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GMFGenetically Modify FoodPREPERED BY: MOHAMMED AHMED Akreyi

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) we can define it as organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. The technology is often called modern biotechnology genetic engineering. It allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between non-related species.

History of GMO1982 First transgenic animals (mice) produced.

1990 First transgenic cereal plants (maize and wheat)

1993 Regulations for deliberate release of genetically engineered organisms.

Genetically engineered tomato marketed in USA.

2004, genetically modified crops were being grown by 8.25 million farmers in 17 countries

The 1980s marked the scientific discovery that specific pieces of DNA could be transferred from one organism to another , This became the basis of the genetic modification process. In 1983, the first transgenic plant, a tobacco plant resistant to anti-biotics was created

Some Revolutionary Periods

The promise of genetic modification , when scientist discovered that the modification process could be used to1- introduce nutrients and vitamins to enrich foods2- improve crop protection3- in order to create or enhance desirable characteristics from the same or another species4- introducing natural pesticides and insecticides through genetic manipulation decreases using of chemical pesticides & insecticides5- to produces higher yielding, heartier plants that are more adaptable to soils and climates and require less water to grow

In 1983, the first transgenic plant, a tobacco plant resistant to anti-biotics was created

. Commercially, four genetically modified crops dominate global biotech agriculture

US Revenues From Major GM Crops

EXAMPLES OF GM FOODSCornRiceTomatoesRapeseedHoneyCottonSoybeanSugar CaneCanolaPotatoesCattlePapayaSquash

Here are seven of the dangers that have been discovered by consuming genetically modified food1. Food Allergy Symptoms Increase Dramatically2. Bodily Toxicity Increases3. Negative Reproductive Effects4. Negative Effects To Digestive System5. Unknown Genetic Effects On Humans6. Death of insect and some of animal7. Mutation

How are the potential risks to human health determined?Human health risk so Unfamiliar foreign proteins e.g. allergic reactions Genes resistant to antibiotics e.g. dangerous disease transmittable to humans Some carcinogenic properties causing cancer (long term effects)Toxic compound (glyphosphate in Roundup) harming development in children and adultThe golden rice with more beta-carotene has too much of a pigment called xanthophylls, and the rice with less glutelin has more of the protein proclaim, which can be an allergen. Ethical concern (Religious) Money cost approbation Antibiotic resistantResistant weed

DISADVANTAG Reducing biodiversity GMO is the uncontrolled process because the site of insertion random and many potentially damage the plants genetic makeupThe mutation that occur during the genetically engineering can lead to many unexpected changes in a resulting crops such as1- poor crops performance 2- alteration in foods nutritional content 3- toxic & allergnic effectsNot safe process Very little testing has been done on GM foods.genetic engineering is a new field, and long term results are unclearfunding only given to tests which show positive results.

Environmental problemAccording EPA investigation GMFIncrease use of pesticide and herbicide that is effect the wildlife Gm dose not help the Clemet changes GMO also depend in the nitrogen fertilizer which increase the greenhouse gasesglyphosate depletes soil quality by killing the natural nutrients and organisms that are necessary for plant development leading to plant diseases , glyphosate is highly invasive and can mixed with rain , air ,water soil and ground water

Economic Effects

Genetically modified crops may also lead to beneficial economic effects

- Increased crop yield and quality

- Subsequently increased profit

ConclusionGMOs present both positive and negative aspects to society as a whole

They are a topic of much deliberation and tension; very prevalent in some parts of the world and banned in others

Ultimately, GMOs are still a relatively premature technology and in the developmental process. Only time will reveal their ultimate effect on humans.

GM Restricted CountriesAfrica: Algeria, Egypt

Asia: Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan, Philippine

Europe: Norway, UK, Spain, Italy, France

Middle East: Saudi Arabia

Pacific: Fiji, Australia, New Zealand

The map of the countries that GM FOOD are allowed and banned unfortunately Iraq between allowed

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