zones 208Table 61 - Work Zone Maintenance 211

    Figures

    VI

  • TABLE OF CONTENT S

    Figure 32 - Shared Curb Ramp APS Zones 49Figure 33 - Tactile Arrow 49Figure 34 - APS Universal Symbol 49Figure 35 - School Site Design 62Figure 36 - Sidewalk 63Figure 37 Widened Shoulder 63Figure 38 - Typical Bus Stop Design for Urban Location 64Figure 39 - Typical Bus Stop Design for Rural Location 64Figure 40 - Typical Signing for School Area Traffic 70Figure 41 - School Signs 71Figure 42 - One Lane School Marking 72Figure 43 - Accessible Trail/Path 76Figure 44 - Universal Levels of Accessibility Signs 77Figure 45 - Multi-Use Shared Use Path Striping 78Figure 46 - Shared Use Path 78Figure 47 -Paved Path With Separated Soft Surface Trail 79Figure 48 - Pathway Separation From Roadway 80Figure 49 - Paved Pedestrian-Only Trail 82Figure 50 -Unpaved Pedestrian-Only Trail 82Figure 51 - Unpaved Shared Use Trail 82Figure 52 - Shared Use Path Pavement Cross Sections 83Figure 53 - Paths Requiring Railings 84Figure 54 - Thickened-Edge Pavement Design 85Figure 55 - Bollard Spacing 85Figure 56 - Split Pathway Entrance 86Figure 57 - Root Barrier 87Figure 58 - Waiting and Resting Areas 95Figure 59 - Wall Design Treatments 96Figure 60 - Planting Buffer Between Sidewalk and Street 98Figure 61 - Planting Strips Provided as Area for Signs and Utilities 99Figure 62 - Speed Design/Posted Speed < 35 mph 100Figure 63 - Straight Walkway 101Figure 64 - Meandering Walkway 101Figure 65 - Sidewalk Separated by a Swale 101Figure 66 - Sidewalk Adjacent to Curb and Gutter 102Figure 67 - Vertical Curb Adjacent to a Planting Strip 102Figure 68 - Sidewalk With Rolled Curb 102Figure 69 - Bike Lane as Buffer Between Pedestrians and Motor Vehicles 103Figure 70 - Clearances for Sidewalks and Walkways 104Figure 71 - Pedestrian Travel Way, Clear of Obstructions 104Figure 72 - Urban Streetside Zones 107Figure 73 - Shy Distance Between Building and Walkway 107Figure 74 - Shoulder Walkway 109Figure 75 - On-Street Parking as a Buffer Between Street and Pedestrian s 111Figure 76 - Parking Overhang 112Figure 77 - Access Management 113Figure 78 - Guidelines for the Installation of Marked Crosswalks 122Figure 79 - Marked and Unmarked Crosswalks at Intersection 122Figure 80 - Clear Travel Area for Pedestrians at Intersection Corners 124

    VII

  • PEDESTRIAN AND STREETSCAPE GUIDE

    Figure 81 - GDOT Crosswalk and Location Details 126Figure 82 - Sign to Accompany Advance Yield Bar 128Figure 83 - Crossing Sign 129Figure 84 - Reduced Crossing Distance With Reduced Curb Radius 130Figure 85 - Reduced Curb Radii at One-Way Intersection 130Figure 86 - Elongated Refuge Island at Right-Turn Slip Lane 131Figure 87 - Right-Turn Slip Lane and Refuge Island 133Figure 88 - Median/Refuge Island at an Intersection 134Figure 89 - Typical Curb Extension Design 134Figure 90 - Typical Curb Bulb-Out Design 134Figure 91 - Curb Bulb-Outs and Extensios 134Figure 92 - Visibility at Intersection Corners 135Figure 93 - Recommended Parking Setback for Sight Distance 136Figure 94 - Pedestrian Indication Sequence 137Figure 95 - Modern Roundabout Design 142Figure 96 - Traffic Calming Circle 143Figure 97 - Special Paving 144Figure 98 - Typical Mid-Block Crossing 148Figure 99 - Mid-Block Crossing of Two-Lane Arterial 151Figure 100 - Mid-Block Crossing of Five-Lane Arterial With Existing Median 153Figure 101 - GDOT Soft Sandwich 155Figure 102 - Portable Pedestrian Flags 157Figure 103 - Typical Geometries of Overhead Crossings 161Figure 104 - Typical Geometries of Underpasses 163Figure 105 - Traffic Management Approach Solving the Problem 167Figure 106 - Recommended Traffic Calming Circle Design 171Figure 107 - Narrowed Street 171Figure 108 - Chicanes 172Figure 109 - Curb Bulb-Outs and Extensions 173Figure 110 - Raised Crosswalk/Speed Table 174Figure 111 - Transit Compatible Objectives 180Figure 112 - Widened Sidewalk in Bus Loading Area 181Figure 113 - Typical Bus Stop Cross-Section 181Figure 114 - Bus Shelters and Covered Structures 182Figure 115 - Same Corner Bus Stop Locations 184Figure 116 - Retro-fitted Shopping Center for Pedestrian Access 193Figure 117 - Access to Transit 195Figure 118 - Shared Parking Lot 195Figure 119 - Accessible Building Entrance 196Figure 120 - Covered Walkways 197Figure 121 - Driveway Design Comparisons 198Figure 122 - Wide Planting Areas at Driveway 199Figure 123 - Handrail Detail 201Figure 124 - Pedestrian Plaza 202Figure 125 - Landing Placement for Stairways 203Figure 126 - Stair/Step Nosing Design 203Figure 127 - Mixed-Use Site Development Concept 205Figure 128 - Crosswalk Closures and Pedestrian Detours 209Figure 129 - Temporary Pedestrian Routes 210

    VIII

  • INTRODUCTION

    1

    Why a Pedestrian andStreetscape Guide?As Georgias population continues to grow, westrive to create livable communities that offer adiversity of transportation alternatives including...

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