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    OAK RNAT10 DGEUAL -:,;..

    Y

    Electric UtilityExperience IndustrywithGeomagnetic DisturbancesP. R. Barnes

    D. T. RizyB. W. McConnell

    Oak Ridge National LaboratoryF. M. Tesche

    Consultant

    ABBE. R. Taylor, Jr.Power Systems, Inc.

    DEPORTMENTFENERGYj __ ,,,,./

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    ORNL-6665m

    I ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE WITH* GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

    P. R. BarnesD. T. RizyB. W. McConnellOak Ridge National LaboratoryF. M. TescheConsultant

    E. R. Taylor, Jr.ABB Power Systems, Inc.

    Prepared by theOak Ridge National LaboratoryPower Systems Technology ProgramOak Ridge, Tennessee 37831:*

    * * Date Published - September 1991

    Research jointly sponsored byDefense Nuchr AgencyWashington, DC 20585DNA IACRO 90-822

    Department of EnergyOffice of Energy ManagementWashington, DC 20585under Interagency Agreement No. 0046-C156-Al

    OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORYis managed by. MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.s for theU.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGYL under contract no. DE-AC05840R2 1400

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The research for this report was jointly sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA)through Interagency Agreement No. 0046-C156-Al and the Office of Energy Management of thU.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-AC05840R21400 with Martin MariettaEnergy Systems, Inc. The report was prepared by the Energy Division of the Oak Ridge NationaLaboratory, which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The authors wish tacknowledge and thank Dr. George H. Baker and Lt. Col. Clinton R. Gordon of DNA and DrImre Gyuk of DOE for their interest, support, and review of this work.

    The authors also wish to acknowledge and thank Dr. Steinar Dale and John Stovall of thOak Ridge National Laboratory for their reviews and helpful suggestions; and Michel Grangeof Hydro-Quebec, Don A. Fagnan and Paul Sullivan of Philadelphia Electric, Phil R. Gattens o

    I Allegheny Power, and Cliff Bush of Atlantic Electric for measured data and information o*+

    component and system impacts. The authors also wish to thank John Kappenman of MinnesotaPower for providing useful insight on many issues and measured data, and Dr. M. Lee Sloan oAustin Research Associates for providing calculated data. We also wish to thank Professor VerAlbertson of the University of Minnesota, John N. Bombardt of Jaycor, William S. Kehrer oR&D Associates, Jim Towle of diversifed EM, Leonard Bolduc of Institut de recherche dHydro-Quebec, Michel Granger of Hydro-Quebec, Don A. Fagnan of Philadelphia Electric CompanyWil liam A. Radasky of Metatech, and Ron W. Zwickl of the Space Environment Laboratory fotheir reviews of the manuscripts and helpful suggestions and corrections. Thanks are also duPamela S. Gillis for editing the manuscript and making editorial corrections and Janice E. Johnsofor assisting in typing the manuscript.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTSr*

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    .r

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................ iiiTABLEOFCONTENTS ........................................ vLISTOFTABLES ............................................. viiLIST OF FIGURES ............................................ ixABSTRACT ................................................. xiEXECUTIVESUMMARY .......................................ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS, AND INITIALISMS ....................l.INTRODUCTION ...........................................l.lBACKGROUND.. ....................................1.2PURPOSEANDCONTENT ..............................1.3 SOLAR GEOMAGNETIC STORMS .........................1.4VULNERABILITYTRENDS.. ............................1.5 EARTH-SURFACE-POTENTIAL MODEL .....................2. EFFECTS ON ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS ........................2.1 GENERAL SYSTEM PROBLEMS ..........................2.2 TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT PROBLEMS .....2.2.1 Transformers and Load-Tap-Changing Equipment ...........2.2.2 Surge Arresters .................................2.2.3 Protection Systems and Circuit Breakers .................2.2.4 Capacitors ....................................2.2.5 Static VAR Compensators (SVCs) .....................2.2.6 Distribution System Problems ........................2.3 COMMUNICATIONS AND CONTROL FACILITIES ..............2.3.1 Radio Communications and Controls ...................2.3.2 Wire-Based Communications ........................2.3.3 Fiber Optics ...................................2.3.4 Powerline Carrier ...............................2.4 POWER PLANTS .....................................3.MEASUREDDATA .........................................3.1 INTRODUCTION .....................................3.2 GEOMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS ...................3.3 GIC MEASUREMENTS .................................3.4 ESP AND ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS3.5 CAPACITOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS ... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :\-

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    . . .x111xvii

    889101313151617181820212121232323243030

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    vi Contents3.6 TRANSFORMER TEMPERATURE .......................... 303.7 SPECIAL EXPERIMENTS ............................... 333.7.1 Transformer DC Excitation Field Test ................... 333.7.2 DC Injection in the AC Transmission System ............... 333.7.3 Distribution Transformer Test ........................ 343.8 SYSTEM RESPONSE DATA .............................. 34

    4. PROTECTION TECHNIQUES ................................... 414.1 ANALYTICAL TOOLS ................................. 414.2HARDWARE ........................................ 424.2.1 Relay Settings ................................. 424.2.2 Neutral Blocking and Bypass Device for Transformers ........ 434.2.3 Capacitor Protection .............................. 444.3 OPERATIONAL CHANGES .............................. 445. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE ANDGEOMAGNETIC STORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46S.lINTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.2 COMPARISON OF THE GEOMAGNETIC STORM EARTH ELECTRICFIELD AND THE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE INDUCED FIELDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.3 EXTRAPOLATION OF GEOMAGNETIC STORM EFFECTS TO & . . . . 526. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................... 546.1 ELECTRIC UTILITY EXPERIENCE ......................... 546.2MEASUREDDATA ................................... 546.3 MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE ....... 556.4 CONCLUSIONS ...................................... 55REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57APPENDIX - POWER SYSTEM DISTURBANCES DUE TO MARCH 13, 1989,GEOMAGNETIC STORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 61

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    9 LIST OF TABLES*

    Table 1.1 Relationship between K and a indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Table 1.2 Geomagnetic storm intensity . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Table 3.1 Geomagnetically induced currents recorded in transformer neutrals fromMarch 1969 to September 1972 (39 months), ranked by maximum GIC . . . . . 27

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    k

    .

    Fig. 1.1.Fig. 1.2.

    si

    Fig. 2.1.

    Fig. 2.2

    Fig. 3.1.

    Fig. 3.2.

    Fig. 3.3.

    Fig. 3.4.

    Fig. 3.5.

    Fig. 3.6.

    Fig. 3.7.

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Geomagnetic storms expected during solar cycle 22. Source: SpaceEnvironmental Laboratory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Models for GIC coupling analysis: (a) earth-surjkce-potential (ESP)model and (b) dc model for calculating GIC @er phase). . . . . . . . . . . . . .Events and K intensity recorded in North America during the March 13,1989, geomagnetic storm. Source: North American Electric ReliabilityCouncil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Half-cycle saturation of power transformers due to geomagneticallyinduced currents. Source: L. Bolduc and J. Aubin, Effects of DirectCurrent in Power Transformers: Part I, A General Theoretical Approachand Part II, Simplified Calculations for Large Transformers, ElectricPower Systems Research, 1, 291-304 (197711978). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geomagnetic fields measured on March 13, 1989, by Poste-de-la-BaleineMagnetic Observatory, James Bay, Quebec, Canada. (a) North-southdirection, (b) east-west direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Transformer neutral geomagnetically induced current at the MinnesotaPower Arrowhead substation, Duluth, Minnesota, August 4, 1972. . . . . . . .Neutral current measured at the Missouri Ave. 6.9-kV/12-kV substationstarting on April 4, 1990. (a) GIG Measured over a 100-h period, (b)GZC measured over a 6-h period. Source: C.K. Bush, Atlantic Electricco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ESP gradient measured at Hydro-Quebecs Boucherville substation. (a)East-west direction, (b) north-south direction. Source: M. Granger ofHydro-Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Geomagnetic and electric fields at Hydro-Quebecs Boucherville substationon July 13, 1982. (a) Measu

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