geography in early judaism and christianity: the book of jubilees – james m. scott
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258 / Religious Studies Review Volume 32 Number 4 / October 2006
extensive critical apparatus, while the Frenchtranslation has two sets of notes, brief notes atthe bottom of the page and longer notes (num-bered consecutively with the brief notes) gath-ered in Notes complmentaires. These notesare almost a commentary on the text, crammedwith useful information. A Greek Index Nomi-num, an Index Verborum, an Index of Frenchproper names, and a list of citations completethe volume. Everyone working with classicalrhetoric will want this edition at hand, whetherin university or seminary library, or on onesown shelves. It is a major editorial achievementand deserves wide use.
Edgar KrentzLutheran School of Theology at Chicago
THE ENEMIES OF ROME: FROM HAN-NIBAL TO ATILLA THE HUN. By PhilipMatyszak. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd,2004. Pp. 296; illustrations. $31.95, ISBN0-500-25124-X.
Judgments on the Roman Empire generallyinvoke Vergils famous lines about Romes mis-sion (Aen. 6.851-53), as well as, occasionally,Rutilius Namatianus seemingly anachronisticclaim, in 417 CE, that Rome had made a cityof what was once the world. Yet, as we allrealize, where there is a winner, there will alsobe a loser; conquest produces conquered.Matyszak takes the side of the underdog. Heoffers brief sketches of seventeen individuals,from the third century BCE to the fifth CE. Itis a somewhat amorphous group: representa-tives of great states, monarchs, tribal chieftains,a slave, and others, are paraded before thereader. Spartacus, Orodes II, Decebalus,Arminius, Zenobia, and Boudicca [sic] appear;the oddest choice is Josephus, representingJewish resistance. Of course we have his writ-ings, but compared with someone like Bar-Kokhba, he is quite unimportant. Matyszakwrites with vigor and enthusiasm. His thesis issummed up at the end of his preface: Fewwithstood conquest, and fewer still died in theirbeds. And as each one fell, the civilization ofthe Mediterranean became that much poorer.There are too many errors, however, to recom-mend the book wholeheartedly. Caution will berequired in its use. There are misspellings,wrong dates, odd blunders (as with Vercinge-torix; his year of birth is given as around78 BC, his childhood is placed during the80s BC), and unexpected omissions. Had thesumma manus been applied, this would havebeen a substantially stronger book.
Herbert W. BenarioEmory University
THE LANGUAGE OF IMAGES INROMAN ART. By Tonio Hlscher. Translatedby Anthony Snodgrass and Anne-Marie Knzl-Snodgrass. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Uni-versity Press, 2004. Pp. xxxv + 151; plates,glossary. $28.99, ISBN 0-521-66569-8.
Originally published in 1987 and now avail-able in an English translation, Hlschers bookpresents a new theory for the understanding ofRoman art useful for any scholar of antiquity.More art historian than archaeologist, the Ger-man author is deeply rooted in the philosophyof the discipline; threads of Hegel, Wlfflin,Panofsky, and others permeate the entire text.Focusing on the commonly neglected issues oficonography and iconology, and concentratingon specific works of art, Hlscher develops asemantic system of viewing Roman art. That is,he claims that different stylistic forms wereused for different themes and messages. In par-ticular, Hlscher proposes that Roman art choseits visual paradigms not predominantly on con-siderations of style and taste, but rather in termsof content and subject. In the end, Hlscher istrying to understand more fully the society andculture of Rome through the study and analysisof works of ancient art, for these objects holdmany clues to the nature of life in antiquity.Overall, Hlschers book is easy to read and hisargument is clear. While it is difficult to provethe validity of the authors semantic system(and he even admits as much himself, stating itis far from set in stone), the book is usefulnonetheless, for making the reader think ofRoman art in a new and different way.
Julia C. MenesOhio State University
Christian OriginsTHE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW. By JohnNolland. New International Greek TestamentCommentary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B.Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2005. Pp.xcviii + 1481. $80.00, ISBN 0-8028-2389-0.
Like the other commentaries in the series,this commentary is enormously learned,exhaustive in its detailed textual, literary, redac-tion- and source-critical comments and biblio-graphical material, and interesting, useful, andaccessible to a wide range of readers. Nollandpays special attention to Matthews Jewish-ness, his use of sources, particularly Mark, Q,and the HB, and to the literary structure andnarrative techniques (e.g., repetition, framing,chiasm) Matthew uses to achieve his theologi-cal goals. A few items of interest: Nolland datesMatthew before the build up toward the Jewishwar (not post-70, as is more common), whichplaces Mark and Q even earlier, which in turnallows him to argue in favor of general histori-cal reliability. In breaking down Matthew intosections, Nolland follows the five-part dis-course/narrative divisions in Matthew, thoughoften he further subdivides those sections. I feelthat Nolland underemphasizes the extent ofMatthews creativity, especially in terms of hisfulfillment formulas and the citation of scrip-ture. Finally, there is a puzzling use of thephrase final solution that is troubling and
distasteful, especially given Matthews (27:25)place in a history of Christian antisemitism.
Zeba A. CrookCarleton University
MATTHEW 21-28. By Ulrich Luz. Herme-neia. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress,2005. Pp. xliv + 680. $90.00, ISBN 0-8006-3770-4.
This is the final volume in Luzs commen-tary on Matthew. The format is the same as theprevious two volumes. For each section of Mat-thew there is an introduction, Luzs translation,comments on the structure of the textual unit, ahistory of interpretation, commentary (withappropriate excurses), and somewhat new sec-tions on the texts meaning for today. Thereare also very helpful cross-references to volumetwo (Hermeneia 2001), but the cross-referencesto volume one refer to the German edition.There is a planned revision of the English trans-lation of volume one (1989) for the Hermeneiaseries. Luzs focus throughout all volumes ofthe commentary is on the history of the waythe text has influenced subsequent generations(Wirkungsgeschichte), and for volume three,Luz comments on many works of art. SinceMatt 21-28 deal with Jesus entry into Jerusa-lem, and his death and resurrection, the trajec-tory of this volume, is drawn inescapablytoward Matthews negative portrayal of theJewish leaders. Although Luz finds Matthewsportrayal of the Jewish leaders and their follow-ers troubling, he subsumes this under the usualview of sibling rivalry and the post-70 sepa-ration of Matthews group from other forms ofJudaism. This is a landmark commentary.
Fred W. BurnettAnderson University
MATTHEW: A SHORTER COMMEN-TARY BASED ON THE THREE-VOLUMEINTERNATIONAL CRITICAL COM-MENTARY. By W. D. Davies and Dale C.Allison. New York: T & T Clark, 2004. Pp. xxix+ 549. $35.00, ISBN 0-567-08249-0.
As the title indicates, this work is a shorterversion of the three-volume International Crit-ical Commentary (ICC) that has taken its placein Matthean scholarship as perhaps the fore-most historical-critical commentary. Theshorter version is done by Allison, and its targetaudience is readers who find the larger com-mentary too involved or too difficult. In thatlight, this work, Allison says, comments noton the Greek text but on my own English trans-lation. There are no major revisions of thethree-volume work, and any subsequent publi-cations of the shorter version will follow revi-sions in the three-volume commentary, not viceversa. Bibliographies in the shorter versioncover basic works only through approximately2003 but are helpful nonetheless for the novice.The shorter commentary is an excellent tool forstudents, busy pastors and priests, and laypeo-ple, and it is an excellent entre into the larger
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commentary if one wants to pursue a point inmore depth. One wishes for at least a subjectindex, but given the reasonable price, this is ahighly recommended book for its intendedaudience.
Fred W. BurnettAnderson University
MATTHEW AND THE DIDACHE: TWODOCUMENTS FROM THE SAMEJEWISH-CHRISTIAN MILIEU? Edited byHuub van de Sandt. Minneapolis, MN.: For-tress, 2005. Pp. vi + 310. $49.00, ISBN 0-8006-3722-4.
To the debate about the relationshipbetween Matthew and Didache (Didachedependent upon Matthew, or vice versa? Bothdependent on common traditions? Didachecompletely independent of Matthew?) may beadded the question posed in the subtitle of thisvolume, whose contents include: 1) Hypothe-ses on the Development of Judaism and Chris-tianity in Syria in the Period after 70 C.E. (B.ter Haar Romeny); 2) The Milieu of Matthew,the Didache, and Ignatius of Antioch: Agree-ments and Differences (C. Jefford); 3) TheHistory and Social Setting of the MattheanCommunity (W. Weren); 4) When, Why, andfor Whom Was the Didache Created? Insightsinto the Social and Historical Setting of theDidache Communities (A. Milavec); 5) TheSermon on the Mount and the Two Ways Teach-ing of the Didache (K. Syreeni); 6) The Useof the Synoptics or Q in Did. 1:3b-2:1 (J.Kloppenborg); 7) The Halakhic Evidence ofDidache 8 and Matthew 6 and the DidacheCommunitys Relationship to Judaism (P.Tomson); 8) Didache 9-10: A Litmus Test forthe Research on Early Christian Liturgy Eucha-rist (G. Rouwhorst); 9) Les charismatiquesitinrants dans la Didach et dans lvangile deMatthieu (A. Tuilier); 10) Two Windows ona Developing Jewish-Christian Reproof Prac-tice: Matt 18:15-17 and Did. 15:3 (H. van deSandt); 11) Eschatology in the Didache andthe Gospel of Matthew (J. Verheyden); and 12)Do the Didache and Matthew