genetically modified organisms and limitations

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  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. What is GMOs? Genetically modified organism (GMO) GMO is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques Genetic engineering Also called genetic modification Genetic engineering is the manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology
  3. 3. Specifically, Any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
  4. 4. Production procedure of GMO
  5. 5. 1. Identification of the gene interest. 2. Isolation of the gene of interest. 3. Amplifying gene to produce many copies.
  6. 6. 4. Associating the gene with an appropriate promoter and poly A sequence 5. Insertion into plasmids. 6. Multiplying the plasmid in bacteria Bacteria
  7. 7. 6. Transference of the construct into the recipient tissue, usually fertilized eggs 7. Integration of gene into recipient genome; 8. Expression of gene in recipient genome 9.Inheritance of gene through further generations.
  8. 8. Examples Of GMOs Genetically Modified Animals Genetically Modified Plants Genetically Modified Bacteria
  9. 9. Glofish Web-spinnnig goat
  10. 10. Genetically modified PLANTS
  11. 11. Genetically modified crops Also called GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) Plants with modified DNA by using genetic engineering techniques The aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species
  12. 12. Examples in food crops Crops resistant to certain pests diseases environmental conditions fast spoilage chemical treatments Crops with improved nutrient profile
  13. 13. Examples in non-food crops Include crops for production of -pharmaceutical agents -biofuels -other industrially useful goods -for bioremediation.
  14. 14. Examples Insect resistant cotton Bt toxin kills the cotton boll worm transgene = Bt gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Insect resistant corn Bt toxin kills the European corn borer. transgene = Bt protein
  15. 15. Herbicide resistant crops - soybean, corn, canola transgene = EPSP synthase Virus resistance papaya- resistant to papaya ring spot virus transgene = virus coat protein
  16. 16. Golden rice Sweet corn
  17. 17. Yield In 2014 the largest review yet concluded that GM crops effects on farming were positive Yields increased -9% for herbicide tolerance -25% for insect resistance -GM crops made 69% higher profits GM crops help farmers in developing countries by increasing yields by 14%
  18. 18. Genetically Modified Bacteria
  19. 19. Genetically modified bacteria 1st organisms to be modified - due to their simple genetics. Used for several purposes important in producing large amounts of human proteins -for use in medicine
  20. 20. Bacterial synthesized transgenic products Insulin Hepatitis B vaccine Tissue plasminogen activator Human growth hormone Interferon bt corn
  21. 21. Example: In 1978, a version of the human insulin gene was inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli to produce synthetic "human" insulin.
  22. 22. Examples of GM Bacteria E. coli bacteria - to produce clotting factors to treat hemophilia Streptococcus mutants: if properly colonized in a person's mouth, could reduce the formation of cavities
  23. 23. Genetically modified Animals
  24. 24. Genetically modified Animals A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome The foreign gene is constructed using recombinant DNA methedology. Process of GMO animals is slow -tedious -expensive
  25. 25. Examples of genetic modified Animals Transgenic sheep Transgenic cow Genetically modified fish Genetically modified mice Genetically modified Chicken Genetically modified Goat Genetically modified pig
  26. 26. Dolly sheep Born 5 July 1996 Roslin institute Died 14 febrary 2003 National museum of scotland First mammal to be cloned from somatic cell Offspring six lambs
  27. 27. Transgenic sheep Tracy is the first transgenic animal Produce a recombinant protein in her milk
  28. 28. Uses of transgenic sheep It is used as a model for studying Immunology Human blood clotting factor 8 Transplantation Haematology Drug production in milk Recombinant DNA
  29. 29. Genetic modified cow Transgenic cows carrying two types of cassiene genes Results in 13% more milk proteine A bovine growth hormone used in cows to increase milk production
  30. 30. Transgenic fish Tilapia Trout Catfish ,Zebra fish Grow 6 times faster than wild fish Extra copies of growth hormone gene. To detect pollution in waterways.
  31. 31. Genetically modified chicken Featherless chicken are produced to increase the quantity of meat. Used to increase quantity of meat and eggs
  32. 32. GM goats GM pigs
  33. 33. Advantages Higher yields Increased muscle bulk (animals) Prolonged shelf-life Higher nutritional value
  34. 34. Inbuilt resistance to pests, weeds and disease More environment friendly Decrease in food prices (due to lower costs and higher yield)
  35. 35. Less environmental hazards Decrease costs of growing and farming Source of more income for farmers Production of medicines and vaccines (biotechnology)
  36. 36. Disadvantages Upsetting the ecosystem Development of super pests Ethical issues (religious, health) Interfering the normal DNA system
  37. 37. Disappointing crop yields (may be) Doubt over the environmental benefits No good or natural taste Unpredictable results
  38. 38. Increasing financial gaps between developed & developing countries False claim of ending world hunger with GMOs
  39. 39. Reported problems
  40. 40. Farmers reported: Pigs and cows became sterile from GM corn Workers exposed to BT-cotton developed allergies Sheep died after grazing in BT-cotton fields
  41. 41. Scientists reported: GM peas generated an allergic-type inflammatory response in mice Rats fed BT- corn had multiple health problems Mice fed GM BT- potatoes had intestinal damage
  42. 42. Are GM foods safe? Many people are not sure either the GMOs are safe to use or not. A very small proportion of population prefers the use of modified foods.
  43. 43. Issues Religious issues Banned human cloning Social issues No to human cloning only for organs Difference between developed & under- developed countries


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