geometric dimensioning and tolerancing standards
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GD&T stands for Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Dimension: Is a geometric characteristic the size of which is specified such as length, angle, location, or center distance
Tolerance: On a dimension is the total permissible variation in its size, which is equal to the difference between the limits of size.
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DIMENSIONS OF A PART 2
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

TOLERANCE SIZES 3
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

TYPE OF TOLERANCE 4
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

SIZES OF MATING PARTS
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

The difference between the basic size and the maximum and minimum sizes are called the UPPER & LOWER deviations.
The BASIC DIMENSION represents the theoretical exact size or location of a feature.
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Deviations

DEVIATIONS
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

BASIC (EXACT) DIMENSIONS Are shown in a rectangle to indicate that the tolerances in the general tolerance note do not apply
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

A Datum is a theoretical exact feature from which dimensions may be taken.
A Datum is generally chosen as an edge or feature which has the greatest influence in a specific measurement.
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Datum

EXAMPLES OF DEVIATION OF FORM WHEN PERFECT FORM AT THE MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION IS REQUIRED 10
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

EXAMPLES OF DEVIATION OF FORM WHEN PERFECT FORM AT THE MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION IS REQUIRED 11
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

A geometric tolerance is the maximum permissible variation of form, profile, orientation, location, and runout from that indicated or specified on a drawing.
Feature control frame for an individual feature is divided into compartments containing, at the least, the geometric tolerance symbol and the geometric tolerance value
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Geometric Tolerance

Geometric characteristic symbol
Geometric tolerance
Datums (if used)
Modifiers as required (*MMC for example)
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Feature Control Frame

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS
STRAIGHTNESS FORM
INDIVIDUAL
FEATURES
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE FEATURE
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS
MAXIMUM
MATERIAL
CONDITION
SUPPLEMENTARY
SYMBOLS
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
FEATURE
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS
LEAST
MATERIAL
CONDITION
SUPPLEMENTARY
SYMBOLS
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
FEATURE
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS
PROJECTED TOLERANCE
ZONE
SUPPLEMENTARY
SYMBOLS
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
FEATURE
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS
BASIC DIMENSION
SUPPLEMENTARY
SYMBOLS
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
FEATURE
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS
DATUM
FEATURE
SUPPLEMENTARY
SYMBOLS
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
FEATURE
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS
DATUM
TARGET
SUPPLEMENTARY
SYMBOLS
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
FEATURE
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

Form tolerances control the straightness, flatness, circularity and cylindricity.
Form tolerances apply to individual features and as such do not require locating dimensions.
Orientation tolerances control angularity, parallelism, and perpendicularity
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Form Tolerances

Straightness a condition in which the element of a surface or a median line is a straight line.
Flatness of a surface is a condition in which all surface elements are in one plane.
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More on Form Tolerances

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

APPLICATION OF FEATURE CONTROL FRAME
ATTACHED USING
A LEADER
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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

MMC (Maximum Material Condition) is when a feature or part is at the limit of size, which results in its containing the maximum amount of material.
LMC (Least Material Condition) refers to the size of a feature that results in the part containing the minimum amount of material. Thus it is the minimum limit of size for an external feature.
RFS (Regardless of feature size) indicates that a geometric tolerance applies to any size of a feature that lies within its size tolerance.
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MMC, RFS, LMC: Applies to features subject to variations in size

Datum is a theoretical point, line, plane, or other geometric surface from which dimensions are measured when so specified or to which geometric tolerances are referenced
Datum feature is a feature of a part, such as a surface, that forms the basis for a datum or is used to establish its location
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Datum's and the 3plane Concept

The three planes constitute a datum system from which measurements can be taken. They will appear on the drawing.
Datum feature symbol is used on the drawing to identify these surfaces
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3plane System

THE DATUM PLANES 28
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THE DATUM PLANES 29
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THE DATUM PLANES 30
GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

Angularity, parallelism and perpendicularity are orientation tolerances applicable to related features.
Angularity is the condition of a surface or axis at a specified angle (other than 90or 0) from a datum plane or axis.
Perpendicularity is the condition of a surface at 90 to a datum plane or axis. *A perpendicularity tolerance for a flat surface specifies a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes perpendicular to a datum plane or axis.
Parallelism is the condition of a surface equidistant at all points from a datum plane. Parallelism for a flat surface specifies a tolerance zone defined by two planes or lines parallel to a datum plane or axis. 31
Orientation Tolerancing

Datum target symbols are used to locate specific reference positions to be used on large datum surfaces.
The surface of a feature may be so large that a gage designed to make contact with the full surface may be too expensive or cumbersome to use.
Functional requirements of the part may necessitate the use of only a portion of a surface as a datum feature.
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Datum Targets